# The American Cyclopædia (1879)/Maryland

MARYLAND, one of the original states of the American Union, situated between lat. 37° 53' and 39° 44' N., and lon. 75° 4' and 79° 33' W., having an extreme length E. and W. of 196 m., and a breadth varying from less than 10 m. in the W. part to about 120 m.; area (not including Chesapeake bay, which comprises 2,835 sq. m.), 11,124 sq. m. It is bounded N. by Pennsylvania, on a parallel known as “Mason and Dixon's line,” E. by Delaware and the Atlantic ocean, and W. by West Virginia. The remaining boundary is irregular. E. of Chesapeake bay it is bounded S. by Virginia, on a line E. from the mouth of the Pocomoke river to the Atlantic; W. of that bay it borders S. W. on Virginia and the District of Columbia, and S. on West Virginia, the boundary line (except where interrupted by the District of Columbia) following the Potomac river to the head of its North branch.

State Seal of Maryland.

The state is divided into 23 counties, viz.: Allegany, Anne Arundel, Baltimore, Calvert, Caroline, Carroll, Cecil, Charles, Dorchester, Frederick, Garrett, Harford, Howard, Kent, Montgomery, Prince George's, Queen Anne, St. Mary's, Somerset, Talbot, Washington, Wicomico, and Worcester. There are five cities, viz.: Baltimore (pop. in 1870, 267,354), the chief commercial and manufacturing mart; Frederick (8,526); Cumberland (8,056), the depot of the mining region in the W. part of the state; Hagerstown (5,779); and Annapolis (5,744), the capital. Cambridge, Chesapeake City, Chestertown, Easton, Elkton, Ellicott City, Havre de Grace, Laurel, Newtown, Port Deposit, St. Michael's, Salisbury, Sharpsburg, Westminster, and Williamsport are towns having each more than 1,000 inhabitants.—The population of Maryland in 1660, according to McSherry (“History of Maryland,” Baltimore, 1849), was 12,000; in 1665, 15,000; in 1671, 20,000; in 1701, 25,000; in 1715, 30,000; in 1748, 130,000 (36,000 slaves); in 1756, 154,188 (46,225 slaves); in 1761, 164,007 (49,675 blacks, mostly slaves); in 1775, 200,000; in 1782, 254,050, of whom 83,362 were slaves. According to the federal census returns, it has been as follows:

 CENSUS YEARS. White persons. Free colored Slaves. Total population. 1790 208,649 8,043 103,036 319,728 1800 246,326 19,587 105,635 341,548 1810 235,117 33,927 111,502 380,546 1820 260,223 39,730 107,397 407,350 1830 291,108 52,938 102,994 447,040 1840 318,204 62,078 89,737 470,019 1850 417,943 74,723 90,368 583,034 1860 515,918 83,942 87,189 687,049 1870 605,497 175,391 ...... 780,894

Included in the last total are 2 Chinese and 4 Indians. In 1870 Maryland ranked 20th among the states in total population, a gain since 1860 of 13.66 per cent.; 18th in white population, gain 17.36 per cent.; llth in colored population, gain 2.49 per cent. Of the total population, 697,482 were native and 83,412 foreign born. Of the natives, 629,882 were born in the state, 22,846 in Pennsylvania, 20,237 in Virginia and West Virginia, 6,876 in Delaware, 3,890 in New York, 1,853 in New Jersey, 1,212 in Massachusetts, and 1,163 in Ohio. There were 175,666 persons born in the state living in other states and territories. Of the foreigners, 47,045 were born in Germany, 23,630 in Ireland, 4,855 in England, and 2,432 in Scotland. There were 384,984 males and 395,910 females. Of the colored inhabitants, 151,463 were blacks and 23,928 mulattoes. The number of male citizens of the United States 21 years old and over was 169,845. The number of families was 140,078, having an average of 5.57 persons to a family; of dwellings, 129,620, with 6.02 persons to a dwelling. There were 114,100 persons 10 years old and over who could not read; 135,499 could not write, of whom 126,907 were natives and 8,592 foreigners, 46,796 whites, and 88,703 colored, 61,981 males and 73,518 females; 21,572 were from 10 to 15 years of age, 21,452 from 15 to 21, and 92,471 were 21 and over. Of the last number, 13,344 were white males and 27,123 colored males. There were 427 blind persons, 384 deaf and dumb, 733 insane, and 362 idiotic; number of paupers supported during the year ending June 1, 1870, 1,857, at a cost of $163,584; receiving support June 1, 1,612, of whom 265 were foreigners and 566 colored; number of persons convicted of crime during the year, 868; number in prison June 1, 1,035, of whom 68 were foreigners and 663 colored. The number of persons 10 years old and over returned as engaged in occupations was 258,543 (213,691 males and 44,852 females), of whom 80,449 were employed in agriculture, 79,226 in professional and personal services, 35,542 in trade and transportation, and 63,326 in manufactures and mining. Included in these numbers were 48,079 agricultural laborers, 31,213 farmers and planters, 938 clergymen, 34,742 domestic servants, 28,571 laborers, 772 lawyers, 1,771 officials and employees of government, 1,257 physicians and surgeons, 2,190 teachers, 9,775 traders and dealers, 9,840 in other mercantile pursuits, 2,859 officials and employees of railroad companies, 3,529 carmen, draymen, teamsters, &c., 5,968 sailors, steamboatmen, watermen, &c., 3,231 blacksmiths, 4,793 boot and shoe makers, 2,806 masons and stonecutters, 1,128 brick and tile makers, 1,566 butchers, 1,235 cabinetmakers and upholsterers, 7,904 carpenters and joiners, 1,086 cigar makers and tobacco workers, 1,483 coopers, 1,992 cotton and woollen mill operatives, 1,569 fishermen and oystermen, 1,709 iron and steel workers, 1,027 machinists, 1,116 millers, 2,041 milliners and dressmakers, 2,838 miners, 1,845 painters and varnishers, 5,868 tailors, tailoresses, and seamstresses, 1,256 tinners, and 1,026 wheelwrights.—The surface of the eastern shore of Maryland, which forms a part of the peninsula lying between Chesapeake and Delaware bays, is low and level except in the N. part, where it is somewhat broken and rocky. The soil of this region is generally sandy. That part of the western division of the state which forms the peninsula between Chesapeake bay and the estuary of the Potomac presents the same natural features. The northwest is rugged and mountainous. The Blue Ridge, and other main ranges of the Alleghanies, cross it from Virginia and West Virginia into Pennsylvania. None of these chains attains a great elevation.—The seacoast has a length of only 33 m.; but including the whole tide-water region of Chesapeake bay, the shore line is estimated at 411 m., and if the shores of islands be included, at 509 m. The principal rivers belonging wholly or in part to Maryland are the Potomac, Patuxent, Severn, Patapsco, Susquehanna, Elk, Choptank, Nanticoke, and Pocomoke. The rivers of the eastern shore, with the exception of the Choptank and Nanticoke, are rather inlets into which flow numerous small creeks than rivers, and are navigable only near their mouths. On the western shore, however, are the Potomac, navigable about 125 m.; the Patuxent, 50 m.; the Patapsco, 22 m.; and the Susquehanna, navigable beyond the Maryland boundary. Above Washington the Potomac receives the Monocacy river, Antietam creek, the Conecocheague river, and many smaller streams. The extreme W. part of the state is drained by the Youghiogheny river, which through the Monongahela empties into the Ohio. Chesapeake bay, which almost bisects the state, extending northward within 14 m. of the frontier of Pennsylvania, receives nearly all the rivers of Maryland. At its mouth, between Cape Charles and Cape Henry, it is 15 m. wide, its opening facing east; but on penetrating the land it almost immediately changes its direction, its length lying almost due N. and S. A little below the mouth of the Potomac it is about 30 m. wide, after which it again contracts, and at its head branches off into several small estuaries, just above the mouth of the Susquehanna. It is nearly 200 m. long, and navigable throughout. It contains many small islands, and its shores are indented with innumerable bays and inlets. The Atlantic coast of Maryland has no harbors, and is bordered throughout by a sandy beach from a few yards to more than a quarter of a mile in breadth, enclosing a shallow lagoon.—In the variety of its geological formations and mineral productions, Maryland is one of the most remarkable states in the Union. Along the seaboard and the shores of Chesapeake bay occur alluvial deposits of the present epoch. Next older are the beds of the pleistocene recognized in St. Mary's co., whence the formation extends southward along the coast of Virginia and North Carolina. The eastern shore is overspread almost exclusively with the clays, sands, and calcareous marls of the miocene; and the same formation is found on the W. side of the bay, reaching back to the E. edge of the metamorphic rocks, the line of which is commonly marked by the lowest falls of the rivers, as they descend from this platform of ancient rocks. The miocene formation is exposed in the banks of the creeks and rivers, and its beds of shell marl are there largely excavated for their valuable fertilizing materials. Deposits of bog ore are found in this formation, as well as in more recent ones. Among the tertiary ferruginous sands and clays spread over the western shore, from the vicinity of Washington to the head of the bay, are numerous deposits of argillaceous carbonate of iron in flat bands and balls. The cretaceous formation enters the N. E. corner of the state from New Jersey and Delaware; but it is lost S. of the Susquehanna river. Immediately back of Baltimore are hills of metamorphic rocks, talcose and mica slates, and limestones, which extend N. E. and S. W. across the state. Among them are serpentine rocks, which constitute barren hills known as the “Bare Hills.” In these, beds of chrome iron have been extensively worked, and their products have been converted into chrome pigments, and also exported to Europe. The same formations have yielded large quantities of the silicates and hydrates of magnesia. Mines of copper ore have also been worked in the metamorphic rocks, and others of hematite support numerous blast furnaces; in the same group of rocks are also extensive quarries of limestone and marble. At Sykesville, on the Patapsco, specular iron ore is found, and worked in connection with pyritous copper ores. Passing westward across the metamorphic belt, and included in it, is a narrow strip of the “middle secondary red sandstone,” which is traced from New Jersey through Pennsylvania and Maryland into Virginia. It passes through Carroll and the eastern part of Frederick co., crossing the Potomac just W. of Montgomery co. In this region was obtained from this formation the breodftted marble of which the pillars in the old hall of representatives in the capitol at Washington were made. In Frederick co., along the range of this belt, have been worked several copper mines. The portion of the metamorphic group lying W. of this trough of the middle secondary is but a few miles wide; and in the Catoctin and South mountains, on the W. line of Frederick co., are found the Silurian rocks, the Potsdam sandstones, and the Trenton and associated limestones, the lower members of the Appalachian system of rocks. The calcareous strata overspread the E. portion of Washington co., extending N. in a broad belt into Pennsylvania and S. into Virginia. The finest valleys of the middle states lie on their range, and wherever met with these rocks give fertility to the soil and beauty to the scenery. Newer members of the Appalachian series of rocks succeed toward the west these lower formations, and are repeated with them in successive parallel ridges, which are the eastern members of the Appalachian chain. At Cumberland in Allegany co. commences the ascent of the main ridges. Up their slope the middle Silurian rocks soon give place to the red shales and sandstones of the Devonian, and these are succeeded by the carboniferous formation, which caps the summits of Dan's and Savage mountains, and overspreads the intervening valley of George's creek, as the strata dip in each direction into the trough-shaped basin. At Frostburg, Lonaconing, Westernport, and other points in the valley, is obtained the semi-bituminous coal known in the eastern markets as Cumberland coal. Extensive works have been in operation at Mt. Savage, and also at Lonaconing, converting the iron ores of the coal formation into pig iron, and this into rails and other forms of wrought iron. The supply of ores, however, has proved uncertain, and, like most other attempts to found large operations upon these ores, the enterprises have not prospered. From this point to the W. boundary of the state the country continues mountainous, consisting of parallel ridges and valleys, the former capped by the coal formation or the underlying conglomerate and red and gray sandstones, and the valleys occupied by the coal measures. According to the census of 1870, the number of mining establishments in operation was 80, having 32 steam engines of 888 horse power, and 2 water wheels of 32 horse power; number of hands employed, 3,801 (1,241 above and 2,560 below ground); amount of capital invested,$25,369,730; wages paid, $1,839,952; value of materials used,$205,547; of products, $3,444,183. There were 22 mines of bituminous coal, yielding 1,819,824 tons, valued at$2,409,208; 43 of iron ore, yielding 98,354 tons, valued at $600,246; 2 of copper, producing$71,500 worth of ore; 2 marble quarries, yielding $275,000; 2 slate, and 9 stone quarries. Of the coal mines 20 were in Allegany co. Of the iron 50,487 tons were produced in Baltimore co., 18,300 in Carroll, 12,000 in Frederick, 9,300 in Allegany, and 6,190 in Anne Arundel.—The climate of the state is temperate, and in most places salubrious, although the lowlands bordering on the bay are subject to miasmata which produce bilious fevers and fever and ague. The mean annual temperature in the middle portion of the state is 56°; in the north, 54°; and in the highest parts in the west, 50°. Rain is abundant, the largest annual fall (50 inches) occurring on the W. shore of Chesapeake bay. The mean temperature at Baltimore for each month of the year ending Sept. 30, 1873, was as follows: October, 58.3°; November, 43.6°; December, 32.2°; January, 34°; February, 35.5°; March, 40.3°; April, 51.9°; May, 62.3°; June, 73.9°; July, 79.4°; August, 76.3°; September, 68°; year, 54.64°. The minimum was 2° (in February); the maximum, 96.5° (in July). The total rainfall was: October, 4.08 inches; November, 3.17; December, 2.72; January, 4.27; February, 4.74; March, 3.02; April, 2.77; May, 6.31; June, 0.94; July, 2.90; August, 9.49; September, 3.70; year, 48.11. The number of deaths in 1870 was 9,740, of which 3,978 were from general diseases, 1,161 from diseases of the nervous, 339 of the circulatory, 1,342 of the respiratory, and 1,499 of the digestive system, and the rest from miscellaneous causes. Among deaths from special diseases were: consumption, 1,678; pneumonia, 742; cholera infantum, 604; enteric fever, 434; scarlet fever, 331; whooping cough, 281; croup, 272; encephalitis, 249; convulsions, 239; paralysis, 231; diphtheria, 218; dropsy, 186; measles, 177; dysentery, 167; diarrhœa, 157; teething, 143; and hydrocephalus, 112.—The soil of the eastern shore is not naturally rich, but by the aid of manure it may be made to yield abundant crops. On the other side of the bay a tract closely resembling this lies along the shore. It has been much improved by the use of marl, bone dust, and guano, and forms the chief tobacco-growing region of the state. Some of the valleys of the interior and northern counties are extremely fertile. The commonest forest trees are the oak, hickory, chestnut, pine, locust, walnut, cedar, gum, and beach. Tobacco, wheat, and Indian corn are the staple cultivated crops. In 1870 Maryland was fifth among the states in the production of tobacco. Oats, rye, Irish and sweet potatoes, hay, milk, butter, wool, &c., are also produced. Peaches, strawberries, &c., are extensively cultivated in the E. part of the state. The number of farms in 1870 was 27,000, of which 1,314 contained less than 10 acres each, 1,764 from 10 to 20, 4,825 from 20 to 50, 7,026 from 50 to 100, 11,894 from 100 to 500, 163 from 500 to 1,000, and 14 1,000 acres and over. The number of acres of improved farm land was 2,914,007; cash value of farms,$170,369,684; of farming implements and machinery, $5,268,676; amount of wages paid during the year, including value of board,$8,560,367; estimated value of all farm productions, including betterments and additions to stock, $35,343,927; value of orchard products,$1,319,405; of produce of market gardens, $1,039,782; of forest products,$613,209; of home manufactures, $63,608; of animals slaughtered or sold for slaughter,$4,621,418; of live stock, $18,433,698. The productions were 1,095 bushels of spring and 5,773,408 of winter wheat, 307,089 of rye, 11,701,8l7 of Indian corn, 3,221,643 of oats, 11,315 of barley, 77,867 of buckwheat, 57,556 of peas and beans, 1,632,205 of Irish potatoes, 218,706 of sweet potatoes, 35,040 of clover seed, 2,609 of grass seed, 1,641 of flax seed, 15,785,339 lbs. of tobacco, 435,213 of wool, 5,014,729 of butter, 6,732 of cheese, 2,800 of hops, 30,760 of flax, 70,464 of maple sugar, 3,439 of wax, 118,938 of honey, 11,583 gallons of wine, 1,520,101 of milk sold, 28,563 of sorghum molasses, 374 of maple molasses, and 223,119 tons of hay. The live stock consisted of 89,696 horses, 9,830 mules and asses, 94,794 milch cows, 22,491 working oxen, 98,074 other cattle, 129,697 sheep, and 257,893 swine. There were also 12,520 horses and 16,040 cattle not on farms.—The number of manufacturing establishments was 5,812, having 531 steam engines of 13,961 horse power, and 937 water wheels of 18,461 horse power; number of hands employed, 44,860, of whom 34,061 were males above 16, 8,278 females above 15, and 2,521 youth; amount of capital invested,$36,438,729; wages paid, $12,682,817; value of materials used,$46,897,032; of products, $76,593,613. The following table exhibits the number of establishments, with the capital and value of products, of the principal branches:  INDUSTRIES. No. of establishments. Capital. Value ofproducts. Agricultural implements 34$281,300 $549,085 Bags, paper and other than paper 3 100,000 583,275 Boots and shoes 812 767,105 3,111,076 Bread and bakery products 159 374,195 1,220,399 Brick 73 1,063,300 1,191,545 Carriages and wagons 138 297,650 667,157 Clothing 323 2,284,825 5,970,713 Coal oil, rectified 8 198,000 647,389 Confectionary 52 249,585 733,431 Cooperage 88 290,454 873,782 Copper, milled and smelted 1 800,000 1,016,500 Cotton goods 22 2,734,250 4,852,808 Fertilizers 15 438,800 632,352 Flouring and gristmill products 518 2,790,700 6,786,459 Fruits and vegetables, canned 19 603,800 1,587,230 Furniture 131 845,945 1,388,698 Gas 5 1,820,000 1,027,165 Glass 4 145,700 246,400 Iron, forged, rolled, &c. 13 1,015,500 3,654,212 Iron, pigs 14 2,005,000 2,143,089 Iron, cast 43 784,135 928,094 Leather, tanned 69 792,430 1,265,388 Leather, curried 50 238,145 623,308 Leather, morocco, tanned and curried 4 64,000 163,000 Lime 24 106,150 234,199 Liquors, distilled 8 220,700 889,261 Liquors, malt 32 583,500 665,743 Lumber, planed 11 241,800 474,857 Lumber, sawed 391 1,055,600 1,501,471 Machinery, not specified 22 372,700 581,391 Machinery, steam engines and boilers 7 435,000 373,475 Molasses and sugar, refined 4 958,000 7,007,857 Musical instruments and materials 9 594,000 674,600 Oil vegetable 2 145,000 478,125 Oysters and fish, canned 13 553,300 1,418,200 Paints 5 440,000 1,027,500 Paper 26$1,206,000 $948,710 Pork packed 1 125,000 595,000 Saddlery and harness 135 207,385 539,083 Sash, doors, and blinds 17 282,425 419,506 Ship building, repairing, and ship materials 31 172,500 357,404 Soap and candles 13 230,050 521,439 Tin, copper, and sheet-iron ware 183 663,500 1,634,009 Tobacco and cigars 284 910,000 1,772,257 Woollen goods 28 198,945 390,036 The value of manufactures in 1810 was$8,879,861; in 1840, $13,509,636; in 1850,$33,043,892; in 1860, $41,735,157.—Maryland ranks sixth among the states in the value of foreign commerce, which is carried on wholly through Baltimore. The imports for the year ending June 30, 1874, amounted to$29,302,138; domestic exports, $27,513,111; foreign exports,$179,598. The chief items of export were 76,053,533 lbs. of leaf tobacco, valued at $5,868,405; 6,809,609 bushels of Indian corn,$5,287,444; 412,743 barrels of flour, $3,240,967; 38,665 bales of cotton,$2,669,219; and 13,321,567 lbs. of lard, $1,325,636. There were 1,117 entrances, tonnage 558,599, and 1,026 clearances, tonnage 524,847. The number of entrances in 1873 was 861, with an aggregate tonnage of 397,167, of which 367, of 118,637 tons, were American vessels, and 494, of 278,530 tons, foreign; clearances, 853, with an aggregate tonnage of 411,161, of which 321, of 109,490 tons, were American, and 532, of 301,671 tons, foreign. Besides Baltimore, Maryland includes the customs district of Annapolis, the eastern district, and part of the district of Cherrystone, Crisfield being the port of entry of the two last. The following table gives the details of the coastwise trade, with the vessels registered, enrolled, and licensed, for the year ending June 30, 1874, and those built during the previous year:  DISTRICTS. ENTRANCES. CLEARANCES. REGISTERED, &C. BUILT IN 1873. Vessels. Tons. Vessels. Tons. Vessels. Tons. Vessels. Tons. Annapolis 4 188 3 176 94 1,904 2 71 Baltimore 1,951 1,316,429 2,211 1,541,151 1,424 121,187 56 4,499 Eastern 18 1,430 3 404 475 19,177 46 1,588 ⁠Total 1,973 1,318,047 2,217 1,541,731 1,993 142,268 104 6,158 Of the vessels registered, &c., or belonging in the state, 1,296 with an aggregate tonnage of 67,616 were sailing vessels, 113 of 39,325 tons steamers, and 584 of 35,327 tons unrigged vessels. Those built include 77 sailing vessels of 3,665 tons, 6 steamers of 950 tons, and 21 canal boats of 1,543 tons. The oyster fisheries of Chesapeake bay are of great value, and are the chief source of supply for the markets of the United States. The state maintains several police boats to enforce the regulations governing the fishery, and derives a revenue from licenses to those engaged in it.—The number of miles of railroad in operation in 1844 was 259; in 1854, 327; in 1864, 408. The statistics of the various lines for 1874 are as follows: RAILROADS. TERMINI. Miles in operation in the state. Annapolis and Elk Ridge Annapolis to a junction with the Baltimore and Ohio railroad 20½ Baltimore and Potomac Baltimore to Washington 40 Branch Bowie to Pope's Creek 49 Baltimore and Ohio Baltimore to Wheeling, W. Va. (379 m.) 137¾ Washington branch Relay House to Washington 31 Metropolitan Point of Rocks to Washington 42½ Branch Frederick Junction to Frederick 3 Columbia and Port Deposit Port Deposit to Rolandville Junction 5 Cumberland and Pennsylvania Cumberland to Piedmont, W. Va. 38  ⁠Branches ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\left\{{\begin{matrix}\ \end{matrix}}\right.}}$ Cumberland to Astor Mines 14 Kreigbaum's to Pennsylvania line 3 Cumberland Valley Harrisburg, Pa., to Williamsport (82 m.) 14 Dorchester and Delaware Seaford, Del., on Delaware railroad to Cambridge (33 m.) 27 Eastern Shore Delmar on Delaware line, at terminus of Delaware road, to Crisfield 38 Frederick and Pennsylvania Frederick to Woodsboro 17 Kent County Townsend, Del., on Delaware road, to Parsons (36 m.) 29 Maryland and Delaware Clayton, Del., on Delaware road, to Easton (44 m.) 30 Northern Central Baltimore to Sunbury, Pa. (138 m.) 36 Philadelphia and Baltimore Central West Chester Junction, Pa., to Rowlandville Junction (46 m.) 9¼ Philadelphia, Wilmington, and Baltimore Philadelphia to Baltimore (96 m.) 54 Branch Perryville to Port Deposit 3¾ Pittsburgh, Washington, and Baltimore Pittsburgh, Pa., to Cumberland (149½ m.) 6 Queen Anne and Kent Massey's Junction, on Kent County railroad, to Centreville 36 Washington County Hagerstown Junction, on Baltimore and Ohio railroad, to Hagerstown 24 Western Maryland Baltimore to Williamsport 90 Wicomico and Pocomoke Salisbury, on Eastern Shore railroad, to Berlin 23 Worcester Berlin to Snow Hill 14 Worcester and Somerset Newtown Junction, on Eastern Shore railroad, to Newtown 9 Total 843¾ The Frederick and Pennsylvania railroad is to be extended to the Pennsylvania line, making the entire length 28 m. The Washington County line is operated by the Baltimore and Ohio company, the Worcester by the Wicomico and Pocomoke, and the Columbia and Port Deposit by the Philadelphia and Baltimore Central. The Southern Maryland railroad is in progress from Washington to Point Lookout, at the entrance of the Potomac into Chesapeake bay, 75 m. The Chesapeake and Ohio canal follows the valley of the Potomac from Cumberland to Georgetown, D. C., 184½ m., thence crossing the Potomac by an aqueduct to Alexandria, Va. A portion of the Susquehanna and Tidewater canal, from Wrightsville, Pa., on the Susquehanna river, opposite Columbia, to Havre de Grace, 45 m., is within this state; and also a portion of the Chesapeake and Delaware ship canal, which connects the waters of Chesapeake and Delaware bays.—The number of national banks in operation in the state in 1873 was 33, having an aggregate capital of$13,640,203; state banks, 10, with $2,913,013 capital; savings banks, 7, with deposits to the amount of about$15,000,000. There were 17 fire and marine insurance companies chartered by the state, having an aggregate capital of $2,651,568; assets,$4,967,378; liabilities, $1,048,797. There were 71 companies of other states and 10 foreign companies doing business in Maryland. There were 2 home life insurance companies, with$200,000 capital, $864,394 assets, and$601,770 liabilities; and 38 companies of other states doing business in Maryland.—The constitution vests the executive power in a governor, who is assisted by a secretary of state, attorney general, comptroller, treasurer, state librarian, and commissioner of the land office. The governor and attorney general are elected by the people for a term of four years, and the comptroller for two years; the treasurer is chosen by joint ballot of the two houses of the legislature for two years; the other officers are appointed by the governor, with the advice and consent of the senate, for four years. The governor must be 30 years of age, for ten years a citizen of the state, and for the last five years a resident thereof. He grants reprieves and pardons except in cases of impeachment, remits fines and forfeitures for offences against the state, and has a veto upon the acts of the legislature, which may be overcome by a three-fifths vote of both houses. He enters upon his office on the first Monday of January after his election, and has a salary of $4,500. In case of his death, resignation, or disqualification, the legislature elects a governor for the residue of the term. If that body is not in session, the president of the senate, or in default of that officer the speaker of the house of delegates, acts until a new governor is chosen. The governor, comptroller, and treasurer constitute the board of public works. The legislative power is vested in a general assembly, consisting of a senate and house of delegates. The senators, 26 in number (one from each county and one from each of the three legislative districts of the city of Baltimore), are elected for four years, one half retiring biennially. The delegates (present number 85) are elected for two years, and are apportioned among the counties after each census according to population. Senators must have attained the age of 25 years. The legislature meets biennially on the first Wednesday in January of even years. Regular sessions are restricted to 90 days, but the governor may call special sessions, which shall not exceed 30 days. Members receive$5 a day during the session, and the presiding officers $8, besides mileage. The house possesses the power of impeachment; the senate constitutes the court for the trial, two thirds being necessary for a conviction. The court of appeals has appellate jurisdiction only, and consists of the chief judges of the first seven circuits, besides a judge specially elected by the electors of Baltimore city. The state is divided into eight judicial circuits, the city of Baltimore constituting the eighth. In each circuit, except the eighth, a chief judge and two associate judges are elected, and in each county a circuit court is held, having general original jurisdiction both civil and criminal, and appellate jurisdiction of judgments of justices of the peace. In the city of Baltimore there are five courts, viz.: the superior court of Baltimore city, the court of common pleas, and the Baltimore city court, having concurrent original jurisdiction in all civil common law cases (the city court having in addition exclusive jurisdiction of appeals from judgments of justices of the peace, and the common pleas exclusive jurisdiction in matters of insolvency); the circuit court of Baltimore city, with exclusive original jurisdiction in equity; and the criminal court of Baltimore, with general original jurisdiction of crimes. A chief judge and four associate judges constitute the supreme bench of Baltimore, designating one or more of their number to hold the above described courts, and any three or more to hold general terms with certain appellate powers. Judges are elected by the voters of the respective circuits for a term of 15 years, and cannot hold office beyond the age of 70. Three judges of the orphans' court are elected in each county and the city of Baltimore for a term of four years. Justices of the peace are appointed by the governor, with the advice and consent of the senate, for the term of two years, and have jurisdiction of most civil cases, not involving the title to land, in which the amount in dispute does not exceed$100. Under the constitution every white male citizen of the United States, of sound mind and not a convict, 21 years of age and upward, who has resided for a year in the state and for six months in the county or legislative district, may vote in the ward or election district in which he resides. Under the provisions of the 15th amendment to the constitution of the United States, colored citizens are entitled to vote. No one who engages in or aids or abets a duel, or sends or accepts a challenge, nor any defaulter in public funds, can hold office; and no minister of the gospel or person holding any civil office of profit or trust under the state or United States, except that of justice of the peace, is eligible to the legislature. The legislature is prohibited from lending the credit of the state to any individual, association, or corporation, and restrictions are placed upon the power of special legislation, of contracting a public debt, and of pledging the faith or credit of the state for the construction of internal improvements. Amendments to the constitution must be proposed by three fifths of each house of the legislature and ratified by the people. Every 20 years the people are to vote on the question of holding a convention to revise the constitution. Murder in the first degree is punished with death; arson, rape, and treason, with death or imprisonment for a term of years, in the discretion of the court; other crimes are punished by fines and imprisonment. The chief grounds of divorce are adultery, abandonment for three years, impotency at the time of marriage, and illicit intercourse of the wife before marriage, unknown to the husband. A separation from bed and board may be had on the ground of cruel treatment, excessively vicious conduct, or desertion. A married woman may acquire, hold, and manage separate property free from liability for the debts of her husband; she may dispose of it by will as though single, but her husband must join with her in any deed. The rate of interest is 6 per cent. Maryland has two senators and is entitled to six representatives in congress, and has therefore eight votes in the electoral college.—The valuation of property, according to the United States census, has been as follows:

 YEARS. ASSESSED VALUE. True value of real and personal estate. Real estate. Personal estate. Total. 1850 .......... .......... .......... $219,217,864 1860$65,341,438 $231,793,800$297,135,238 376,919,944 1870 286,910,332 136,924,586 423,834,918 643,748,976

The taxation not national in 1870 was $6,632,842, of which$1,781,252 was state, $1,542,218 county, and$3,309,372 town, city, &c. The total debt amounted to $29,032,577, of which$13,317,475 (bonded) was state, $1,565,779 ($1,305,395 bonded) county, and $14,149,313 ($14,097,856 bonded) town, city, &c. The amount given as state debt includes liabilities incurred in aid of railroads, canals, &c. The sinking fund amounted to $1,764,450. According to the report of the comptroller for the year ending Sept. 30, 1873, the receipts into the state treasury, including a balance of$339,171 10 on hand at the beginning of the year, were $2,771,848 58, of which$1,814,348 96 was from ordinary sources, viz.: $268,955 61 from dividends and interest paid by banks and railroad and canal companies,$715,664 81 from taxes on property, $4,605 27 from taxes on state and other stocks,$77,868 47 from taxes on incorporated institutions, $540,263 53 from licenses on trades and occupations, marriages, the oyster fishery, &c.,$15,183 36 from fees, $14,349 13 from fines and forfeitures,$7,629 73 from grain inspections, $16,403 97 from tobacco inspections and warehouses,$8,777 34 from state livestock scales, $2,559 41 from state wharves,$2,332 01 from the land office, $65,195 52 from taxes on commissions of executors and administrators,$39,817 61 from taxes on collateral inheritances, $4,773 50 from taxes on protests, and the rest miscellaneous. The disbursements were$2,287,038 36, leaving a balance at the close of the year of $484,810 22; besides which there was$14,220 08 in the treasury to the credit of the school fund, and $66,579 28 to the credit of the sinking fund. Deducting$453,296 02 paid in redemption of the debt, and $152,500 to meet the state's subscription to stock of railroad companies in Charles and St. Mary's counties, the ordinary expenditures amounted to$1,681,242 34, viz.: $15,000 for the blind asylum,$16,800 for bounty to volunteers, $25,406 67 for salaries of civil officers,$77,961 92 for colleges and academies, $49,904 91 for colored schools,$30,000 for the deaf and dumb asylum, $10,000 for the colored deaf and dumb and blind asylum,$50,050 for various charitable and reformatory institutions, $701,909 29 for interest on the public debt,$88,802 78 for salaries of judicial officers, $2,500 for the Maryland inebriate asylum,$14,000 for the state penitentiary, $23,816 72 for the militia,$49,200 for pensions, $388,566 97 for public schools,$9,500 for the state normal school, $2,000 for the colored state normal school, and the rest miscellaneous. The assessed value of property was$424,672,712, and the tax, 17 cents (10 cents for public schools) on $100, amounted to$721,994 17. The assets of the state on Sept. 30, 1873, were represented by productive stock and bonds of railroad and other companies to the amount of $4,455,464 18; amount due from incorporated institutions, tax collectors and other officers,$1,995,701 96; unproductive stock and bonds and accrued interest, $21,608,694 51; total,$28,059,860 65. More than $20,000,000 of the unproductive assets consist of stock and bonds of and interest due from the Chesapeake and Ohio canal company, which it is believed, at a not very distant period, will make some return to the state. The funded debt at the above date amounted to$10,741,215 60. Deducting the sinking fund and the productive stock and bonds, the net debt was $6,219,172 14. The free school fund, including the fund for the indigent blind ($10,770 47), amounted to $314,010 16, invested in stocks and bonds, except$14,220 08 cash in the treasury. The balance to the credit of the oyster fund was $272,014 14; receipts during the year,$65,490 55; expenditures, $24,770 75; both included in the receipts and expenditures given above.—The state institutions are the penitentiary, the institution for the instruction of the blind, and that for the colored blind and deaf mutes, in Baltimore; the hospital for the insane, at Spring Grove, near Catonsville, Baltimore co.; and the institution for the education of the deaf and dumb, at Frederick. The penitentiary is under the management of a board of six directors, with six officers in immediate charge. The number of convicts in prison during the year ending Nov. 30, 1873, was 824, of whom 226 were received during the year; remaining at its close, 614, viz.: white males, 211; white females, 6; colored males, 361; colored females, 36. The convicts are employed in the prison, but the labor of the greater part is let to contractors, who manufacture shoes, harnesses, clothing, cooperage, marble work, &c. The earnings in 1873 amounted to$71,104 50, producing a surplus of more than $5,000 over the expenditures. The hospital for the insane was established in Baltimore in 1828. In 1852 the legislature provided for the erection of the present building, which remaining uncompleted and encumbered with a heavy debt in 1870, the old hospital was sold, and the proceeds, with an appropriation of$330,000 from the state treasury, devoted to its completion. The patients were removed to it in 1872. It is capable of accommodating 300. The institution is under the management of a president and board of visitors, with four resident officers. The number of inmates during 1873 was 238; remaining at the close of the year, 127, of whom 70 were males and 57 females, 57 private and 70 public patients; 102 were chronic cases, 13 acute mania, 9 epileptic, and 3 mania a potu. Aside from such appropriations as the legislature may make, the income is derived from the receipts from the counties for pauper patients and from private patients. The institution for the instruction of the blind was opened in 1854. The number of pupils under instruction during the year ending Dec. 1, 1873, was 55; remaining at that date, 47, of whom 7 were from the District of Columbia and supported by the United States; number of officers and instructors, 10. Besides reading, &c., the boys receive instruction in piano tuning and broom making, and the girls in sewing, knitting, &c. The age of admission is between 9 and 18 years, and pupils may be educated at the expense of the state, upon the recommendation of the governor. The institution for the education of the deaf and dumb was established in 1868, and was accommodated in barracks until the completion of the centre and south wing of the new building in the beginning of 1873. The north wing is not yet erected (1874). The number of pupils under instruction in 1873 was 99 (62 males and 37 females); remaining at the close of the year, 87; number of officers and instructors, 16; volumes in the library, 2,000. Instruction is given in articulation and lip reading, and in shoemaking, as well as in the common branches of learning by the ordinary methods. The age of admission is from 9 to 21 years, and pupils may be educated at the public expense upon the certificate of the orphans' court or commissioners of the county in which they reside. The institution for the colored blind and deaf mutes was established in 1872, and in 1874 had 5 officers and instructors and 23 pupils, of whom 10 were deaf mutes and 13 blind. The house of refuge for juvenile delinquents, near Baltimore, was opened in 1855. The boys receive instruction in the rudiments of learning and in various industries. A “house of merit” is connected with it, in which the younger and less vicious are separately classified. The institution is mainly supported by state and city appropriations. The number of inmates during 1873 was 411; remaining at the close of the year, 301. An act of 1874 provides for the establishment of a house of correction for convicts sentenced for not less than three months nor more than three years.—The constitution requires the general assembly to establish a system of free public schools, and to provide for its maintenance by taxation or otherwise. The act of 1872 constitutes a state board of education, a board of county school commissioners for each county, and a board of district school trustees for each school district, to have general control of the public schools in their respective jurisdictions. The state board consists of the principal of the state normal school ex officio, together with four persons appointed for two years by the governor, with the consent of the senate, from among the presidents and examiners of the county boards, one of whom must be a resident of the eastern shore. The county boards consist of three or five members, and are appointed for two years by the judges of the circuit courts. They elect a person, not of their number, to act as secretary, treasurer, and examiner, and an assistant examiner in the larger counties when necessary. The schools are free to all white youth between the ages of 6 and 21 years, and at least one is directed to be kept open in each district for ten months in the year. The teachers must be graduates of the normal school, or have a certificate of competency from the county examiner or the state board. Teachers' institutes are required to be held once a year for five days in each county, under the direction of the county examiner and the principal or a professor of the normal school. The act empowers the mayor and council of the city of Baltimore to establish a system of free public schools, and to appoint a board of commissioners of public schools for that city. Separate free schools are established in each election district for colored children between the ages of 6 and 20 years, for the support of which are set apart such sums as may be appropriated by the state or given by individuals for that purpose, together with the taxes paid by the colored people for school purposes. According to the report of the state hoard for the year ending Sept. 30, 1873, the number of public schools in operation Avas 1,742, including 225 for colored children; number of different pupils, 130,324 (14,171 colored); highest number enrolled in one term, 99,258; average daily attendance, 60,817; number of teachers, 2,555; average length of schools, 9 months and 13 days; amount paid for teachers' salaries, $889,476 47; for building, repairing, and furnishing school houses,$197,387 10; for books and stationery, $69,526 29; for colored schools,$69,577 18; total expenditures for school purposes, $1,354,066 71, defrayed partly by a state tax of 10 cents on$100, partly by the income of the school fund, and partly by local taxation. The schools of the city of Baltimore included one college or male high school, two female high schools, and 40 grammar schools (one colored). A few high and grammar schools have been established in other parts of the state; but the public schools are mostly elementary. The Baltimore city college had 10 instructors; number of different pupils during the year, 470; average attendance, 282. The state normal school for the training of teachers was established in Baltimore by the school law of 1865, and its continued existence has been provided for by subsequent acts; 200 pupils are entitled to be admitted free on the recommendation of the county or city school commissioners, upon declaring their intention to engage in teaching in the state, and others may be received upon the payment of tuition. The number of instructors in 1873 was 9; of pupils, 146, of whom 13 were males and 133 females; volumes in the library, 1,200. A model school is connected with it. The Howard normal school (colored), at Baltimore, was organized in 1865. It receives a small appropriation from the state, but is supported mainly by donations. The number of pupils in 1873 in all departments (primary, grammar, and normal) was 234; average attendance, 186. The number in the normal department was 74; volumes in the library, 1,000. The number of academies receiving state aid was 22, with 50 teachers and 1,257 pupils. According to the United States census of 1870, the number of schools of all kinds was 1,779, having 1,498 male and 1,789 female teachers, 55,800 male and 51,584 female pupils; income from endowment, $21,697; from taxation and public funds,$1,134,347; from other sources, including tuition, $842,171; total,$1,998,215. Of these, 1,487 (3 normal, 10 high, 49 grammar, 159 graded common, and 1,266 ungraded common) were public, with 2,150 teachers, 83,226 pupils, and an income of $1,146,057, of which$1,039,135 was derived from taxation and public funds. Of those not public, 53 were classical (19 colleges and 34 academies), 7 professional (1 law, 2 medical, 4 theological), 12 technical (1 agricultural, 3 commercial, 1 for the blind, 1 for the deaf and dumb, 6 of art and music), 153 day and boarding, and 67 parochial and charity. The statistics of the principal colleges for 1873-'4 are exhibited in the following table:

 COLLEGES. Location. Denomination. Date of organization. No. of professors, &c. Students. Volumes in libraries. Washington[1] Chestertown None 1782 2 31 1,000 St. John's Annapolis None 1784 11 130 4,000 Frederick[1] Frederick None 1797 8 100 3,000 Mount St. Mary's Emmettsburg Roman Catholic 1830 13 182 8,000 College of St James College of St. James P. O., Washington co. Episcopal 1842 6 41 11,000 St. Charles's[1] Ellicott City Roman Catholic 1848 12 180 4,000 Loyola[1] Baltimore Roman Catholic 1852 15 140 21,500 Mount St. Clement's Ilchester Roman Catholic 1853 14 160 9,000 Rock Hill Ellicott City Roman Catholic 1857 22 149 6,800 Maryland Agricultural[1] Agricultural College P. O., Prince George's co. None 1865 9 130 ...... Woodstock Woodstock Roman Catholic 1867 14 102 ...... Western Maryland Westminster Methodist Prot. 1868 13 131 3,500
1. 1872-'3.

These institutions, besides courses of collegiate grade, have preparatory departments, which embrace a large portion of the students. Mount St. Mary's college has a theological department, with 34 students not embraced in the number given in the table. St. Charles's college is regarded as a preparatory institution to the theological seminary of St. Sulpice and St. Mary's university at Baltimore (which in 1873-'4 had 6 professors and 60 students), and is designed only for those who are intended for the church. The Western Maryland college has a three years' course for females, with an attendance of 61 students included in the number given in the table, and gives special instruction to young men intended for the ministry. The college of St. James since the civil war has had only a high school or preparatory department in operation. Woodstock college is devoted exclusively to the education of the younger members of the society of Jesus, and embraces a three years' course of philosophy and a four years' course of theology; 42 of the students in 1873-'4 were pursuing the former course and 60 the latter. Six state scholarships have been established in St. John's college for each senatorial district, exempting the holder from payment of room rent and tuition fees, and in 1872 the legislature provided for furnishing board to two of the incumbents from each district, who after receiving the advantages of the college for four years are required to teach school within the state for not less than two years. Several state scholarships have also been established in the Frederick, Washington, and Western Maryland colleges. The collegiate department of the agricultural college embraces a four years' course of arts, including agriculture and ordinary scientific and English studies, with classics and modern languages, and a three years' course of science, which is the same as the preceding, with the omission of classics. Provision is also made for such as desire to remain but one year in the institution. The college received the proceeds ($110,000) of the 210,000 acres of land granted to the state by congress for the establishment of a college of agriculture and the mechanic arts. A farm of 300 acres is connected with it. Tuition is free; and in accordance with an act of the legislature 12 students from each congressional district receive the use of text books free. The medical department of Washington university was established in Baltimore in 1833; a hospital and free dispensary are connected with it; in 1874 it had 11 professors and 313 alumni; the number of students in 1872-'3 was 192. The medical department of the university of Maryland in Baltimore was established in 1807; in 1873-'4 it had 12 professors, 114 students, and a library of 3,500 volumes. The Maryland college of pharmacy in Baltimore was established in 1841, and in 1873-'4 had 4 professors and 54 students; the degree of graduate in pharmacy is conferred after examination upon persons who have attained the age of 21 years, have served an apprenticeship of four years with some reputable pharmacist, and have attended two courses of lectures in a recognized college of pharmacy, the last course in this institution; any graduate of good standing, on passing a prescribed examination, is entitled to the degree of master in pharmacy. The Baltimore college of dental surgery, the oldest dental college in the world, was incorporated in 1840; in 1874 it had 9 professors and 578 alumni; the number graduating that year was 19; the number of students in 1872-'3 was 50. Candidates for graduation are required to prepare a written thesis, to pass an examination upon the subjects taught in the college, and to have attended two courses of lectures in the institution; but an equivalent for one course is allowed. The Maryland dental college was established in Baltimore in 1873, with 13 professors. The United States naval academy is situated at Annapolis. (See Annapolis.)—According to the census of 1870, the number of libraries was 3,353, containing 1,713,483 volumes, of which 2,037, with 1,142,538 volumes, were private. Of those not private, 2, with 31,462 volumes, were state libraries; 1, with 41,500 volumes, city; 20, with 14,662 volumes, court and law; 72, with 98,470 volumes, school, college, &c.; 881, with 215,763 volumes, Sabbath school; and 310, with 90,989 volumes, church. There were 88 newspapers and periodicals, issuing 33,497,778 copies annually, and having a circulation of 235,450, viz.: 8 daily, circulation 82,921; 1 tri-weekly, 5,015; 2 semi-weekly, 1,600; 69 weekly, 127,314; and 8 monthly, 18,600. They were classified as follows: agricultural and horticultural, 2; commercial and financial, 2; illustrated, literary, and miscellaneous, 7; political, 70; religious, 6; technical and professional, 1. The number of church organizations was 1,420, with edifices, sittings, and property as shown in the following table:  DENOMINATIONS. Edifices. Sittings. Value ofproperty. Baptists, regular 58 12,025$87,100 Baptists, other 34 8,705 62,500 Christian 5 1,850 28,000 Episcopal 155 61,480 1,594,860 Evangelical Association 3 1,000 45,500 Friends 21 7,440 151,700 Jewish 4 2,750 650,000 Lutheran 84 40,915 875,100 Methodist 757 231,580 3,220,650 Moravian 1 500 4,500 New Jerusalem 3 900 27,000 Presbyterian 77 32,415 1,279,550 Reformed (late Dutch Reformed) 1 600 15,000 Reformed (late German Reformed) 42 19,980 562,150 Roman Catholic 103 62,280 3,001,400 Unitarian 1 800 150,000 United Brethren in Christ 34 12,100 233,500 Universalist 2 1,000 32,500 Union 4 1,500 17,700 ⁠Total 1,389 499,770 \$12,038,650