The American Cyclopædia (1879)/Kentucky

Edition of 1879. See also Kentucky on Wikipedia, and the disclaimer.

KENTUCKY, an interior state of the American Union, and the second admitted under the federal constitution, between lat. 86° 30' and 39° 6' N., and lon. 82° 2' and 89° 40' W. It is bounded N. W. and N. by the Ohio river, which separates it from Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio; E. by West Virginia and Virginia, from which it is separated by the Big Sandy river and the Cumberland mountains; S. by Tennessee, along a conventional line mostly on the parallel of 36° 35' N.; and W. by the Mississippi, separating it from Missouri; greatest length E. and W. 350 m., greatest breadth 178 m.; area, 37,680 sq. m., being 1.28 per cent. of the whole surface of the United States (excluding Alaska).

AmCyc Kentucky - seal.jpg

State Seal of Kentucky.

The state is divided into 116 counties, viz.: Adair, Allen, Anderson, Ballard, Barren, Bath, Bell, Boone, Bourbon, Boyd, Boyle, Bracken, Breathitt, Breckenridge, Bullitt, Butler, Caldwell, Calloway, Campbell, Carroll, Carter, Casey, Christian, Clarke, Clay, Clinton, Crittenden, Cumberland, Daviess, Edmonson, Elliott, Estill, Fayette, Fleming, Floyd, Franklin, Fulton, Gallatin, Garrard, Grant, Graves, Grayson, Green, Greenup, Hancock, Hardin, Harlan, Harrison, Hart, Henderson, Henry, Hickman, Hopkins, Jackson, Jefferson, Jessamine, Johnson, Kenton, Knox, Laurel, La Rue, Lawrence, Lee, Letcher, Lewis, Lincoln, Livingston, Logan, Lyon, McCracken, McLean, Madison, Magoffin, Marion, Marshall, Martin, Mason, Meade, Menifee, Mercer, Metcalfe, Monroe, Montgomery, Morgan, Muhlenburg, Nelson, Nicholas, Ohio, Oldham, Owen, Owsley, Pendleton, Perry, Pike, Powell, Pulaski, Robertson, Rock Castle, Rowan, Russell, Scott, Shelby, Simpson, Spencer, Taylor, Todd, Trigg, Trimble, Union, Warren, Washington, Wayne, Webster, Whitley, Wolf, and Woodford. Louisville (pop. in 1870, 100,753) is the largest city and the commercial emporium of the state; Frankfort (5,396) is the capital; Lexington (14,801) is the most important inland city. Maysville (4,705), Covington (24,505) and Newport (15,087), on opposite sides of the mouth of Licking river, and facing Cincinnati, Ohio, Henderson (4,171), and Paducah (6,866) are the most important cities on the Ohio river, all of which are the termini of railroads from the interior. The other cities of the state, according to the census of 1870, are Franklin, with 1,808 inhabitants; Hopkinsville, 3,136; Owensboro, 3,437; and Paris, 2,655. Harrodsbnrg and Boonesborough are the oldest towns.—The population of the state at decennial periods has been as follows:

 U. S. CENSUS.  White. Free
Slave. Total.  Rank. 

1790 61,133  114  11,830  73,077  14 
1800 179,871  741  40,343  220,595 
1810 324,237  1,713  80,561  406,511 
1820 434,644  2,941  126,732  564,317 
1830 517,787  4,917  165,213  687,917 
1840 590,253  7,317  182,258  779,828 
1850 761,413  10,011  210,981  982,405 
1860 919,484  10,684   225,483  1,155,684 
1870  1,098,692   222,210  ......   1,321,011 

Of the total population in 1870, 665,675 were males and 655,336 females; 1,257,613 were native and 63,398 foreign-born. Of the colored, 177,499 were blacks and 44,711 mulattoes, and there were 108 Indians. Of the natives, 875,415 whites, 205,583 colored, and 83 Indians were born in the state, 12,877 in North Carolina, 19,533 in Ohio, 49,952 in Tennessee, and 44,102 in Virginia and West Virginia. The foreign-born comprised 30,318 born in Germany, 21,642 in Ireland, 4,173 in England, 2,052 in France, 1,147 in Switzerland, and 1,019 in Scotland. The density of population was 35.33 to a square mile. There were 232,797 families, with an average of 5.67 persons to each, and 224,969 dwellings, each containing an average of 5.87 persons. The increase in the aggregate population from 1860 to 1870 was 14.30 per cent., while there was a loss of 5.91 per cent. in the colored population. The number of male citizens 21 years old and upward was 282,305. There were 249,567 persons 10 years old and upward who were unable to read, and 332,176 could not write. Of the 201,077 white illiterates, 57,766 were from 10 to 15 years of age, 36,760 were from 15 to 21, and 106,551 were 21 years old and over, of whom 43,826 were males and 62,725 were females. There were 131,050 colored illiterates, of whom 24,958 were from 10 to 15 years old, 24,926 were from 15 to 21, and 81,166 were 21 and over, of whom 37,889 were males and 43,277 females. There were also 49 Indian illiterates. Among male adults the percentage of illiterates to the total number was 28.23; among female adults, 37.08. The number of paupers supported during the year ending June 30, 1870, was 2,059, at a cost of $160,717. Of the total number (1,784) receiving support June 1, 1870, 1,080 were white and 704 colored. The number of persons convicted of crime during the year was 603. Of the total number (1,067) in prison June 1, 1870, 624 were white and 443 colored. The state contained 978 blind, 723 deaf and dumb, 1,245 insane, and 1,141 idiotic. Of the total population 10 years of age and over (930,136), there were engaged in all occupations 414,593; in agriculture, 261,080, of whom 127,911 were agricultural laborers, and 131,598 farmers and planters; in professional and personal services, 84,024, including 1,080 clergymen, 41,368 domestic servants, 24,981 laborers not specified, 1,552 lawyers, 2,414 physicians and surgeons, 2,961 teachers not specified; in trade and transportation, 25,292; and in manufactures and mechanical and mining industries, 44,197. The total number of deaths from all causes in 1870 was 14,345; there were 2,500 deaths from consumption, the number of deaths from all causes to one from consumption being 5.7; the deaths from pneumonia numbered 1,514, there being 11.7 deaths from all causes to one from that disease; 334 deaths resulted from intermittent and remittent fever, 661 from enteric fever, and 880 from diarrhoea, dysentery, and enteritis.—The western part of Kentucky is nearly level, the broad plains being varied by gentle undulations. The southeast is broken by the Cumberland mountains and their offshoots. Narrow, deep, and gloomy valleys intervene between the ridges. None of the summits attain a greater altitude than 3,000 ft., and their mean elevation does not exceed 2,000 ft. The whole of this region is well wooded, especially the foot hills and valleys. N. and W. of the hilly region lies what may be called an upland, which extends from the Big Sandy river to lon. 86° W., and comprehends more than half the whole area of the state. Its surface is gently undulating, but it is intersected by numerous narrow and deep valleys in which the rivers run. Though this upland is sparingly provided with spring water, its soil is of the first quality and equal to any in the Union. It is included in the tract of blue limestone which extends from the Ohio river, between a point about 40 m. above Louisville and the eastern limits of Mason co., about 10 m. above Maysville, southwardly to the Cumberland river, and is known as the “blue grass region.” The W. portion of the state is divided between the “barrens” and a country which is partially hilly. The barrens, which occupy chiefly the tract between the Green and Cumberland rivers, in their natural state are generally destitute of trees, resembling in this respect the prairies N. of the Ohio river; but the level surface is diversified by low round-topped hills, called “oak knobs” on account of the trees which cover them. This tract was formerly considered the least fertile portion of the state, but the value of its red calcareous soils has greatly increased. The alluvial bottoms between these hills and the Ohio and its affluents are exceedingly rich. On the north and west the barrens are margined by a more broken and hilly country, which gradually passes to the low flats which skirt the Ohio and Mississippi rivers. This tract is superior in fertility to the barrens, but cannot be compared with the upland country.—Kentucky is amply provided with noble streams. The Mississippi forms its W. limit for 80 m. Along the N. W. and N. boundary runs the Ohio in a winding course for nearly 600 m., navigable throughout, and affording with its chief affluents water communication to all parts of the state. The Mississippi receives from Kentucky only a few inconsiderable tributaries. Of the streams which flow into the Ohio, the most eastern is the Big Sandy, which has its sources in Virginia and West Virginia; where it approaches Kentucky it turns nearly due N., and continues in that direction to its outlet, forming the boundary between Kentucky and West Virginia; it is navigable only for a short distance, owing to falls which occur where it issues from the mountain region. The Licking rises in Floyd co., flows with many windings in a N. W. direction for more than 200 m., and falls into the Ohio between Covington and Newport, opposite Cincinnati; in winter and spring it is navigable for about 70 m. The different branches of the Kentucky river rise in the Cumberland mountains, and form by their union a considerable stream, which flows first N. W., then S. W., and at last N. N. W.; its course is about 260 m., and though very rapid it may be navigated by steamboats 80 m. to a point 20 m. above Frankfort, and by small boats for 100 m. higher. Green river rises in the W. districts of the upland region, and flows W. for a great part of its course, to its junction with its chief affluent, the Big Barren, where it turns N. W. and finally N., joining the Ohio about 50 m. above the Cumberland; its length is about 300 m., and it is navigable for steamboats to Greensburg, 200 m., and for boats nearly to the heads of the stream. Navigation was obstructed by falls about 50 m. above its mouth, but a lock and dam at that point has obviated the difficulty. Cumberland river rises in the valley between the Cumberland and Laurel mountains; it traverses both the mountain and the upland regions, generally in a westerly direction, but on approaching the barrens it turns S. and enters Tennessee, where it makes a large bend and then reënters Kentucky with a N. W. course, and so continues to the Ohio, which it enters about 10 m. above the mouth of the Tennessee; it is nearly 600 m. long, and as its current is comparatively gentle it offers an easy navigation for sloops and steamboats as far up as Nashville, Tenn., 200 m. from its mouth, and at high water to Burkesville, Ky.; for boats of 15 tons it is navigable for 300 m., and for river boats much higher. The Tennessee flows only about 70 m. through Kentucky; it admits steamboats to Florence, Ala., 300 m. from its mouth.—Kentucky lies wholly in the great region of stratified rocks of the west. These traverse the state in layers so nearly horizontal, that often over broad districts no dip is perceptible to the eye. Through the central portion of the state, from N. to S., the Silurian groups, which are here almost exclusively calcareous, thus overspread the surface for nearly 100 m. in width, and form the great central axis of the lowest rocks. At Louisville they disappear by reason of their very gentle westward dip, and pass beneath the limestones of the Devonian age, which here lie exposed in horizontal strata, forming the bed of the river and the reefs which occasion the falls at this place. They are succeeded by the carboniferous limestone; and still further W. the coal measures, commencing at Rome on the Ohio river, are traced almost to the mouth of this river. This is the southern end of the coal field of Illinois and Indiana, which extends S. nearly across the western portion of Kentucky. (See Coal.) In this portion occurs the Breckenridge coal, formerly extensively used in the manufacture of kerosene. To the east, about 100 m. from Louisville, the same repetition of the formations is encountered, as the Silurian rocks dip E. on this side of the axis; and the coal measures which occupy the whole eastern portion of the state are a part of the great Appalachian coal field which overspreads western Virginia and Pennsylvania. The limestones abound in fossil remains, and those of the falls at Louisville are especially famous for their remarkably fine coralline productions. The hydraulic limestone is found here, and largely used in the manufacture of cements. When the river is low the rocks in its bed appear like the coral reefs produced by living zoophytes, the softer portions being worn away, so that the hard calcareous corals stand out in relief precisely as if they were living. Fine selected specimens being placed in juxtaposition with others of recent growth, none but a zoölogist would be able to guess which were ancient and which modern. These limestones also abound in caves, some of which are among the most remarkable of these curiosities. Upon their walls are found incrustations of saltpetre, which in some instances have been profitably collected. The Mammoth cave, near Green river, in Edmonson co., is the largest in the world. It has been explored through winding passages more than 10 m. (See Mammoth Cave.) In some of the superficial depressions of the limestone are found the low swamps known as “licks,” frequented by deer and elk, and in ancient times by the buffalo, and in a still more distant epoch by the extinct species of elephant, horse, mastodon, megalonyx, &c., whose bones are occasionally found near the saline springs of these quagmires. One of the most remarkable of these localities is the Big Bone lick, 23 m. S. W. of Cincinnati. Lead ores have been worked to a small extent heretofore, but considerable efforts are now in progress for their development. Salt springs occur in many places among the sandstone rocks, and sulphur, saline, and chalybeate springs are numerous. On Goose creek in Clay co., and in Meade co., salt is largely manufactured from brine procured by boring. The “hanging rock” iron region comprises a portion of N. E. Kentucky and of S. Ohio; it is about 15 m. wide, and extends about 30 m. from the Ohio river into Kentucky, and about 50 m. N. into Ohio. The ores of this region are mostly brown hematite; they lie in strata which dip to the east with a slight deviation to the south. There are two clearly defined strata, the lower being from 10 to 30 in. thick and yielding block ore. Above this, at distances varying from 30 to 75 ft., lies the stratum known as the limestone ore, which is from 12 to 50 in. thick. These ores contain from 40 to 65 per cent. of iron, which is found to be remarkably well adapted for the manufacture of car wheels. Numerous iron furnaces are in operation in this region. Besides iron ores, large deposits of superior coal, fire clay, moulding sand, limestone, building stone of superior quality, potter's clay, and sand suitable for making glass are found. Extensive deposits of hydrated oxides of iron exist in the S. W. counties, bordering on the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers; and different ores of iron are found all through the coal fields and in the slate and subcarboniferous limestone regions.—The blue limestone region, which was originally covered with forests of large trees and a dense undergrowth of reeds, contains the richest soil in the state, and that part of it between the Ohio and the vicinity of Lexington is commonly called the “garden of Kentucky.” The barrens are thinly wooded with trees which have grown up almost wholly since the settlement of the state, but produce good pasturage, so that the average fertility of Kentucky may be considered equal to that of any other state in the Union. The climate is remarkably pleasant, but variable. The mean annual temperature is about 55° F.; in winter the thermometer frequently falls to 20° or 15°, and occasionally below zero, and in summer rises to 94° or 100°. Winter sometimes continues from late November to early April, but snow seldom lies long on the ground, and cattle and sheep are abroad throughout the coldest seasons. In spring and summer S. W. winds prevail, and the weather is delightful. The N. W. wind produces the greatest winter cold. Rain falls abundantly in winter and spring, but is sometimes scanty in summer and autumn, the weather in those seasons being characteristically dry and constant.—There are still extensive forests in Kentucky. In the mountain and upland region are found chiefly tulip trees, elm, oak, ash, hickory, walnut, cherry, &c.; those of the barrens are chiefly oaks, chestnuts, and elms. Among the most useful trees are the sugar maple, black and honey locust, wild cherry, and the several varieties of oak and walnut, which in the early settlement of the state furnished household staples of great value. The principal fruit trees are the apple and peach. Besides being a great grain-growing state, Kentucky produces more than half of the hemp grown in the Union, and four sevenths of the flax. In the S. W. districts, along the Tennessee, Cumberland, and Mississippi rivers, some cotton is raised; and the tobacco grown in these regions and in the rich soil further E. supplies a valuable material to the commerce of the state. As an agricultural state Kentucky holds a very high rank. Of the total production of hemp (12,746 tons) in the United States in 1870, as reported by the federal census, 7,777 tons were contributed by Kentucky; while of the entire yield of tobacco in the United States (262,735,341 lbs.) 105,305,869 lbs. were the product of this state. In the same year only five states produced more Indian corn, four more rye, two more honey, and three more wax, and only three contained more swine. According to the census of 1870, there were in the state 118,422 farms; of these, 38,939 contained between 20 and 50 acres, 29,731 between 50 and 100, 25,490 between 100 and 500, 616 between 500 and 1,000, and 164 contained 1,000 acres and over. The average size of farms was 158 acres. The total amount of land in farms was 18,660,106 acres, of which 8,103,850 were improved and 10,556,256 unimproved, 9,134,658 acres of the latter being woodland; the percentage of unimproved to total land in farms was 56.6. The cash value of farms was $311,238,916; farming implements and machinery, $8,572,896; total amount of wages paid during the year, including value of hoard, $10,709,382; total (estimated) value of all farm productions, including betterments and additions to stock, $87,477,374; of orchard products, $1,231,385; of produce of market gardens, $527,329; of forest products, $574,994; of home manufactures, $1,683,972; of all animals slaughtered or sold for slaughter, $24,121,861; of all live stock, $66,287,343. The chief agricultural productions were 38,532 bushels of spring and 5,690,172 of winter wheat, 1,108,933 of rye, 50,091,006 of Indian corn, 6,620,103 of oats, 238,486 of barley, 3,443 of buckwheat, 119,926 of peas and beans, 2,391,062 of Irish and 802,114 of sweet potatoes, 2,551 of clover and 35,896 of grass seed, 14,657 of flaxseed, 204,399 tons of hay, and 7,777 of hemp, 1,080 bales of cotton, 105,305,869 lbs. of tobacco, 2,234,450 of wool, 237,268 of flax, 11,874,978 of butter, 115,219 of cheese, 1,345,779 gallons of milk sold, 49,073 of maple and 1,740,453 of sorghum molasses, 62,360 of wine, 269,416 lbs. of maple sugar, 1,171,500 of honey, and 32,557 of wax. There were on farms 317,034 horses, 99,230 mules and asses, 247,615 milch cows, 69,719 working oxen, 382,993 other cattle, 936,765 sheep, and 1,838,227 swine. In 1870 16 states ranked higher than Kentucky in the total value of manufactured products. In distilled liquors, the state ranked first in the number of establishments, second in the amount of capital invested, and fourth in the value of products, as appears from the following statement:

STATES. No. of
Capital. Products.

Kentucky 141   $2,670,700   $4,682,730 
Illinois 45  2,513,000  7,883,751 
Ohio 63  2,829,700  7,022,656 
Pennsylvania  108  2,504,857  4,618,228 

The manufacture of distilled liquors is almost wholly confined to whiskey, the amount of highwines made being very small. The total number of manufacturing establishments reported by the census was 5,390, using 1,147 steam engines of 31,928 horse power, and 459 water wheels of 7,640 horse power, and employing 30,636 hands, mostly male adults. The total amount of capital employed was $29,277,809; wages paid during the year, $9,444,524; materials consumed, $29,497,535; products, $54,625,809. The chief industries are shown by the following table:

Capital. Wages
Value of
Value of

Agricultural implements 44  270  624   $633,025  $287,590  $673,176   $1,384,917
Bagging 11  130  1,228  756,000  301,240  1,077,300  1,752,120
Blacksmithing 1,002  28  1,970  465,735  248,821  443,200  1,364,070
Boots and shoes 420  ....  1,150  450,271  310,258  430,944  1,144,684
Carpentering and building 848  36  1,086  209,690  319,113  841,760  1,602,756
Carriages and wagons 325  22  1,250  577,405  439,076  440,170  1,339,909
Clothing (men's) 133  ....  801  462,132  227,998  568,758  1,068,258
Flouring and grist mill products 696   9,019   1,686   2,660,968  325,247   6,429,284  7,886,734
Furniture 90  346  967  750,355  412,872  545,472  1,463,971
Glass ware 19  436  370,000  233,631  150,350  447,000
Iron blooms 30  50  100,000  37,500  53,700  94,860
Iron, forged and rolled 1,450  876  1,125,000  532,283  1,367,064  2,464,928
Iron bolts, nuts, washers, and rivets 14  27  24,000  10,750  3,338  25,560
Iron pigs 19  2,370  1,565  2,979,000  417,948  1,223,034  2,182,482
Iron castings not specified 25  572  895  1,457,431  494,985  1,350,249  2,363,473
Iron stoves, heaters, and hollow ware 106  493  595,000  288,000  370,500  358,770
Leather, tanned 100  237  293  566,424  76,968  741,192  1,009,906
Leather, curried 82  40  155  157,916  41,848  556,305  683,668
Liquors, distilled 141  2,636  1,033  2,670,700  257,732  1,352,096  4,532,730
Liquors, malt 35  222  193  584,900  102,639  365,612  689,359
Lumber, planed 17  587  259  288,525  125,474  314,139  583,673
Lumber, sawed 562  9,443  2,497  1,724,686  482,683  1,805,591  3,662,086
Saddlery and harness 212  16  635  463,348  193,855  463,619  1,013,852
Tin, copper, and sheet-iron ware 127  88  531  550,710  275,081  465,740  1,051,026
Tobacco, chewing, smoking, and snuffing  32  174  900  662,691  212,752  826,155  1,647,669
Tobacco, cigars 70  ....  389  197,380  140,563  187,643  449,336
Wool carding and cloth dressing 89  855  198  117,347  17,023  311,009  415,401
Woollen goods 36  796  485  583,102  142,350  520,619  897,057

—Kentucky has little direct foreign commerce, but its domestic commerce is very extensive. The chief commercial places are Maysville, Covington, Louisville, Owensboro, Henderson, and Paducah, on the Ohio, Columbus on the Mississippi, and Lexington in the interior. The principal exports are hemp, flax, tobacco, horses, mules, hogs, cattle, bagging, and rope. There are two United States customs districts, of which Louisville and Paducah are the ports of entry. The total number of vessels registered, enrolled, and licensed in 1873 was 55, of 13,807 tons, at Louisville, and 15, of 2,878 tons, at Paducah. Of those at Louisville, 44 were steamers and 11 barges, while the entire number at Paducah were steamers. Boat building is carried on at both of these points; 24 boats were built in 1873, including 17 steamers at Louisville and 4 at Paducah. Internal improvements have been well attended to, and several of the large rivers have been rendered navigable for considerable distances above their natural heads of navigation; the works on the Kentucky and Green are the most important. The completion of the Louisville and Portland canal around the falls of the Ohio at Louisville enables boats 300 ft. long and 80 ft. wide to pass through nearly the whole year. As early as 1841 Kentucky had 28 m. of railway. The mileage had increased to 549 in 1861, 852 in 1869, and 1,123 in 1871. In 1873 the total number of miles of main track in the state was 1,228, and other roads were in process of construction and projected. The railways, with their termini and the number of miles in operation in 1873, were:

operation in
 the state in 
 Miles between 
 termini when 
 different from 

Cincinnati Southern (in progress)  Cincinnati and Chattanooga, Tenn. ...  ... 
Eastern Kentucky  Riverton and Grayson 23  ... 
Louisville, Paducah, and Southwestern  Louisville and Paducah 230  ... 
Elizabethtown, Lexington, and Big Sandy  Lexington and mouth of Big Sandy river 34  120 
Kentucky Central  Covington and Nicholasvilie 112  ... 
Louisville, Cincinnati, and Lexington  Louisville and Lexington 94  ... 
 Lexington Junction to Newport 81  ... 
 Anchorage to Shelbyville 19  ... 
Louisville, Nashville, and Great Southern  Louisville and Nashville, Tenn. 139  185 
Memphis division  Memphis Junction to Memphis, Tenn 46  260 
 Lebanon Junction to Livingston 110  ... 
 Richmond Junction to Richmond 34  ... 
 Bardstown Junction to Bardstown 17  ... 
 Glasgow Junction to Glasgow 11  ... 
Marysville and Lexington  Paris and Maysville 15  50 
Mobile and Ohio  Columbus and Mobile, Ala. 20  472 
Nashville, Chattanooga, and St. Louis  Hickman and Chattanooga, Tenn. 321 
Owensboro and Russellville  Owensboro to Tennessee state line 35  116 
Paducah and Memphis  Paducah and Memphis, Tenn. 50  165 
St. Louis and Southeastern  East St. Louis, Ill., and Nashville, Tenn. 108  316 
Branch  Shawneetown, Ill., to Madisonville 42  ... 

In 1873 there were 36 national banks in operation, with a paid-in capital of $8,263,700 and an outstanding circulation of $7,021,900. The entire bank circulation of the state was $7,637,900, being $5 78 per capita. The ratio of circulation to wealth was 1.3, and to the bank capital 84.4.—The present constitution of Kentucky was adopted in 1850. Every free male citizen 21 years of age, who has resided in the state two years, in the county one year, and in the precinct 60 days next preceding an election, is entitled to vote. The general election is fixed by law on the first Monday in August, and voting is viva voce, except in the election of representatives to congress, when it is by ballot. The legislature consists of a senate of 38 members, and a house of representatives of 100. Senators must be 30 years of age, and are chosen for four years, one half every second year. Representatives must be 24 years of age, and hold office two years. The sessions of the legislature are biennial, beginning on the first Monday of December in every odd year, and lasting not longer than 60 days unless by vote of two thirds of both houses. Members are paid $5 a day, and 15 cents a mile for travel. The governor is chosen for four years. He must be 35 years of age, a citizen of the United States, and have been resident in the state for six years. He is ineligible to the office for the four years succeeding his term. A majority vote in each house is sufficient to pass a bill over the governor's veto. The lieutenant governor, auditor, attorney general, register of land office, and superintendent of public instruction are also elected for four years. The lieutenant governor, with the same qualifications as the governor, is ex officio president of the senate. If a vacancy occurs in the office of governor during the last half of the term, the lieutenant governor, and failing him the speaker of the senate, acts as governor; but if during the first half of the term, then a new election is held. The treasurer is elected by the people every two years. The secretary of state is appointed by the governor, by and with the advice and consent of the senate, and holds office during the governor's term. The official salaries are: for the governor $5,000, secretary of state $1,500, auditor $2,500, register of land office $2,000, treasurer $2,400, and superintendent of public instruction $3,000. The secretary of state, auditor, and register of the land office also have certain fees. The pay of the lieutenant governor is $8 a day during attendance at the legislative session. The judiciary consists of the court of appeals, which has appellate jurisdiction only, circuit and county courts. The state is divided into four appellate judicial districts and 16 circuit court districts. Louisville has separate chancery and common pleas courts, and additional courts have been established in several districts. The court of appeals consists of a chief justice and three judges, a clerk, sergeant, and reporter. The judges have each $5,000 a year, and the attorney general $500 and fees. The Louisville chancery court consists of a chancellor (salary $3,000), a clerk, and a marshal (fees). The judges of circuit are paid $3,000, and attorneys $500 and fees. The judges of the Louisville courts are paid in addition $1,000 each by the city. All judges and other officers of courts are elected by the people. Judges of the court of appeals and the circuit courts must have had eight years' experience in law to be eligible to the bench. Kentucky is represented in congress by two senators and 10 representatives, and is therefore entitled to 12 votes in the electoral college. According to the federal census of 1870, the assessed value of real estate was $311,479,694, and of personal $98,064,600; total assessed value of property, $409,544,294; true value of real and personal estate, $604,318,552. The total taxation not national amounted to $5,730,118, including $2,254,413 state, $1,307,833 county, and $2,167,872 town, city, &c. The total receipts into the state treasury during the fiscal year were $2,107,149, the most important sources being: direct taxes, $1,491,775; corporations, banks, and insurance companies, $332,992; and licenses, $78,551. The total disbursements amounted to $1,824,892. The bonded debt of the state in 1872 was $966,394. In 1874 it was entirely free from debt except the amount due the school fund, $1,628,123 08, which is made by the constitution a permanent debt of which the interest only is to be paid. A direct tax of 45 cents on every $100 in value of real and personal property is annually collected for various purposes of state government, of which 20 cents goes to the school fund and the remainder to general purposes. Stock in banks and other moneyed corporations is taxed 50 cents on each share of $100. Railroads are taxed for the benefit of the state, on a valuation of $20,000 a mile, at the rate of 45 cents on every $100. The same rate of tax is also paid by toll bridge, mining, manufacturing, gaslight, street railroad, and waterworks corporations. Express, telegraph, and turnpike companies are also taxed.—The superintendent of public instruction is required to set forth in his annual report the condition of the institutions for the blind, the deaf and dumb, and the feeble-minded. The asylum for the education of the blind in Louisville, opened in 1842, is intended to afford board and tuition free of charge to the blind of the state between the ages of 7 and 17 years. Not only the totally blind, but those whose eyesight is so defective that they cannot see to read, may be received and educated at the expense of the state. Besides the ordinary branches, instruction is given in industrial pursuits. In 1873 there were 5 teachers and 59 pupils. The institution for deaf mutes in Danville, organized in 1823, is open to all persons of this class in the state, without charge for board or tuition. Pupils supported by the state are expected to remain five years. The average number of pupils in 1873 was 78, instructors 5; number of pupils received since the opening of the institution was 590, of whom 344 were males and 246 females. Provision is made by the state for the education of feeble-minded persons in the institution for this class in Frankfort, which has been in existence since 1860. It is designed for the education of imbecile children, and not as an asylum for hopeless idiots. Those unable to pay may be educated free of charge. The whole number of pupils in 1874 was 104. The state penitentiary in Frankfort, in 1874, had 650 convicts. In 1873 the legislature passed an act vesting the management of each of the charitable institutions of the state, except that for the deaf and dumb, in a board of nine commissioners, who are appointed by the governor and senate, and must be residents of the county where the institution is situated. It was also provided that the asylum for the insane at Lexington should be known as the first Kentucky lunatic asylum, that at Hopkinsville as the second Kentucky lunatic asylum, the institution for the education of feeble-minded children as the third Kentucky lunatic asylum, and the state house of reform for juvenile delinquents at Anchorage as the fourth Kentucky lunatic asylum. The two institutions first named are to be devoted to the treatment of “lunatics afflicted with acute mania,” and the other two to cases of “chronic mania or epilepsy.”—Under the new school law of 1873, the general educational interests of the state are intrusted to a board of education, comprising the superintendent of public instruction, secretary of state, and attorney general, together with two professional teachers to be elected by them. The more immediate supervision of the schools is vested in the superintendent of public instruction (who is elected by the people for four years, and receives an annual salary of $3,000), a commissioner of common schools in each county, and a trustee for each school district; only teachers who have obtained certificates are employed. The annual revenue of the common school fund comprises the interest at the rate of 6 per cent. per annum on the state school bond of $1,327,000, the dividends on 735 shares of the stock of the bank of Kentucky, the annual tax of 20 cents on each $100 in value of the property of the state, and certain fines and forfeitures. This income is distributed each year among the counties and districts according to the number of white children between the ages of 6 and 20 years. The amount available in 1873 was nearly $1,000,000. The pro rata amount to each child during the year ending Juno 30, 1874, was $1 60, and $2 20 for the preceding year. The entire income of the school fund is devoted to educating white children. The legislature of 1873-'4 passed an act establishing a system of common school education for colored children, to be under the supervision of the superintendent of public instruction and the state board of education. The funds for its support are derived chiefly from the annual revenue tax of 25 cents, and 20 cents in addition on each $100 in value of the taxable property owned or held by colored persons, which tax shall be applied to no other purpose whatever; a capitation tax of $1 on each male colored person above the age of 21 years; and all the fines, penalties, and forfeitures imposed upon and collected from colored persons due the state, except the amount thereof allowed by law to attorneys for the commonwealth. The act in effect appropriates all taxes levied on colored people or their property to the education of colored children. The total taxable property of the colored people of the state in 1873 was $3,569,040, and the number of male colored persons over 21 years of age was 45,604. The number of colored children of school age reported to the auditor in 1873 was 41,289. In 1873 the whole number of persons of school age in the state was 416,763, and the number of schools 5,381. The state teachers' association meets annually, and teachers' institutes are held at intervals during the year. According to the census of 1870, the total number of white children in the state between the ages of 5 and 18 years was 454,539, and of colored 78,720. Of the latter, only 7,702 were attending school. There were 5,149 educational institutions, public and private, with an aggregate of 6,346 teachers, of whom 3,972 were males and 2,374 females, and 245,139 pupils, of whom 125,734 were males and 119,405 females. The total income of all these institutions was $2,538,429, of which $393,015 was derived from endowment, $674,992 from taxation and public funds, and $1,470,422 from tuition and other sources. There were 4,727 public schools, with 5,351 teachers and 218,240 pupils; the income amounted to $1,150,461, of which $24,885 was from endowment, $604,905 from taxation and public funds, and $520,661 from tuition and other sources. The number of colleges was 42, having 223 teachers and 5,864 pupils; and there were 95 academies, with 286 teachers and 6,224 pupils, and 195 private schools, with 302 teachers and 7,948 pupils. Kentucky has (1874) no state normal school, but efforts have been made for the establishment of one. Normal instruction, however, is afforded by several colleges. The Kentucky university, established in 1858, embraces a college of arts, the agricultural and mechanical college, the college of the Bible, a commercial college, and a college of law. Each college is under the immediate government of its own faculty and presiding officer. The general supervision of the university is committed to the regent, who is chosen from the curators. In 1865 the agricultural and mechanical college, established by means of the congressional land grant, was made a part of the university, and the citizens of Lexington having given $100,000 for the purchase of an experimental and model farm and the erection of buildings for the agricultural college, the university was removed to that city. The tract of land occupied by the agricultural college contains 433 acres, and embraces Ashland, once the home of Henry Clay. The endowment and real estate of the university amount to about $800,000. Students are employed in industrial pursuits at a good rate of compensation. The Kentucky military institute in Frankfort, organized in 1846, is under the direction of a board of visitors appointed by the governor. Among the most prominent educational institutions are Berea college, at Berea, at which students are received without regard to sex or color; Bethel college (Baptist), at Russellville; Cecilian college (Roman Catholic), at Elizabethtown; Centre college (Presbyterian), at Danville; Eminence college, at Eminence, open to both sexes; Georgetown college (Baptist), at Georgetown; and St. Mary's college (Roman Catholic), at St. Mary's Station. The leading institutions for the education of women are Daughters' college (Christian), at Harrodsburg; Georgetown female seminary (Baptist); Lebanon female college; Logan female college (Methodist Episcopal), at Russellville; Hocker female college (Christian); Lexington Baptist female college, St. Catherine's academy (Roman Catholic), and Christchurch seminary (Episcopal), at Lexington. Instruction in theology is afforded by St. Joseph's seminary (Roman Catholic), at Bardstown, Western Baptist theological institute at Georgetown, college of the Bible, Kentucky university, and the theological departments of Georgetown and Bethel college; in medicine, by the medical department of the university of Louisville and by the Louisville medical college.—According to the census of 1870, there were 89 newspapers and periodicals published in the state, having an aggregate circulation of 197,130, and issuing 18,270,160 copies annually. There were 6 daily, with a circulation of 31,000; 4 tri-weekly, circulation 3,500; 4 semi-weekly, circulation, 4,100; 68 weekly, circulation 137,930; and 7 monthly, with a circulation of 19,700. In 1873 the publications were 9 daily, 6 of which issued also weekly editions, 1 tri-weekly, 4 semi-weekly, 80 weekly, and 9 monthly. The total number of libraries in 1870 was 5,546, containing 1,909,230 volumes; 4,374, with 1,590, 245 volumes, were private, and 1,172, with 318,985 volumes, were other than private, including two state libraries, with 9,200 volumes; 10 town, city, &c., with 13,436; 218 court and law, with 61,590; 18 school, college, &c., with 20,675; 717 Sunday school, with 160,377; and 207 church, with 53,707. The principal libraries in 1874 were that of the Kentucky university at Lexington, which had 10,000 volumes; the Lexington library company's, 18,300; the state library in Frankfort, 7,000; Danville theological seminary, 7,000; public library of Kentucky, at Louisville, 31,250; St. Joseph's college and seminary in Bardstown, 5,000; Centre college in Danville, 5,000; Georgetown college, 5,000; Episcopal theological library 2,000; and Louisville library association, 5,690. The museum of natural history of Kentucky university contains more than 40,000 specimens, and the museum attached to the public library of Kentucky contains over 100,000, which, however, are only partially classified. The total number of religious organizations was 2,969, having 2,696 edifices, with 878,039 sittings, and property valued at $9,824,465. The leading denominations were as follows:

DENOMINATIONS.  Organizations.   Edifices.   Sittings.   Property. 

Baptist 1,004  962   288,936   $2,023,975
Christian 490  436  141,585  1,046,075
Episcopal, Protestant 38  35  15,800  570,300
Evangelical Association  3,000  150,000
Jewish 1,500  134,000
Lutheran 1,650  16,000
Methodist 978  818  244,918  1,854,565
Presbyterian, regular 289  270  97,150  1,275,400
Presbyterian, other 17  15  3,600  17,000
Roman Catholic 130  125  72,550  2,604,900
Shaker 1,600  28,000
Unitarian 1000  3000
Universalist 400  5,500
Unknown (union) 15  4,650  28,750

—The earliest exploration of Kentucky was made by John Finley and a few companions from North Carolina in 1767. In 1769 Daniel Boone, Finley, and four others visited the region, and in 1770 Col. James Knox, with a party from S. W. Virginia, explored the country along the Cumberland and Green rivers. In 1773-'4 a party locating bounty warrants extended their surveys to the north fork of the Licking, up the Kentucky as far as Dix river, and over a considerable territory near the falls. In 1774 James Harrod built a log cabin on the present site of Harrodsburg, and the next year he established a station there. The fort at Boonesborough was built by Daniel Boone in 1775. The country of Kan-tuck-kee, “the dark and bloody ground,” was not occupied by the aborigines except as a common hunting ground for the tribes north and south of it. The intrusion of white settlements met with determined and bloody opposition. In March, 1775, Boone concluded a treaty with the Cherokees at Wataga, by which Kentucky was sold to Col. Richard Henderson and his company. As it lay within the charter limits of Virginia, that state would not recognize Henderson's purchase, but finally compromised by giving him 200,000 acres at the mouth of Green river. In 1776 Kentucky was made a county of Virginia, and in 1777 the first court was held at Harrodsburg. In 1779 the Virginia legislature passed a law which caused a great influx of population. In 1783 Kentucky was formed into one district, and a district court established. The conclusion of the war of independence left the settlers in constant danger of Indian outrage, and the citizens found themselves obliged to undertake their own protection. Richmond, Va., the capital, was too far distant to be relied on for assistance in times of need, and hence the conventions held at Danville in 1784-'5 recommended a peaceable and constitutional separation from Virginia. The third convention sent a petition to Richmond, and in 1786 an act was passed by the legislature complying with the desires of Kentucky; but from several causes the separation was not then completed, chiefly from an inclination of the people to obtain an independent nationality. A fourth convention only served to inflame the people against the central government; and a report having gained currency that Mr. Jay, when minister to Spain, had ceded the navigation of the Mississippi to that country, the utmost ill feeling was aroused. A fifth convention met, and on petition Virginia allowed the Kentuckians to send a delegate to congress; but the constitution having in the mean while been adopted, the whole subject was referred to the new government. Taking advantage of this position of affairs, Spain clandestinely proposed through her minister peculiar commercial favors to Kentucky in case of her forming an independent government. These propositions met with some favor; but after a sixth and a seventh convention were assembled, an address to congress was ultimately voted. Two more conventions were subsequently held, and the question was determined by Kentucky becoming in 1790 a separate territory, and its admission into the Union on June 1, 1792. The population at this time was about 75,000. Indian wars continued to disturb the frontiers, and complaints of the inefficiency of the federal government were again heard. The whisky tax also became oppressive, and the American policy toward the French republic was denounced in every cabin. The old idea of independence was again mooted, but the storm passed over. In the 10 or 12 years which succeeded, and which included the period of negotiation for the navigation of the Mississippi, and then for the purchase of Louisiana, Kentucky was again agitated. The treaty of 1795 with Spain gave to the United States the right of deposit at New Orleans and the freedom of the river. Pending the negotiations the governor of Louisiana had approached some leading Kentuckians with a view to a different treaty; but action on these promises was stayed by federal interference, and the faithlessness of the Spaniards soon became evident. Seven years now passed in comparative quiet and prosperity, when the whole nation became excited by the intelligence that the Spaniards had violated the treaty of 1795 by a denial of the rights secured by its provisions, and it became known that even Louisiana had been retroceded to France. Its subsequent purchase by the United States put an end to all pending troubles. In the war of 1812 Kentucky took an active part. Upward of 5,000 volunteers were called into active service, and at one time more than 7,000 Kentuckians are said to have been in the field. After the treaty of 1814 Kentucky was undisturbed by any stirring events. The progress of the state, however, was rapid, and the development of agriculture and other branches of industry within her borders signally well sustained. The second constitution took effect in 1800, and continued in force until the adoption of the present one in 1850. At the beginning of the civil war, Kentucky, favoring an amicable adjustment of the difficulties between the north and the south, assumed a position of neutrality, and determined to resist the invasion of the state by either the federal or the confederate forces. At the presidential election in 1860, 66,058 votes had been cast for Bell, 53,143 for Breckenridge, 25,651 for Douglas, and 1,364 for Lincoln. In February, 1861, the legislature, refusing to call a state convention to consider the subject of secession, passed resolutions appealing to the southern states to stop the revolution, protesting against federal coercion, and favoring the calling of a national convention for proposing amendments to the constitution of the United States. The requisition upon Kentucky for volunteers, made by the secretary of war immediately after the attack on Fort Sumter, was met by a refusal on the part of Governor Magoffin to furnish any troops. However, Lieut. William Nelson of the navy, a native of the state, began to recruit volunteers for the national service, and toward the end of July established a camp of organization in Garrard co., which he called Camp Dick Robinson. Volunteers rapidly assembled, and by the end of September three full regiments of infantry and one of cavalry were ready for service, besides one full regiment of refugees from East Tennessee, and one nearly full. Recruiting for the national service was carried on during the same time at other points. Governor Magoffin protested against this, and urged the general government to withdraw these forces from the state. President Lincoln refused to do so, on the ground that he “did not believe it was the popular wish of Kentucky that this force should be removed beyond her limits.” At elections held in May and June it was shown that a great majority of the people were in favor of the Union. Early in September the state was invaded by a strong confederate force from Tennessee, under Gen. Polk, who occupied and fortified Hickman and Columbus, important points on the Mississippi river. About the same time a confederate force under Gen. Zollicoffer advanced from Tennessee into southeastern Kentucky, and Bowling Green was occupied by a large body of confederate troops under command of Gen. Buckner. Federal forces also began to concentrate at several points in large numbers. Gen. Robert Anderson was appointed to the command of this department, but was soon succeeded by Gen. Sherman, upon whose resignation Gen. Buell assumed command. During the latter part of 1861 there were numerous skirmishes and unimportant engagements between the opposing forces in the state. In November 200 persons, not elected by any constituency, but coming from 51 counties of the state, assembled in convention at Russellville, then within the confederate lines, and organized a provisional government consisting of a governor, legislative council of ten, a treasurer, and auditor. George W. Johnson was chosen for governor. He was subsequently killed at the battle of Shiloh, and Richard Hawes was chosen in his place. In January, 1862, Gen. Buell, having concentrated a large army at Louisville, sent a division under Gen. George H. Thomas to attack the confederate force in southeastern Kentucky, which had been reënforced by the division under Gen. Crittenden. In the battle of Mill Spring (Jan. 19) which ensued, the confederate forces were defeated, and Gen. Zollicoffer was killed. At the same time a large force was concentrated at Paducah, Cairo, Ill., and St. Louis, Mo., under command of Gen. Halleck, for operations in Kentucky and Tennessee. After the success of the expedition under Gen. Grant against Forts Henry and Donelson in February, the confederate forces abandoned Bowling Green and Columbus and withdrew from the state. Governor Magoffin resigned in August, and was succeeded by James F. Robinson, speaker of the senate. In September Gen. Bragg at the head of a large confederate force invaded the state from East Tennessee, and advanced rapidly toward Louisville, to which place the governor and legislature retired with the state archives. By forced marches Gen. Buell succeeded in getting between Louisville and Bragg's army, and on Oct. 8 a battle was fought at Perryville, Boyle co., with heavy loss on both sides. Bragg then withdrew his forces from the state, having meanwhile occupied Frankfort and all the country north of the Kentucky river, apparently threatening Cincinnati. Steps had been taken for inaugurating the provisional confederate state government at the capital, but the ceremonies were interrupted by the advance of the Union troops, and that organization disappeared. The state continued to be disturbed by raids, and martial law was declared by President Lincoln, July 5, 1864. The civil authority was restored by President Johnson on Oct. 18, 1865. In 1869 and in 1870 the legislature refused by a large majority to ratify the 15th amendment to the federal constitution.