# The American Cyclopædia (1879)/Michigan

MICHIGAN, one of the western states of the American Union, and the 13th admitted under the federal constitution, situated between lat. 41° 45' and 48° 20' N., and lon. 82° 25' and 90° 34' W. It is bounded N. by Lake Superior; E. by St. Mary's strait or river, Lake Huron, St. Clair river, Lake St. Clair, the Detroit river, and Lake Erie; S. by Ohio and Indiana; and W. and S. W. by Lake Michigan and the Menominee and Montreal rivers, with the chain of lakes lying between their head waters. The bounding waters (except Lake Erie) on the north and east separate it from the province of Ontario, Canada; those on the west and southwest from Illinois and Wisconsin. The land area of the state is 56,451 sq. m.

State Seal of Michigan.

It is divided into 77 counties, viz.: Alcona, Allegan, Alpena, Antrim, Barry, Bay, Benzie, Berrien, Branch, Calhoun, Cass, Charlevoix, Cheboygan, Chippewa, Clare, Clinton, Crawford,[1] Delta, Eaton, Emmet, Genesee, Gladwin,[1] Grand Traverse, Gratiot, Hillsdale, Houghton, Huron, Ingham, Ionia, Iosco, Isabella, Jackson, Kalamazoo, Kalkaska, Kent, Keweenaw, Lake, Lapeer, Leelanaw, Lenawee, Livingston, Mackinaw, Macomb, Manistee, Manitou, Marquette, Mason, Mecosta, Menominee, Midland, Missaukee, Monroe, Montcalm, Montmorency,[1] Muskegon, Newaygo, Oakland, Oceana, Ogemaw,[1] Ontonagon, Osceola, Oscoda,[1] Otsego,[1] Ottawa, Presque Isle, Roscommon,[1] Saginaw, Sanilac, Schoolcraft, Shiawassee, St. Clair, St. Joseph, Tuscola, Van Buren, Washtenaw, Wayne, and Wexford.

1. Unorganized.

There are 38 cities, as follows: Detroit, the commercial metropolis of the state, having a population in 1874 of 101,255; Grand Rapids, 25,923; East Saginaw, 17,084; Jackson, 13,859; Bay City, 13,690; Saginaw City, 10,064; Adrian, 8,863; Muskegon, 8,505; Port Huron, 8,240; Flint, 8,197; Lansing (the capital), 7,445; Ann Arbor, 6,692; Monroe, Battle Creek, Marquette, and Ypsilanti, having each more than 5,000 inhabitants; Manistee, Ishpeming, Marshall, Niles, Grand Haven, and Coldwater, with more than 4,000 each; Alpena, Negaunee, Hillsdale, Pontiac, Wyandotte, Ionia, Greenville, and Big Rapids, with more than 3,000 each; Lapeer, Charlotte, Holland, Owosso, Ludington, Hastings, and St. Clair, with more than 2,000 each; and Corunna, with a population of 1,345. The principal villages are Kalamazoo (pop. in 1870, 9,181), Allegan, Escanaba, Fenton, Houghton, Hudson, Sault Ste. Marie, and Tecumseh.—The population of Michigan at the several federal decennial enumerations since its organization as a territory has been as follows:

 YEARS. White. Colored. Total. 1810 4,618 144 4,762 1820 8,591 206 8,896 1830 31,346 261 31,639 1840 211,560 707 212,267 1850 395,071 2,583 397,654 1860 736,142 6,799 749,113 1870 1,167,282 11,849 1,184,059

The population in 1800 was 551; at the several territorial and state censuses it has been as follows: 1834, 87,278; 1854, 509,374; 1864, 803,745; 1874, 1,334,031. Included in the total for 1870 are 4,926 Indians, 1 Chinaman, and 1 Japanese. In that year Michigan ranked 13th among the states in point of population, the gain since 1860 being 58.06 per cent. Of the inhabitants, 916,049 were native and 268,010 foreign born, 617,745 males and 566,314 females. Of the natives, 507,268 were born in the state, 231,509 in New York, 62,207 in Ohio, 28,507 in Pennsylvania, 14,445 in Vermont, 12,140 in Indiana, 10,839 in Massachusetts, 8,033 in New Jersey, 7,412 in Connecticut, 6,055 in Illinois, 5,986 in Wisconsin, 3,932 in Maine, 3,633 in New Hampshire, 1,984 in Virginia and West Virginia, 1,719 in Kentucky, 1,486 in Iowa, 1,265 in Maryland, and 1,137 in Rhode Island. There were 65,720 persons born in the state living in other states and territories. Of the foreign population, 89,590 were born in British America, 64,143 in Germany, 42,013 in Ireland, 35,051 in England, 12,559 in Holland, 8,552 in Scotland, 3,121 in France, 2,406 in Sweden, 2,116 in Switzerland, 1,516 in Norway, 1,354 in Denmark, and 1,179 in Bohemia. There were in the state 274,459 male citizens of the United States 21 years old and upward. The number of families was 241,006, with an average of 4.91 persons to each; of dwellings, 237,036, with an average of 5 persons to each. There were 34,613 persons 10 years old and over who could not read, and 53,127 who could not write, of whom 22,547 were natives and 30,580 foreigners, 48,649 whites, 2,655 colored, and 1,823 Indians. Of the white and colored, 24,706 were males and 26,598 females; 8,391 were between 10 and 15 years of age, 5,428 between 15 and 21, and 37,485 (18,558 males and 18,927 females) 21 and over. The number of blind persons was 418; of deaf and dumb, 455; of insane, 814; of idiotic, 613. The number of paupers supported during the year ending June 1, 1870, was 3,151, at a cost of $269,682; number receiving support on that date, 2,042, of whom 1,189 were foreigners. The number of persons convicted of crimes during the year was 835; number in prison June 1, 1,095, of whom 416 were foreigners. Of the 404,164 persons (346,717 males and 57,447 females) 10 years old and upward returned as engaged in all occupations, there were employed in agriculture 187,211, including 121,558 farmers and planters and 64,885 agricultural laborers; in professional and personal services, 104,728, including 1,430 clergymen, 49,005 domestic servants, 36,034 laborers, 1,167 lawyers, 1,722 government employees and officials, 2,034 physicians and surgeons, and 5,059 teachers; in trade and transportation, 29,588; and in manufactures and mining, 82,637, including 4,730 blacksmiths, 3,535 brick and stone masons, &c., 1,799 car, carriage, and wagon makers, 14,693 carpenters and joiners, 2,045 cotton and woollen mill operatives, 1,075 fishermen, 1,314 iron and steel workers, 2,341 lumbermen, raftsmen, and wood choppers, 1,130 machinists, 1,585 millers, 3,426 miners, 2,727 painters and varnishers, and 10,356 saw-mill operatives. The tribal Indians of Michigan in 1874 numbered 8,923, viz.: Ottawas and Chippewas, 6,170; Chippewas of Saginaw, Swan creek, and Black river, 1,575; Chippewas of Lake Superior, 1,118; and Pottawattomies of Huron, 60. The Ottawas and Chippewas reside in the N. part of the southern peninsula and on the islands of Lake Michigan; the Chippewas of Saginaw, &c., in Isabella co.; the Pottawattomies in Calhoun co.; the Chippewas of Lake Superior on L'Anse bay in Houghton co. The last named tribe depend for subsistence chiefly upon hunting and fishing; the others are largely engaged in agriculture. They are well advanced in civilization, mostly hold land in severally, and are entitled to the privileges of citizenship. The agent of the Michigan Indians is nominated by the Methodists. There are several schools among them under the auspices of the Roman Catholics and Methodists.—Michigan consists of two irregular peninsulas, which are separated from each other by the strait of Mackinaw (4 m. wide) connecting the N. ends of Lakes Michigan and Huron. The upper or northern peninsula is bounded N. by Lake Superior, E. by St. Mary's strait, S. by Lake Huron, the strait of Mackinaw, and Lake Michigan, and S. W. by Wisconsin. It is 318 m. in greatest length from E. to W., and from 30 to 164 m. wide, embracing about two fifths of the area of the state. It comprises the counties of Chippewa, Delta, Houghton, Keweenaw, Mackinaw, Marquette, Menominee, Ontonagon, and Schoolcraft, and contains but a small portion of the population (61,814 in 1874). From its W. extremity the Lake Superior shore trends N. E. for a distance of about 160 m. to the end of Keweenaw point, a long peninsula running out into the lake. On the E. side of this point is Keweenaw bay. Thence to Whitefish point the coast line presents a regular undulation with scarcely any good harbors. At Whitefish point it bends sharply S. and afterward E., enclosing with the Canada shore the deep basin known as Tequamenon bay, from the head of which flows St. Mary's strait. The Lake Huron shore, extending from the mouth of the St. Mary's westward to the strait of Mackinaw, is much broken and lined with islets; it is separated from Lake Michigan by the peninsula called Pointe St. Ignace. The shore of Lake Michigan is irregular, but offers no large inlets until Green bay is reached, which opens from the N. W. corner of the lake. More than half of the N. and W. shore of this bay belongs to Michigan, and just within its mouth are two inlets extending northward, called the Big and Little bays de Noquet. The general aspect of the northern peninsula is rugged and picturesque. The portion E. of the meridian of Marquette is an undulating plateau, sinking gradually toward the south and more rapidly toward the north, the watershed being much nearer Lake Superior than Lakes Huron and Michigan. The highest points do not rise more than 400 ft. above Lake Superior. Numerous lakes and marshes are scattered over this plateau. The surface is covered with forests, except where fires have destroyed the timber and transformed the region into a desert. Soft woods, including pine, are the prevailing growth, but fine groves of sugar maple and beech also occur. W. of the plateau the country is irregularly mountainous, interspersed with swamps and lakes. A few of the peaks attain a height of 1,400 ft. above Lake Superior. The N. W. extremity of the peninsula is occupied by the Mineral or Copper range, which properly consists of three ranges: the main or central range, extending from Keweenaw point far into Wisconsin, flanked on the north by the Porcupine mountain range, and on the south by the South Copper range. The general trend of these ranges is N. 60° E. and S. 60° W. They do not attain so great a height as some of the peaks further E. The timber here, which is abundant and of excellent quality, is generally sugar maple; but little pine or other soft wood occurs. Immediately S. of the South Copper range is the Iron range. The northern peninsula contains most of the mineral wealth of the state, but the soil is generally sterile. The lower or southern peninsula, which is 277 m. in length from N. to S., and 259 m. in greatest width, is in nearly every respect a contrast to the northern. It lies between Lakes Huron and Michigan, and is bounded S. E. by the St. Clair river, Lake St. Clair, Detroit river, and Lake Erie. The Lake Huron shore is broken by Thunder bay toward the north and Saginaw bay near its centre. There are also several inlets on Lake Michigan, the chief of which are Great and Little Traverse bays. The surface is generally level, although in the south there is an irregular cluster of conical hills from 30 to 200 ft. high. A low watershed, culminating at an elevation of 600 or 700 ft., passes through the country from S. to N., much nearer the E. than the W. shore, with a very gradual and almost unbroken slope toward Lake Michigan, except near Au Sable river, where it partakes of a rugged character. The shores on both sides are in many places steep and elevated, and on Lake Michigan especially there are numerous bluffs and sand hills from 100 to 300 ft. high. The soil of the southern peninsula, except in the N. part, is luxuriantly fertile. The principal islands belonging to the state are Isle Royale and Grand island in Lake Superior; Sugar and Nebish islands in St. Mary's strait, and Drummond's island at its mouth; Marquette, Mackinaw, and Bois Blanc islands in the N. part of Lake Huron, near the mouth of the strait of Mackinaw; and the Beaver, Fox, and Manitou groups in the N. part of Lake Michigan.—The principal rivers are the Ontonagon and Tequamenon, flowing into Lake Superior; the Cheboygan, Thunder Bay, Au Sable, and Saginaw, into Lake Huron; the Huron and Raisin, into Lake Erie; and the St. Joseph, Kalamazoo, Grand, Muskegon, Manistee, Grand Traverse, Manistique, and Escanaba, into Lake Michigan. Most of these are small, but the streams are so numerous that all parts of the state are abundantly watered. The Grand, Saginaw, St. Joseph, and some others are navigable for short distances. Many small ponds are also scattered over the surface. The lower peninsula is composed wholly of groups of the Devonian and lower carboniferous series of rocks, except the central portion of the country, from which the streams flow on one side into Lake Huron, and on the other into Lake Michigan, which is occupied by the coal measures and permo-carboniferous series. Though this is the most elevated portion of the peninsula, the surface is little more than moderately rolling, the strata are horizontal, and the bituminous coal beds lie mostly too low to be worked without raising the water by pumping. The coal field, which embraces about 12,000 sq. m., is open to Lake Huron by Saginaw bay, the shores of which are mostly in this formation. It extends as far S. as Jackson, on the line of the Michigan Central railroad, where a bed 4 ft. thick is opened and worked 90 ft. below the surface. From the difficulty of obtaining the coal in large quantities, but little of it is shipped, and even the supplies for the Lake Superior iron works are carried chiefly from eastern Ohio. Around the coal field the underlying carboniferous limestone crops out in a narrow belt, and contains in some localities gypseous shales and some plaster of Paris. To this succeeds the wider outcrop of the slates and sandstones of the Portage and Chemung groups, which stretch along the shores of both Lake Michigan and Lake Huron. The limestones and other strata of the Helderberg and Niagara groups surround these, sweeping around into northern Ohio and Indiana and eastern Wisconsin, and forming the island of Mackinaw and the point of the peninsula S. of this island. The mineral productions found in these formations are of no great importance. The limestones give fertility to the soil, and are abundantly supplied for all the purposes they can serve. From the shores of Lake Huron, near Thunder bay, an excellent stone is quarried for grindstones; and near Saginaw bay and in the valley of Saginaw river salt water is obtained by boring. The statistics of the production of salt, which is extensive and still increasing, are given below. The northern peninsula exhibits four geological formations: the lower Silurian; the copper-bearing rocks; the iron-bearing rocks, corresponding, it is assumed, with the Huronian system of Canada; and the granitic rocks, believed to be the equivalents of the Laurentian of Canada. The Silurian underlies the E. plateau, and flanks the Copper range on the south, forming also the valleys between the different members of that range. It is made up of various sandstones and limestones. The copper-bearing rocks are confined to the Mineral or Copper range, but occur outside of the peninsula on Isle Royale. This is the most productive copper district in the world, except Chili. Silver is frequently found in connection with the copper. The N. and W. portions of the central region of the peninsula, bordering on Lake Superior and the copper-bearing series, are occupied by the Huronian formation, which consists of a series of extensively folded beds of diorite, quartzite, chloritic schists, clay and mica slates, and graphitic shales, among which are intercalated the extensive beds of magnetic, specular, and other iron ores, for which this region is famous. The rest of the peninsula is occupied by the Laurentian series. The copper mines are in Ontonagon, Houghton (which contains the richest mines), and Keweenaw cos. The iron mines are in Marquette co. According to the census of 1870, there were 27 copper mines, with 86 steam engines of 5,943 horse power; hands employed, 4,188; capital invested,$5,866,374; wages paid, $2,346,535; value of product,$4,312,167 (total product of the United States, $5,201,312). The number of iron mines was 11, with 20 steam engines of 922 horse power; hands employed, 2,005; capital invested,$3,810,000; wages paid, $1,270,698; tons of ore obtained, 690,393; value,$2,677,965. The yield of iron ore was greater than that of any other state except Pennsylvania. The yield of copper ore in 1873 was 18,636 tons (2,000 lbs. each), and the aggregate product of the mines from their opening in 1845 to the close of that year was 194,333 tons. The iron product of the state in 1873 was 1,250,000 tons (2,240 lbs.) of ore mined and 75,000 of pig iron manufactured. The total yield from the opening of the mines in 1856 to the close of 1873 was 6,784,129 tons of ore and 428,580 of pig iron. (See Copper Mines, and Iron Ore.)—Michigan abounds with natural objects and antiquities interesting to the traveller. Among the former the most noteworthy are the “Pictured Rocks,” on the shores of Lake Superior, about 30 m. W. of Sault Ste. Marie. These are sandstone bluffs of various colors, worn by the action of the waters into grotesque forms resembling castles, temples, arches, colonnades, &c., which from a steamer on the lake have the appearance of a gorgeous picture. These rocks extend along the shore for about 12 m., and rise from 200 to 300 ft. above the water. Sometimes cascades shoot over the precipice so that a vessel may sail between the descending waters and the natural wall of rock. In the northern peninsula and on Isle Royale there are the remains of very ancient mines and mining tools, and it is evident that a race well advanced in civilization occupied the country at some very distant period in the past, of which the Indians found in possession by the early explorers from Canada could give no account. Foster and Whitney (“Executive Document No. 69,” 31st congress, 1st session) give an interesting chapter on this subject.—The climate of Michigan is one of extremes, but much tempered by the proximity of the lakes. That of the southern peninsula is comparatively mild, while that of the northern, especially in the winter season, is cold and rigorous. The mean annual temperature at Detroit (lat. 42° 20', elevation 580 ft.) from 1836 to 1854 was 47.25°; and at Fort Brady, near Sault Ste. Marie (lat. 46° 30', elevation 600 ft.) from 1823 to 1854, 40.37°. These results illustrate the isothermal conditions of the two peninsulas, the difference in annual heat being nearly 7° F. The mean distribution of the heat to the seasons in the same year was as follows:

 PLACES. Spring. Summer. Autumn. Winter. Detroit 45.89° 67.60° 48.67° 26.84° Fort Brady 37.60° 62.01° 43.54° 18.31°

At Detroit the greatest difference in the monthly mean in any one year was 49.97° (21.95° to 71.92°), and at Fort Brady 57.81° (13.19° to 71°). The average annual rainfall at the two places was 30.07 and 31.35 inches respectively, and in the seasons as follows:

 PLACES. Spring. Summer. Autumn. Winter. Detroit 8.57 9.29 7.41 4.86 Fort Brady 5.44 9.97 10.76 5.18

The mean annual temperature at Grand Haven (lat. 43° 5', elevation 616 ft.) for the year ending Sept. 30, 1873, was 44.6; mean temperature of the coldest month (January), 19.2°; of the warmest (June and August), 69.1°. The annual mean at Escanaba (lat. 45° 44', elevation 601 ft.) was 40.01°; coldest month (December), 11.3; warmest (June), 69.3°; total annual rainfall, 25.7 inches. At Marquette (lat. 46° 33', elevation 666 ft.) the annual mean was 38.3°; coldest month (December), 12°; warmest (August), 63.4°; total annual rainfall, 23.46 inches. The whole number of deaths in 1870 was 11,181, of which 4,822 were from general diseases, 1,349 from diseases of the nervous, 407 of the circulatory, 1,025 of the respiratory, and 1,800 of the digestive system. Among special diseases, there were 707 deaths from scarlet fever, 666 from enteric fever, 153 from intermittent fever, 97 from remittent fever, 1,844 from consumption, and 702 from pneumonia.—The northern peninsula with some exceptions is rugged and has a poor soil. It is, however, well timbered with white pine, spruce, hemlock, birch, oak, aspen, maple, ash, and elm. Much of the southern is occupied by oak openings and prairie, with a large portion of forest, in which walnut, sugar maple, oak, hickory, ash, basswood, elm, linden, locust, dogwood, beech, sycamore, cherry, pine, hemlock, spruce, tamarack, cypress, cedar, and chestnut are the prevailing growths. White pine forms the chief wealth of the N. half of this peninsula. The upper portion of the state is beyond the N. line of Indian corn, but here the hardier grains mature. The southern produces Indian corn and the winter grains abundantly, and is the great agricultural district of the state. The soils in this portion are deep, chiefly a dark loam, often mixed with gravel and clay, and very fertile. Apples are grown here in great quantities. Peaches are successfully raised on the shores of Lake Michigan, while pears, plums, cherries, blackberries, raspberries, strawberries, and quinces flourish throughout the state. The vine is cultivated on the shores of Lakes Michigan and Erie, and in the principal river valleys. The lakes and streams afford productive fisheries, among which are those of the far-famed whitefish. According to the census of 1870, Michigan was 10th among the states in the value of agricultural productions, and 9th in the value of manufactures. The whole number of farms was 98,786, of which 6,897 contained less than 10 acres each, 13,170 from 10 to 20, 38,795 from 20 to 50, 27,687 from 50 to 100, 12,175 from 100 to 500, 57 from 500 to 1,000, and 5 more than 1,000 acres each. The number of acres of land in farms was 10,019,142, of which 5,096,939 were improved; cash value of farms, $398,240,578; of farming implements and machinery,$13,711,979; wages paid during the year, including the value of board, $8,421,161; estimated value of farm productions, including betterments and additions to stock,$81,508,623; value of orchard products, $3,447,985; of produce of market gardens,$352,658; of forest products, $2,559,682; of home manufactures,$338,008; of animals slaughtered or sold for slaughter, $11,711,624; of live stock,$49,809,809. The chief productions and live stock according to the census of 1870 and the state census of 1874 were:

1870. 1874.
 Wheat bushels 16,265,773 Rye bushels 144,508 Indian corn bushels 14,086,238 Oats bushels 8,954,466 Barley bushels 834,558 Buckwheat bushels 436,755 Peas and beans bushels 349,365 Potatoes bushels 10,318,799 Clover seed bushels 49,918 Wool lbs. 8,726,145 Butter lbs. 24,400,185 Cheese lbs. 670,804 Hops lbs. 828,269 Flax lbs. 240,110 Maple sugar lbs. 1,781,855 Honey lbs. 280,325 Milk sold, gallons 2,277,122 Sorghum molasses gallons 94,6S6 Hay, tons 1,290,923 Horses on farms 228,302 Horses not on farms 25,368 Milch cows 250,859 Working oxen 36,499 Other cattle 260,171 Neat cattle not on farms 87,605 Sheep 1,985,906 Swine 417,811
 Wheat bushels 15,456,202 Indian corn bushels 20,792,905 Other grain bushels 18,209,758 Potatoes bushels 5,618,863 Wool lbs. 7,729,011 Pork marketed lbs. 48,434,106 Cheese lbs. 4,101,912 Butter lbs. 27,972,117 Maple sugar lbs. 4,319,793 Fruit dried lbs. 2,664,709 Fruit and vegetables canned lbs. 2,007,606 Cider, barrels 182,347 Wine, gallons 50,851 Hay, tons 1,134,077 Apples bushels 5,928,275 Peaches bushels 22,069 Pears bushels 40,857 Plums bushels 3,667 Cherries bushels 66,746 Strawberries bushels 48,922 Currants and gooseberries bushels 40,562 Grapes, cwts. 29,601 Horses 271,394 Working oxen 38,901 Milch cows 321,732 Other cattle 307,554 Sheep 1,649,199 Swine 401,720

—The number of manufacturing establishments in 1850 was 2,083, producing goods to the value of $11,169,002. In 1860 there were 3,448 establishments; hands employed, 23,190; capital invested,$23,808,226; value of products, $32,658,356. The whole number of establishments in 1870 was 9,455, having 2,215 steam engines of 70,956 horse power, and 1,500 water wheels of 34,895 horse power; number of hands employed, 63,694, of whom 58,347 were males above 16, 2,941 females above 15, and 2,406 youth; capital invested,$71,712,283; wages paid, $21,205,355; value of materials used,$68,142,515; of products, $118,394,676. The statistics of the principal branches (1870) are shown in the following table:  INDUSTRIES. Number of establishments. Hands employed. Capital invested. Value of products. Agricultural implements 164 969$1,254,759 $1,569,596 Blacksmithing 904 1,997 729,538 1,581,857 Boots and shoes 765 2,494 1,167,181 2,552,931 Bread and bakery products 82 306 291,672 684,458 Brick 136 1,584 438,800 681,480 Carpentering and building 756 2,930 730,225 3,976,833 Carriages and wagons 531 2,239 1,649,860 2,393,328 Cars, freight and passenger 3 823 615,223 1,488,742 Clothing 288 2,593 1,085,650 2,577,154 Cooperage 291 1,139 438,165 1,176,768 Copper, milled and smelted 19 636 1,591,000 9,260,976 Flouring and grist mill products 516 1,938 6,962,675 21,174,247 Furniture and chairs 245 2,364 2,067,420 1,953,888 Gas 13 111 1,549,029 522,329 Iron, forged and rolled 3 465 725,000 780,750 Iron, bolts, nuts, nails, &c. 2 54 50,400 164,200 Iron, pigs 17 1,625 2,528,000 2,911,515 Iron, castings 196 1,101 1,571,447 2,082,582 Leather, tanned 90 478 897,047 1,606,311 Leather, curried 73 249 395,493 1,064,297 Liquors, distilled 1 15 75,000 105,000 Liquors, malt 128 481 1,337,441 1,216,286 Lumber, planed 70 518 710,850 1,131,845 Lumber, sawed 1,571 20,058 26,990,450 31,946,396 Machinery 105 1,311 1,628,979 2,830,564 Masonry, brick and stone 159 666 57,853 655,905 Meat packed, beef 3 8 12,000 96,050 Meat packed, pork 4 33 170,000 533,750 Painting 108 453 143,490 493,752 Paper 11 261 376,000 499,392 Plaster, ground 22 240 687,100 333,600 Printing and publishing 65 726 697,777 1,071,523 Saddlery and harness 288 824 460,436 851,388 Salt 65 858 1,717,500 1,176,811 Sash, doors, and blinds 150 1,305 1,279,200 1,868,596 Ship building, repairing, and ship materials 26 637 547,000 709,384 Tin, copper, and sheet-iron ware 260 835 487,515 967,972 Tobacco and cigars 114 1,256 1,301,202 2,572,523 Wooden ware and wood work 71 596 596,975 711,175 Wool carding and cloth dressing 17 84 155,350 213,315 Woollen goods 38 585 858,200 996,203 The total value of saw-mill products was greater than that of any other state. In the quantity of laths and lumber produced Michigan stood first; in the quantity of shingles, next to Wisconsin; and in the value of staves, &c., next to Indiana and New York. The number of steam engines employed in the saw mills was 1,137, of 41,216 horse power; water wheels, 547, of 12,448 horse power; number of saws, 7,052; amount of wages paid during the year,$6,400,283; value of materials used, $14,347,661. The products were 304,054,000 laths, 2,251,613,000 feet of lumber, 658,741,000 shingles, and staves, shooks, headings, &c., to the value of$1,332,922. The whole number of bushels of grain ground was 16,891,910, and the products of the flouring mills intended for market (excluding flour, meal, &c., from grain ground for individual owners) were 10,956 cwt. of buckwheat flour, 3,759 barrels of rye flour, 963,101 of wheat flour, 3,375 bushels of barley meal, 610,103 of corn meal, and 1,508,180 cwt. of feed. There were 119,415 tons of iron ore smelted, producing 79,279 tons of pig iron. The quantity of salt manufactured was 3,981,316 bushels, more than was produced by any other state except New York and West Virginia. The quantity of lumber manufactured in 1873 amounted to 2,886,351,027 feet, viz.;: E. Michigan, 1,351,878,286 feet; W. Michigan, 1,205,559,739; upper peninsula, 133,913,002; railroad and interior mills, 175,000,000. If the lumber cut into shingles were added, the aggregate would nearly reach 3,000,000,000 feet. The forests of the state are rapidly disappearing, but it is estimated that 33,000,000,000 feet of pine timber is still standing in the lower peninsula. The product of the salt wells for 1874 was 1,026,979 barrels. The total yield from the discovery of the wells in 1860 to the close of 1874 has been 7,789,419 barrels. The lake fisheries are of considerable importance. The value of the catch according to the census of 1870 was $567,576; the chief items were 2,165 barrels of herring, 2,787 of pickerel, 47,436 of whitefish, and 14,268 of other fish.—Michigan is divided into four customs districts, viz.: Detroit, Huron (port of entry, Port Huron), Michigan (port of entry, Grand Haven), and Superior (port of entry, Marquette). The foreign commerce (except under the act of July 14, 1870, which permits the shipment of goods without appraisement to interior ports from the ports of first arrival) is carried on wholly with Canada, though an occasional vessel has been despatched from Detroit directly to Europe. The following table exhibits the statistics for the year ending June 30, 1874:  DISTRICTS. Value of imports. Exports of domestic products. Exports of foreign products. ENTRANCES. CLEARANCES. Vessels. Tons. Vessels. Tons. Detroit$1,450,072 $3,240,839$52,601 3,854 870,937 3,879 880,495 Huron 852,869 5,608,294 430,780 612 485,423 644 490,640 Michigan 3,445 14,130 ....... 16 3,994 10 2,803 Superior 47,400 179,980 ....... 200 59,963 185 57,417 ⁠Total $2,353,786$9,043,243 $483,381 4,682 1,420,317 4,718 1,431,355 The exports consist chiefly of grain, flour, hogs, lumber, beef and pork and their products, tobacco, cotton, and railroad cars. Of the exports through the district of Huron a large proportion is transported by land carriage. The number of entrances in 1873 was 4,335, with an aggregate tonnage of 1,357,462. The number of clearances in the same year was 4,275, tonnage 1,340,332. The vessels engaged in the coastwise trade for the year ending June 30, 1874, and the number built during the previous year, were as follows:  DISTRICTS. ENTRANCES. CLEARANCES. REGISTERED, &C. BUILT IN 1873. Vessels. Tons. Vessels. Tons. Vessels. Tons. Vessels. Tons. Detroit 5,190 353,127 4,412 885,070 365 83,099 39 14,733 Huron 3,448 1,027,335 3,589 1,066,338 314 53,265 30 12,841 Michigan 10,947 2,061,789 11,289 2,123,074 196 17,592 18 1,082 Superior 2,184 944,070 2,194 943,040 64 4,527 6 146 ⁠Total 21,769 4,886,321 21,484 5,017,522 939 158,483 93 28,802 The vessels belonging or registered in the state consisted of 368 sailing vessels of 52,907 tons, 358 steamers of 68,239 tons, and 213 unrigged vessels of 37,337 tons; those built included 42 sailing vessels of 15,383 tons, 34 steamers of 8,834 tons, and 17 unrigged vessels of 4,585 tons. The number of entrances in 1873 was 18,124 of 4,205,694 tons (4,783 of 2,056,040 tons steamers); clearances, 18,436 of 4,300,173 tons (4,855 of 2,070,157 tons steamers).—The number of miles of railroad in the state in 1844 was 206; in 1854, 444; in 1864, 898. The lines in operation in 1874, with their termini and their mileage within the state, were: RAILROADS. TERMINI. Miles in operation in the state. Chicago and Michigan Lake Shore New Buffalo, on Michigan Central railroad, to Pentwater 170  ⁠Branches ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\left\{{\begin{matrix}\ \end{matrix}}\right.}}$ Holland to Grand Rapids 24½ Muskegon to Big Rapids 55½ Chicago and Canada Southern Grosse Isle to Chicago, Ill. (250 m.); completed to Fayette 70 Chicago and Northwestern (Peninsula division) Menominee to Escanaba 64½ Chicago and Northwestern (Peninsula division) Escanaba to Lake Angeline mine 68 Branches To mines 36 Chicago, Detroit, and Canada Grand Trunk Junction Port Huron to Detroit 59 Detroit and Bay City Detroit to Bay City 108 Branch Lapeer to Fish Lake 5 Detroit and Milwaukee Detroit to Grand Haven 189 Detroit, Hillsdale, and Indiana Ypsilanti to Bankers 65 Detroit, Lansing, and Lake Michigan Detroit to Howard 164  ⁠Branches ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\left\{{\begin{matrix}\ \end{matrix}}\right.}}$ Ionia to Stanton 23 Kiddville to Belding 2 Detroit, Monroe, and Toledo[1] Toledo, Ohio, to Detroit (65 m.) 54½ Flint and Pere Marquette Monroe to Ludington (255 m.); completed to Reed City 207  ⁠Branches ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\left\{{\begin{matrix}\ \\\ \end{matrix}}\right.}}$ East Saginaw to Bay City 12 Flint to Otter Lake 19 Saginaw to St. Clair Junction 5 Fort Wayne, Jackson, and Saginaw Jackson to Fort Wayne, Ind. (100 m.) 46 Grand Rapids and Indiana Fort Wayne, Ind., to strait of Mackinaw (352 m.); completed to Petoskey (332 m.) 272 Grand Rapids, Newaygo, and Lake Shore Grand Rapids to Newaygo 36 Grand River Valley[2] Jackson to Grand Rapids 84 Hecla and Torch Lake Houghton county 4½ Jackson, Lansing, and Saginaw[2] Jackson to strait of Mackinaw (295 m.); completed to Gaylord's 236 Kalamazoo and South Haven[2] Kalamazoo to South Haven 39 Kalamazoo and White Pigeon[1] Kalamazoo to White Pigeon 38 Kalamazoo, Allegan, and Grand Rapids[1] Kalamazoo to Grand Rapids 58 Lake Shore and Michigan Southern Buffalo, N. Y., to Chicago, Ill. (539 m.) 116  ⁠Branches ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\left\{{\begin{matrix}\ \end{matrix}}\right.}}$ Adrian to Jackson 46 Adrian to Monroe 33½ Marquette, Houghton, and Ontonagon Marquette to L'Anse 63 Branches To mines 23½ Michigan Air Line[2] Jackson to South Bend, Ind. (114 m.) 108½ Michigan Central Detroit to Calumet, Ill. (270 m.) 221 Michigan Lake Shore Allegan to Muskegon 57 Mineral Range Copper Harbor to Ontonagon river (100 m.); completed, Hancock to Calumet 12½ Northern Central Michigan[1] Jonesville to Lansing 60 Paw Paw Lawton, on Michigan Central railroad, to Paw Paw 4 Peninsular[3] Lansing to Chicago, Ill. (205 m.) 108½ Port Huron and Lake Michigan[3] Port Huron to Lansing (112½ m.); completed to Flint 66 Saginaw Valley and St. Louis East Saginaw to St. Louis 35 St. Clair and Chicago Air Line St. Clair to Jackson (120 m.); completed from Ridgeway, on Grand Trunk railroad, to Washington 22 Toledo, Canada Southern, and Detroit Toledo, O., to Detroit (55 m.) 50 Traverse City Traverse City to Walton, on G'd Rapids and Indiana R. R. 26 Total 3,267 1. Operated by the Lake Shore and Michigan Southern railroad. 2. Operated by the Michigan Central railroad. 3. Consolidated in 1873 under the title of the Chicago and Lake Huron railroad. The only canals used for transportation are the St. Mary's ship canal and the Portage and Lake Superior ship canal. The former, about a mile long, around the falls of the St. Mary's at Sault Ste. Marie, was opened in 1855, and has been of great importance in facilitating commerce between Lakes Huron and Superior. The latter is about two miles long, and connects Portage lake with Lake Superior on the W. side of Keweenaw point. By opening a navigable channel through the base of the peninsula, it enables vessels to avoid the circuit around the point. It was completed in 1873.—In 1873 there were 77 national banks in the state, with a capital of$9,802,200, and an outstanding circulation of $7,139,217; 13 state banks, with a capital of$1,184,897 80; and 10 savings banks, with a capital of $631,300, and deposits amounting to$4,000,000. There were 31 mutual fire insurance companies and 3 stock (1 fire and marine) of the state in operation, besides 88 companies of other states and 11 foreign companies authorized to do business in Michigan; also 37 life insurance companies, of which one, with a capital of $100,000, was a Michigan company.—The executive power of the state is vested in a governor (salary$1,000), lieutenant governor, secretary of state ($800), superintendent of public instruction ($1,000), state treasurer ($1,000), auditor general ($1,000), commissioner of the state land office ($800), and attorney general ($800), elected by the people for two years. The lieutenant governor is ex officio president of the senate, and upon the death, resignation, or disability of the governor exercises the functions of that office. The secretary, treasurer, and commissioner of the land office constitute a board of state auditors, to examine and adjust claims against the state, and also a board of state canvassers, to determine the result of elections for state officers. The secretary, treasurer, and auditor are a board of internal improvements, and the lieutenant governor, auditor, secretary, treasurer, and commissioner of the land office form the state board of equalization. A commissioner of insurance, railroad commissioner, commissioner of immigration, and salt inspector are appointed by the governor with the consent of the senate, the last for six and the others for two years. The state board of health consists of seven members, including the secretary, and the state board of agriculture of the governor and president of the agricultural college ex officio, with six other members. The legislative power is vested in a senate and house of representatives, elected every second year. There are 32 senate districts, each of which elects one senator. The representatives, not fewer than 64 nor more than 100 in number (at present 100), are apportioned among the counties and representative districts according to population. After each United States census, and also after each decennial state census (beginning in 1854), a reapportionment is made. Members of the legislature and the lieutenant governor receive $3 a day while in actual attendance, and 10 cents a mile in going to and from the seat of government. The regular sessions are held biennially in odd years. No one holding a United States, state, or county office, with minor exceptions, is eligible to a seat in the legislature. Appropriations for any religious sect or society, or theological or religious seminary, are prohibited; and no act can be passed authorizing the granting of licenses for the sale of ardent spirits or other intoxicating liquors. The constitution forbids the granting of the credit of the state to or in aid of any person, association, or corporation, and declares that the state shall not subscribe to nor be interested in the stock of any company, association, or corporation, nor engage in any work of internal improvement. The governor's veto can be set aside by a two-thirds vote of both houses. The judicial power is vested in a supreme court, circuit courts, probate courts, and justices of the peace, with such municipal courts as may be established by the legislature in cities. The supreme court consists of a chief justice and three associate justices (salary$4,000), elected by the people for eight years (one retiring every two years), and has appellate jurisdiction. Four terms are held annually at Lansing. The state is divided into 20 judicial circuits, in each of which a circuit judge (salary $1,500) is elected for six years. Circuit courts are held in each organized county, and have general original jurisdiction, civil and criminal, and appellate jurisdiction of judgments of inferior courts. A probate judge is elected in each county for four years, who holds a probate court with the usual powers. Four justices of the peace are elected in each township for a term of four years, with jurisdiction in civil cases involving not more than$300, and such criminal jurisdiction as may be prescribed by law. The right of suffrage is conferred on all male citizens of the United States (including civilized Indians not members of any tribe) 21 years old and upward, who have resided in the state three months and in the township or ward where they offer to vote 10 days. General elections occur on the Tuesday after the first Monday of November in even years. Any inhabitant engaging in a duel is disqualified from voting and from holding office. Amendments to the constitution must be proposed by two thirds of each house of the legislature, and ratified by the people. Once in 16 years, beginning with 1866, the question of calling a convention to revise the constitution is to be submitted to the people. Treason is punishable with death; murder in the first degree with solitary confinement in the state prison at hard labor for life; other crimes with fines and various terms of imprisonment. A married woman may carry on business in her own name; her property is not liable for the debts of her husband, and she may deal with it and sue and be sued respecting it as if unmarried. The principal grounds of divorce are adultery, impotence at the time of marriage, imprisonment for three years, desertion for two years, habitual drunkenness, and extreme cruelty. The rate of interest is 7 per cent., but as high as 10 per cent. may be stipulated for in writing. Michigan is entitled to two senators and nine representatives in congress, and therefore has eleven votes in the electoral college. The valuation of property, according to the United States censuses, has been as follows:

 YEARS. ASSESSED VALUE. True value of real and personal property. Real estate. Personal estate. Total. 1850 ............ ............ ............ $59,787,255 1860$123,605,084 $39,927,921$163,533,005 257,163,983 1870 224,663,667 47,579,250 272,242,917 719,208,118

The total taxation not national in 1870 was $5,412,957, of which$396,352 was state tax, $1,565,163 county, and$3,451,442 town, city, &c. The total debt amounted to $6,725,231, of which$2,385,028 was state, $1,275,479 county, and$3,064,724 town, city, &c. The receipts into the state treasury during the year ending Sept 30, 1873, were $2,192,431 52; balance on hand at the beginning of the year,$977,224 03; disbursements, $2,314,942 11; balance in treasury at the close of the year,$854,713 44. The items of receipt were as follows: from direct taxes, $982,230 50; specific taxes,$347,554 74, of which $211,239 56 were from railroad companies,$113,131 84 from insurance companies, $18,778 37 from mining companies,$2,236 43 from telegraph companies, $2,016 54 from express companies, and$152 from river improvement companies; sale of lands, $230,760 42; interest on part paid lands,$73,602 45; St. Mary's canal, $29,271 85; 5 per cent. from United States on sale of public lands,$28,723 20; miscellaneous sources, $253,424 67; total cash receipts,$1,945,567 83; receipts in land warrants, $233,170 01; refundings and reimbursements,$13,693 68. The disbursements were as follows: for principal of state debt, $502,000; interest on state debt,$117,748 48; interest on trust funds, $196,318 62; interest on part paid lands, paid to educational institutions,$55,490 39; state institutions, from appropriations, $380,756 50 (university$90,000, normal school $15,384 07, agricultural college$25,096, state public school $36,513 43, reform school$18,500, state prison $27,800, insane asylums$127,400, deaf and dumb and blind asylum $40,063); new state offices and new capitol,$129,143 76; on account of canal, $14,207 80; miscellaneous,$672,412 87 (including for printing and binding $88,247 96, paper and stationery$44,423 56, salaries $148,557 89, pay and contingent expenses of legislature$75,176 48); total disbursements in cash, $2,068,078 42; disbursements in land warrants,$233,170 01; refunding and reimbursements, $13,693 68. The taxable value of property in 1871, when the last assessment was made, was$630,000,000. The taxation for state purposes for the year ending Sept. 30, 1874, was $982,230 50, or 15.59 cents on$100. The items are as follows: for agricultural college, $37,398; insane asylums,$169,000; general purposes, $300,000; institution for deaf and dumb and blind,$46,000; military fund, $33,382 50; new state capitol,$200,000; state prison building, $50,000; state public school,$43,000; state reform school, $33,950; university,$69,500. The total taxation, not including city taxes in the larger cities and special assessments (amounting probably to $1,000,000), for the year ending Sept. 30, 1873, was$11,660,055 84, viz.: state, $829,976 05; county,$2,660,513 35; township, $1,963,113 22; highway,$2,537,807 27; school, $3,098,688 39; drain,$241,864 60; miscellaneous, $328,092 96. The total bonded debt of the state Sept. 30, 1873, was$1,733,292 78, of which $1,699,000 was interest-bearing, viz.: due Jan. 1, 1878,$353,000; due July 1, 1878, $111,000; canal bonds (guaranteed by state) due July 1, 1879,$73,000; due Jan. 1, 1883, $699,000; due May 1, 1890,$463,000. The rate of interest on the last amount is 7 per cent.; on the rest, 6 per cent. The cash in the treasury applicable to the payment of this debt amounted to $412,000 81. The trust debt was as follows: primary school funds,$2,401,198 86; university fund, $331,234 03; agricultural college fund,$103,192 39; normal school fund, $50,138 22; railroad and other deposits,$4,227 46; total, $2,889,990 96.—The charitable, penal, pauper, and reformatory institutions are under the general supervision of a board of four commissioners (besides the governor ex officio), who are appointed by the governor with the consent of the senate for eight years, one retiring every two years. The state institutions under their charge are the state prison at Jackson, the state reform school at Lansing, the state public school at Coldwater, the asylum for the insane at Kalamazoo, and the institution for the education of the deaf and dumb and the blind at Flint. The state prison was established in 1838. The grounds embrace about 80 acres, of which 10½ are enclosed within the prison walls. The number of cells is 648; they are built of stone, and each is 8 ft. 4 in. long, 3 ft. 4 in. wide, and 7 ft. high. The prisoners labor an average of about nine hours each week day in workshops in the enclosure; their services are let to contractors, and they are employed chiefly in the manufacture of furniture, wagons, agricultural implements, cigars, and boots and shoes. For the last few years the prison has been self-sustaining. The number of convicts in prison Sept. 30, 1872, was 589; received during the year, 287; discharged, died, &c., 221; remaining Sept. 30, 1873, 655. There is a library of about 2,000 volumes. The reform school for juvenile offenders was opened in 1856; it has a farm of 225 acres. The boys receive instruction in the elements of learning and are trained to habits of industry. Two family houses have recently been erected, affording accommodations for 75 boys of the smaller and better class, where they may be free from the example of the more vicious. The number of inmates Sept. 30, 1872, was 218; received during the year, 101; released, 97; remaining Sept. 30, 1873, 222. The state public school for neglected and dependent children was established by the act of April 17, 1871, and was opened May 22, 1874. The grounds embrace 27 acres, and the buildings comprise a large central structure for school and industrial purposes and several cottages in which the pupils may be separately classified, having accommodations for 165 inmates; the number in the institution on Aug. 15, 1874, was 135. The children are kept in school 4½ hours a day, and those that are old enough work three hours a day. It is estimated that there are about 300 children in the state between the ages of 4 and 16 years who come within the design of this institution. The asylum for the insane was opened in 1859. The grounds embrace 195 acres, part of which is occupied as a farm and garden. With the new building to be completed in 1875 the institution will have accommodations for 300 patients in the female and 260 in the male department. The expenses are defrayed chiefly by receipts from inmates and from counties for the support of poor patients, with appropriations by the legislature to meet deficiencies. The number of patients Dec. 1, 1870, was 305 (156 males and 149 females); received during the succeeding two years, 155 (99 males and 56 females); discharged, 155 (recovered 56, improved 32, unimproved 40, died 27); remaining Sept. 30, 1872, 305 (157 males and 148 females). The number in the institution on Aug. 14, 1874, was 465, of whom 232 were males and 233 females. The legislature in 1874 appropriated$400,000 for the erection of another insane asylum, and Pontiac has been selected as the site. The institution for the education of the deaf and dumb and the blind was organized in 1854. Workshops have recently been connected with it, in which the pupils are taught mechanical occupations. The mental training is similar to that given in other institutions of the kind. The farm and grounds contain 94 acres. The number of pupils in attendance during the two years 1871 and 1872 was 219, of whom 171 (93 boys and 78 girls) were deaf mutes and 48 (25 boys and 23 girls) blind. The number remaining Sept. 30, 1872, was 164, of whom 137 were deaf mutes and 27 blind. The Detroit house of correction is a city institution, but it receives all females sentenced to the state prison and criminals convicted of misdemeanors from all parts of the state, for whose board payment is made by the state or counties. The prisoners are principally employed in the manufacture of chairs and cigars, under the direction of the superintendent, and the earnings exceed the expenses. Provision is made for the education of the inmates, and in the house of shelter connected with the institution a limited number of the girls are surrounded with the influences of a home. The number of prisoners Jan. 1, 1873, was 443; received during the year, 2,409; discharged, 2,321; remaining Dec. 31, 1873, 531, of whom 416 were males and 115 females. Of those received during the year, 1,804 were from the city of Detroit, 595 from other parts of the state, and 10 from other states (United States prisoners). The commissioners also have the general oversight of the county jails and poorhouses. The number of jails is about 50. They vary from cheap log structures to expensive and imposing edifices, some costing less than $100 and others$50,000 or $60,000. The estimated value of jail property is$400,000. The average number of inmates is about 300; annual cost of maintaining jails, $50,000. There are 51 poorhouses, each having a farm connected with it; but few of the buildings have been constructed especially for the purpose. The whole number of paupers received in the county poorhouses and Washtenaw and Wayne county asylums for the insane, during the year ending Sept, 30, 1873, was 3,798; average number maintained, 1,482; number under 16 years of age, 577; number of persons temporarily relieved outside the poorhouses, 13,785; whole amount expended from the poor fund,$403,096 18, of which $147,722 53 was for the maintenance of poorhouses, and$158,039 25 for temporary relief outside; estimated value of farms and appurtenances, $698,554 57; of paupers' labor,$7,628 50; of products of the farms, $60,519 15. The whole number of insane persons received was 412, average number maintained 284; whole number of idiots 196, average number 178; whole number of blind 47, average number 39; whole number of mutes 12, average number 11. Of those received during the year, 1,551 were native-born whites, 139 colored, 16 Indians, 36 of unknown birth, and the rest foreigners.—Michigan has an excellent system of nearly 6,000 free public schools. Districts having fewer than 30 children between 5 and 20 years of age are required, under a heavy penalty, to have three months' free school annually; districts with 30 to 800 children, five months; and districts with over 800, nine months. The actual average length is a little over seven months. The state superintendent of public instruction has the general oversight and supervision of these and all other educational institutions of the state, including in some respects all the local and denominational colleges. A county superintendent of common schools is elected in each county for two years, whose duty it is among other things to examine candidates for the position of teacher and grant certificates for his county. The state superintendent of public instruction may grant certificates effectual throughout the state. A board of township school inspectors is elected annually, the township clerk being ex officio clerk of the board, with power to divide the township into districts. Each school district has a board elected by its voters, consisting of a moderator, a director, and an assessor, one being elected annually for three years. Any district having more than 100 children of school age may by a two-thirds vote decide to have a board of six trustees, two being elected annually for three years. These boards, when directed by a vote of the people, have power to establish graded schools and high schools. For graded schools two or more contiguous districts having together more than 200 scholars may unite. The income of the primary school fund is apportioned by the superintendent of public instruction to the townships and cities in proportion to the number of youth in each between the ages of 5 and 20 years. The act of April 15, 1871, requires all children between 8 and 14 years of age to be sent to the public schools at least 12 weeks in a year (six weeks at least of which shall be consecutive), unless taught at home or in a private school. According to the report of the superintendent of public instruction for 1873, the number of school districts was 5,521; children between 5 and 20 years of age, 421,322; between 8 and 14, 181,604; whole number attending school during the year, 324,615; number in attendance under 5 or over 20 years of age, 5,854; average attendance, 162,300; average length of schools, 7 months; number of school houses, 5,572 (80 stone, 641 brick, 4,246 frame, 605 log); seats, 399,067; value of school houses and lots,$8,105,391; number of teachers employed, 11,950 (3,010 males and 8,940 females); number of township libraries, 207, with 49,291 volumes; of district libraries, 1,099, with 115,331 volumes. Of the schools 311 were graded, with a total attendance of 118,616. The amount on hand at the beginning of the year was $530,580 27; receipts,$3,212,772 43, viz.: township tax, $465,912 84; primary school fund,$194,479 58; tuition of non-resident pupils, $31,199 81; district taxes,$2,095,220 17; other sources, $412,253 87. The expenditures were$3,148,885 52, viz.: wages of male teachers, $681,565 24; of female teachers,$1,071,309 43; construction and repairs, $597,006 68; other purposes,$788,902 96; balance on hand at the close of the year, $594,467 18; total debt of school districts,$1,707,700 16. The state normal school at Ypsilanti was established by the act of March 28, 1849, and went into full operation in the spring of 1853. This is managed by a state board of education, consisting of the superintendent of public instruction, who is ex officio secretary, and three members elected by the people for six years, one retiring biennially. There are three courses of study: one of two years, designed to prepare students to teach in the common schools; another of three years, embracing higher English studies; and the third of four years, including ancient or modern languages. A model school is connected with the institution. Applicants for admission, if females, must be not less than 16, or if males not less than 18 years of age, and are required to sign a declaration of intention to devote themselves to the business of teaching in the schools of the state. Two students from each representative district are exempt from the payment of tuition; others are required to pay $10 a year. The diploma of the school entitles the possessor to teach in the public schools without examination. The number of instructors in 1873-'4 was 14; of students in the normal department, 364; of pupils in the model school, 122; of volumes in the library, 2,000. According to the United States census of 1870, the number of schools was 5,595, with 2,999 male and 6,560 female teachers, 128,949 male and 137,678 female pupils, and an income of$2,550,018 ($81,775 from endowment,$2,097,122 from taxation and public funds, and $371,121 from other sources, including tuition). Of the whole number of schools, 5,414 (3 normal, 37 high, 62 grammar, 570 graded common, and 4,742 ungraded common) were public, and 181 not public, having 582 teachers, 11,799 pupils, and an income of$385,529, of which $81,775 was from endowment,$77,500 from taxation and public funds, and $226,254 from other sources, including tuition. The schools not public were divided as follows: classical, 12 (9 colleges and 3 academies); professional, 3 (1 law, 1 medical, 1 theological); technical, 18 (1 agricultural, 6 commercial, 1 for the blind and the deaf and dumb, 10 of music); day and boarding, 119; parochial and charity, 29.—The statistics of the colleges of Michigan for the year 1873-'4 are contained in the following table:  INSTITUTIONS. Location. Date of organization. Denomination. No. of instructors. Students. Volumes in libraries. University of Michigan Ann Arbor 1841 None 44 1,105 30,000 [1]Hillsdale college Hillsdale [2]1855 Freewill Baptist 7 606 4,500 [1]Kalamazoo college Kalamazoo [2]l855 Baptist 9 192 2,250 [1]State agricultural college Lansing 1857 None 7 148 2,800 Adrian college Adrian 1859 Methodist 10 174 400 Olivet college Olivet [2]1859 Congregational and Pres. 14 298 5,000 Albion college Albion [2]1860 Methodist Episcopal 8 201 2,000 Hope college Holland 1866 Reformed 10 138 1,200 Young ladies' seminary and collegiate institute Monroe 1851 None 8 109 1,200 Michigan female seminary Kalamazoo 1856 Presbyterian 10 57 500 1. 1872-'3. 2. Date of reorganization under general law. The state agricultural college was established by the act of Feb. 12, 1855, and was opened for the reception of students in May, 1857. Subsequently the land (240,000 acres) received by the state for the endowment of a college of agriculture and the mechanic arts, under the act of congress of July 2, 1862, was bestowed upon this institution; 64,598 acres have been sold, producing a fund of$207,500 74, the interest of which is applied to the support of the college. An annual appropriation is also made by the legislature. Tuition is free to students from the state; those from other states pay $20 a year. The institution has a farm of 676 acres (300 under cultivation), valuable collections of plants, animals, and minerals, a chemical laboratory and apparatus, philosophical and mathematical apparatus, and a museum of mechanical inventions. The branches of study comprise logic and philosophy, elementary, analytical, and agricultural chemistry, chemical physics, meteorology, practical agriculture, botany, horticulture, landscape gardening, physiology, zoology, entomology, geology, mathematics, physics, civil engineering, and English language and literature, with French in the senior year. The regular course is four years, upon the completion of which the degree of bachelor of science is conferred. Candidates for admission are required to be at least 15 years old, and to pass an examination in the common English branches. The students labor three hours a day on the farm or in the garden, for which they receive remuneration. Besides those mentioned in the table, the faculty of instruction in 1872-'3 embraced seven others, including farmers, gardeners, steward, &c. The students were divided as follows: resident graduates, 3; seniors, 17; juniors, 22; sophomores, 24; freshmen, 52; in special courses, 14; in chemical manipulation, 8; ladies, 3. For an account of the state university, see Michigan, University of. The other institutions in the table, except the last two, admit both sexes, and have a preparatory department, besides a collegiate department embracing usually a classical and a scientific course. Adrian and Olivet colleges have normal courses, and Adrian, Hillsdale, and Hope colleges theological departments. The Detroit medical college, founded in 1868, in 1873-'4 had 17 professors and 72 students. The Detroit homœopathic college was organized in 1871, and admits both sexes. In 1874 it had 8 professors.—The census of 1870 returns 26,763 libraries, containing 2,174,744 volumes, of which 23,761, with 1,596,113 volumes, were private. Of those not private, there were 1 state, with 31,265 volumes; 423 town, city, &c., 124,207; 49 court and law, 10,359; 246 school, college, &c., 37,734; 1,731 Sabbath school, 239,471; 436 church, 81,891; and 116 circulating libraries, 53,704. The number of newspapers and periodicals was 211, issuing 19,686,978 copies annually, and having a circulation of 253,774, viz.: 16 daily, circulation 27,485; 3 tri-weekly, 5,000; 174 weekly, 192,889; 2 semi-monthly, 1,300; 16 monthly, 27,100. They were classified as follows: advertising, 2; agricultural and horticultural, 1; benevolent and secret societies, 2; commercial and financial, 3; illustrated, literary, and miscellaneous, 17; political, 167; religious, 7; technical and professional, 12. Five are printed in Dutch and 8 or 10 in German. The statistics of churches for 1870 are contained in the following table:  DENOMINATIONS. Number of organizations. Edifices. Sittings. Value of property. Baptist, regular 335 218 70,140$1,029,630 Baptist, other 31 14 3,960 36,800 Christian 38 18 4,625 51,550 Congregational 156 114 38,320 742,200 Episcopal 100 79 26,750 911,250 Evangelical Association 15 11 2,350 24,600 Friends 10 8 2,600 8,850 Jewish 5 3 1,300 51,000 Lutheran 96 81 23,150 360,650 Methodist 864 469 140,290 2,356,906 Moravian 1 1 100 800 New Jerusalem 3 3 970 12,000 Presbyterian, regular 177 132 45,925 1,069,900 Presbyterian, other 10 10 3,000 54,500 Reformed (late Dutch Reformed) 26 24 8,700 120,150 Reformed (late German Reformed) 19 10 2,800 24,750 Roman Catholic 167 148 62,991 2,037,230 Second Advent 39 21 4,840 44,500 Spiritualist 35 5 1,190 15,050 Unitarian 7 4 1,700 42,500 United Brethren in Christ 69 19 4,225 40,800 Universalist 33 20 5,550 92,200 Union 3 3 750 6,000 ⁠Total 2,239 1,415 456,226 $9,133,816 —The name Michigan appears to be derived from the Chippewa words mitchi, great, and sawgyegan, lake, and was formerly applied to both Huron and Michigan, but is now restricted to the latter lake. The discovery and early settlement of the state are due to the French missionaries and fur traders. The site of Detroit was visited as early as 1610, and in 1641 some French Jesuits reached the falls of the St. Mary. The first European settlement within the limits of the state was the mission at Sault Ste. Marie, which was founded by Father Marquette and others in 1668. Fort Michilimackinac (now Mackinaw) was established three years later. In 1701 an expedition under Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac founded Detroit. From this period until the erection of the country into a territory of the United States, Michigan made slow progress. It came under the dominion of Great Britain with other French possessions in 1763. On the expulsion of the French the conspiracy headed by the Indian chief Pontiac, and designed for the extermination of the whites, broke out and involved the settlements in bloodshed. The garrison of Michilimackinac was butchered, and Detroit underwent a long siege. On the treaty of peace which closed the revolutionary war, Michigan was not at once surrendered, and the Americans did not take possession of Detroit till 1796. At first it was included in the government of the territory northwest of the Ohio, and hence has always been amenable to the ordinance of 1787. Subsequently it formed part of the territory of Indiana. In 1805 the territory of Michigan was constituted, Gen. William Hull being its first governor. During the war of 1812-15 it was exposed to great suffering. Detroit was taken by the British in August, 1812, under circumstances which led to Gen. Hull, the American commander, being sentenced to death by a court martial; the sentence was remitted, and facts afterward divulged materially relieved him from blame. Michilimackinac was also captured, and at Frenchtown in January, 1813, a number of American prisoners were massacred by the Indians. The British were soon afterward driven out of the territory by Gen. Harrison; and in October, 1814, a truce was concluded with the Indians. The first land surveys entered upon were commenced in 1816, and in 1818 the lands were brought into market for public sale. From this period the prosperity of Michigan properly dates. In 1819 the territory was authorized by act of congress to send a delegate to that body, and the right of suffrage in this case extended to all taxable citizens. In 1819, 1821, and 1836 the Indians made important territorial cessions, and by this time all the lower peninsula and a part of the upper were freed from Indian title. In 1836 Wisconsin territory was formed from the W. portion of Michigan. This region had been annexed to the original territory of Michigan partly in 1818 and partly in 1834. Up to 1823 the legislative power was intrusted to the governor and judges; but in that year congress passed an act transferring it to a council, consisting of 9 persons selected by the president from 18 chosen by the citizens, and the judicial term was limited to four years. In 1825 the council was increased to 13 members selected as before, but two years later the law was so altered that the electors could choose their councillors without the further intervention of the president or congress. In May, 1835, a convention at Detroit formed a constitution by which Michigan claimed a strip of territory also claimed by Ohio. For a time a conflict seemed inevitable, but in June, 1836, congress passed an act admitting Michigan into the Union on condition that she relinquished her claim to the disputed territory, in place of which the region known as “the upper peninsula” was given to her. These conditions were rejected by one convention, but accepted by another in December, 1836; and in January, 1837, Michigan was admitted into the Union. By a legislative act of March 16, 1847, the seat of government was removed from Detroit to Lansing. In 1850 a new constitution was adopted, which with subsequent amendments continues in force. The number of men furnished by Michigan to the Union armies during the civil war was 90,747. The number of those that fell in battle or died of wounds or of disease in the service was 14,823, of whom 357 were commissioned officers. The payments by the state for bounties, premiums for recruits, and other war purposes amounted to$2,784,408; by counties, cities, and townships for the same purposes, $10,173,336 79; by counties for relief of soldiers' families,$3,591,248 12; total, \$16,548,992 91.—See “Michigan Geological Survey,” by Douglass Houghton (1st-4th annual reports, Detroit, 1838-'41); and “Geological Survey of Michigan: Upper Peninsula, 1869-'73,” by T. B. Brooks, Raphael Pumpelly, and Dr. C. Rominger (2 vols., with an atlas, New York, 1873).