The American Cyclopædia (1879)/Philadelphia

Edition of 1879. See also Philadelphia on Wikipedia, and the disclaimer.

PHILADELPHIA, the chief city of Pennsylvania, and the second of the United States in population, coextensive with the county of the same name, situated on the Delaware river, at the mouth of the Schuylkill, 96 m. from the Atlantic ocean, 125 m. in a direct line N. E. of Washington, and 85 m. S. W. of New York; lat. of Independence hall 39° 57' N., lon. 75° 10' W.; greatest length N. N. E. and S. S. W. 22 m., breadth from 5 to 10 m.; area, 82,603 acres, or 129.4 sq. m. The original city was included between the Delaware on the east and the Schuylkill on the west, and Vine street on the north and South street on the south, the latter street being about 3 m. N. of the junction of the two rivers. This area, a little more than 1 m. N. and S. and 2 m. E. and W., was not enlarged till 1854, when the corporation was extended over the entire county. The densely built portion comprises about 15 sq. m. between the rivers, on either side of and including the original city. The district W. of the Schuylkill is popularly known as West Philadelphia, and there are other localities which still retain the names they bore prior to annexation. Among these may be mentioned Bridesburg, Frankford, and Holmesburg in the northeast, and Manayunk (on the left bank of the Schuylkill), Germantown, and Chestnut Hill in the northwest. The last two are chiefly noted for their fine residences, the others for their manufactures. Several small streams empty into the Delaware and Schuylkill, of which the principal are Wissahickon creek, flowing through the N. W. portion of the city and emptying into the Schuylkill below Manayunk, and Frankford creek, formed by the junction of Tacony and Wingohocking creeks, emptying into the Delaware above Bridesburg. At the junction of the Schuylkill and Delaware rivers is League island, separated from the mainland on the north by a narrow passage called the “Back channel.” Above this in the Delaware are Windmill, Smith's, and Treaty islands. The surface between the rivers is in general level, with an elevation of from 30 to 300 ft. above tide. In the south, however, it falls off into alluvial flats, while in the north and in the district W. of the Schuylkill it is undulating and sometimes broken. The immediate front on the Delaware was originally a bluff of gravel 30 to 50 ft. high. It is now closely built up with lofty warehouses on narrow streets. The foundation of the city is mainly a dry, well drained gravel, making the sewerage easy and perfect. Ledges of gneiss and imperfect granite underlie the upper part of the city; Fairmount reservoir rests on a large and peculiar ledge of this sort, 96 ft. high, near the Schuylkill. The tide ascends the Delaware river above the city on the E. side, and the Schuylkill on the W. side to Fairmount dam, thus nearly surrounding it with tidal waters.—The original city was regularly laid out, the N. and S. streets, with few exceptions, being numbered from the Delaware W. to the Schuylkill, which is reached at 23d street, the first street W. of that river being 30th. These are crossed at right angles by named streets. This plan, though in general applied to the newer portions of the city, has been modified by the conformation of the land as determined by the curves of the rivers, while the suburbs in some instances were laid out upon an independent plan. A few irregular avenues, formerly highways leading to the country, stretch away from the original town plot. The buildings on the E. and W. streets are numbered toward the west, all between Front or 1st street and 2d street being between 100 and 200, and all between 2d and 3d streets between 200 and 300, and so on. On the N. and S. streets the buildings are numbered in either direction from Market street, certain streets being designated as boundaries of the hundreds. Market street, the great central street E. and W., is 100 ft. wide. Broad street, the central street N. and S., is 113 ft. in width. The other great streets are from 50 to 66 ft. wide, forming squares with sides of from 300 to 450 ft. In most cases the squares are subdivided by small streets laid out at a later period. Broad and Market streets are each continuously built up for about 4 m. The streets near the Delaware and parallel to it are all built up for greater distances than Broad street. The line of street lights from the S. W. corner of the gas mains at Darby, on the border of West Philadelphia, to the N. E. corner, near Holmesburg, is about 13 m. Chestnut street, the first E. and W. street S. of Market, is the fashionable thoroughfare. Walnut, Locust, Spruce, and Pine streets succeed each other on the south, and are occupied mainly by wealthy residents; further southward are Lombard, South, Shippen, Fitzwater, Christian, and Washington streets. N. of Market there are, first, Arch, Race, and Vine, leading and wealthy streets; next Callowhill, Spring Garden, and Green. The banking and financial centre is in 3d and Chestnut streets; the dry goods and other jobbing trade in 3d and Market; the commission houses in Front and Chestnut; the shipping and provision trade on Water street and Delaware avenue; the newspaper offices on 3d, Chestnut, and 7th streets.—The style of building has always been principally of brick, the vicinity producing very superior pressed brick at a low cost. Numbers of brick buildings remain standing and in good preservation which were erected before 1760; those built since 1800 have marble facings and marble steps, and are remarkably uniform in height and general character. All are conspicuous for neatness and durability; even the cheaply built blocks and suburban streets intended for laborers' residences are distinguished for neatness, and differ externally from those of the wealthier class more in size than in anything else. Tenement houses are almost unknown. This is largely due to the building and loan associations, monetary institutions peculiar to Philadelphia. For the best residences marble and brown stone have been much used. An improved style of cheaper dwellings, recently introduced, may be seen in Madison square and St. Alban's place near the Schuylkill, just S. of the original city. Here two rows of houses face each other across a wide street, through the middle of which stretches a park adorned with flowers and fountains, with ample room on either side for a walk or play ground for children. These streets are not designed for carriages, alleys in the rear of the houses being provided for teams. The houses are two stories high, and in St. Alban's place are surmounted by a Mansard roof. The chief business streets are now occupied with a large number of costly and superior buildings of marble, granite, iron, and sandstone. The custom house and sub-treasury, formerly the second United States bank, stands on the S. side of Chestnut street, between 4th and 5th streets. It is of marble, and was completed in 1824, at a cost of $500,000; it has two fronts, one on Chestnut and the other on Library street, each ornamented with eight fluted Doric columns supporting a heavy entablature. The United States mint, of brick with marble facings, is in Chestnut above 13th street; it is of the Ionic order, and was erected in 1829. The post office, of white marble, is just above the custom house. A new building for this use is in course of construction at the corner of 9th and Chestnut streets, which will also be occupied by the United States courts and other government offices. It is to be of granite in the French renaissance style, four stories high, with an iron dome. The length is to be 428 ft., depth 152 ft., height to top of main cornice 90 ft., to top of dome 184 ft. The merchants' exchange is a fine structure of marble, with an ornamental front on Dock street, a semicircular colonnade of eight pillars, and a spacious rotunda within, on that side. The commercial exchange, built in 1870 of brown stone in the Roman-Gothic style, is in 2d street S. of Chestnut, on the site of the “slate-roof house,” once the residence of William Penn. In Broad street, N. of Pine, is horticultural hall, a handsome building, in which the Pennsylvania horticultural society holds its annual fairs.

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Public Ledger Building.

The six-story publishing house of J. B. Lippincott and co., in Market street above 7th, and the building erected by Mr. George W. Childs for the “Public Ledger,” on the corner of 6th and Chestnut streets, of brown stone, five stories high with Mansard roof, are noteworthy structures. The building of the American Sunday school union, erected in 1854, is in Chestnut between 11th and 12th streets. Here are the headquarters of the mission work of the union, and here its publication business is carried on. Nearly opposite the mint is the handsome new building of the Presbyterian board of publication. Near each other in 4th street, not far from Walnut, are the offices of the Pennsylvania and the Philadelphia and Reading railroad companies. The former, built in 187l-'2, is a spacious edifice of brick, with an elegant front of Quincy granite. The latter is a handsome building, enlarged and improved in 1871. In 3d street, near the former, is the spacious building of the Lehigh Valley railroad company.

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Masonic Temple.

The new masonic temple is on the corner of Broad and Filbert streets; it is built of granite in the Norman style, and is 150 ft. broad by 250 ft. in length, the sides being 90 ft. above the pavement, with a tower at one corner 230 ft. high. The temple is richly ornamented, and contains several large halls finished in various styles of architecture, Corinthian, Doric, Egyptian, Ionic, oriental, &c. The Union League club house, at the corner of Broad and Sansom streets, was built in 1865; it is of brick in the French renaissance style, with façades of granite, brick, and brown stone. Its cost, including furniture, was about $200,000. The club was formed toward the close of 1862 for the purpose of aiding the federal cause in the civil war. The Reform club has a fine marble front building in Chestnut near 16th street, handsomely furnished. The Girard national bank (built in 1795-'8 for the first United States bank) in 3d street, the building of the Fidelity insurance, trust, and safe deposit company and the farmers' and mechanics' national bank in Chestnut street, of marble; the new building of the Provident life and trust company in 4th street, of iron; the tradesmen's national bank in 3d street, the Philadelphia national bank and the Pennsylvania life insurance and trust company's building in Chestnut street, of granite; and the bank of North America in Chestnut street, of brown stone, are handsome structures. The bank of North America, chartered by congress in 1781, was the first bank established in the United States. The largest hotel is the Continental, in Chestnut street, with fronts also on 9th and Sansom streets. It was opened in 1860, is six stories high, and covers 41,536 sq. ft. The Chestnut street front is of Albert and Pictou sandstone, and the others of fine pressed brick. On the opposite side of Chestnut street is the Girard house, and in Broad street near Chestnut the La Pierre house; both are fine architectural structures, built in part of brown stone. The Colonnade hotel, recently erected on the corner of 15th and Chestnut streets, is six stories high with a Mansard roof. Other hotels are the Merchants', in 4th street; the Bingham house, in Market street; the St. Cloud, in Arch street; the Irving house, in Walnut street; the American, Guy's, the Markoe house, the St. Lawrence, and the Washington house, in Chestnut street. Very many hotels exist in various parts of the city with the signs, arms, and insignia of revolutionary times. The “Old Swedes'” church, built in 1700, is the oldest church edifice in the city. It is of brick, and stands in an ancient cemetery, fronting on Swanson street near Christian. In the cemetery is the tomb of Wilson the ornithologist. Christ church (Episcopal), in 2d street near Market, begun in 1727, is still a fine building and in perfect preservation. The spire is 196 ft. high, and contains a chime of bells cast in London in 1754. The graveyard, on the corner of 5th and Arch streets, contains the remains of Franklin. St. Peter's church (Episcopal), in 3d and Pine streets, built in 1758-'61, has a tower containing a chime of bells. In the churchyard is a monument to Commodore Decatur. The Friends' meeting house, secluded in a broad graveyard, in Arch street near 3d, deserves mention; it was built in 1808. Among Episcopal churches, St. Mark's, in the later or English Gothic style, in 16th and Locust streets; the church of the Holy Trinity, in the Norman style, in 19th and Walnut streets; and the church of the Incarnation, in Broad and Jefferson streets, are fine specimens of architecture. The West Arch street Presbyterian church is a very handsome and spacious structure in the Roman-Corinthian style; the West Spruce street, the Calvary, the Washington square, and the second (21st and Walnut streets) Presbyterian churches are fine buildings in various styles. The Roman Catholic cathedral of St. Peter and St. Paul, in 18th street opposite Logan square, erected in 1846-'64, is an imposing specimen of Roman-Corinthian architecture; it is of red sandstone, 136 ft. front by 216 ft. deep, and is crowned by a dome 210 ft. high. The façade consists of a classic pediment upheld by four lofty Corinthian columns, flanked by pilastered wings. The interior is cruciform, and is adorned with frescoes. At the intersection of Broad and Arch streets are the Arch street Methodist Episcopal church, of white marble; the first Baptist church, of brown stone; and a Lutheran church, of green serpentine. The central Congregational church, in 18th and Green streets, is a handsome building in the late Norman style. The Beth-Eden Baptist church, in Broad and Spruce streets, is a fine structure of green serpentine. The Broad street synagogue is a handsome though peculiar building of the Saracenic order. The most prominent objects of historical interest in the city are the Penn treaty monument and Carpenters' and Independence halls. The monument is at Kensington (formerly Shackamaxon), and occupies the site of the elm tree, blown down in 1810, under which, according to tradition, William Penn made his famous treaty with the Indians; it is of stone and insignificant in appearance. Carpenters' hall, in Chestnut between 3d and 4th streets, is the place of meeting of the first continental congress in 1774. It was built in 1770 by the carpenters' company, which still owns it. It is open to visitors, and has been fitted up to represent its appearance at the time of the revolution, and its walls are hung with mementoes of that period.

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Independence Hall.

Independence hall signifies generally the whole of the old state house, but more specifically the large eastern room of the lower floor. It was built in l732-'5. Here the second continental congress adopted the declaration of independence. In this hall Lafayette had a great public reception in 1824, and in 1830 a movement was commenced to restore it to its original condition, and to set it apart “for dignified purposes only.” The portraits of the great men of the revolution were procured, and historical relics were placed there for permanent preservation. In 1854 the consolidated city took a renewed interest in it; the old independence bell was taken from the tower and placed in the hall, a large number of portraits from the Peale gallery were hung on the walls, and a keeper was appointed. It is open to visitors. Independence hall is the centre of a line of ancient buildings, called State House row, those on either side of it being occupied by courts and city and county offices. They are on the S. side of Chestnut street, between 5th and 6th, fronting on a broad paved sidewalk, which is shaded with trees and contains a statue of Washington. The United States arsenal at Frankford is devoted to the manufacture of fixed ammunition, all the cartridges for the army being made here. The grounds cover 62 acres, are beautifully situated and laid out, and are well kept. On Gray's Ferry road, near the naval asylum, is another United States arsenal, devoted to the manufacture of army clothing.—There are five small public squares in the original city: Logan square, at 18th and Race streets; Franklin square, at 6th and Race streets; Independence square, fronting on Walnut street in the rear of Independence hall; Washington square, at 6th and Walnut streets, diagonally opposite Independence square; and Rittenhouse square, at 18th and Walnut streets. These are laid out as parks and shaded with trees. Franklin square contains a large fountain.

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New City Hall.

On what was formerly Penn square, at Broad and Market streets, the new city hall is in course of construction. It is to be 470 ft. from E. to W. and 486½ ft. from N. to S., containing 520 rooms, and covering an area, exclusive of the courtyard, of nearly 4½ acres. It is to consist of four stories, together 100 ft. high. From the N. front will rise a tower surmounted by a dome, the apex of which will be nearly 300 ft. above the pavement. The exterior walls are to be of white marble, and those facing the courtyard of light blue marble. The cost will be about $7,000,000. There are about half a dozen other small parks in different sections of the city. The great park of Philadelphia, and one of the largest in the world, is Fairmount park, embracing 2,740 acres. It extends along both banks of the Schuylkill for more than 7 m., and along both banks of the Wissahickon for more than 6 m., commencing at Fairmount, an elevation on the Schuylkill, from which the park derives its name, about 1½ m. above the original city, and extending to Chestnut hill on the Wissahickon, a total distance of nearly 14 m. It possesses much natural beauty, being well wooded and having a great variety of surface. The park was established mainly for the purpose of securing a supply of pure water for the city by preventing the occupation and contamination of the streams by factories.

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Main Exhibition Building.

In the S. W. portion of this park, W. of the Schuylkill river, is to be held from May 10 to Nov. 10, 1876, the international exhibition in celebration of the centennial anniversary of American independence. The buildings, now in course of erection, consist of the main exhibition building, the art gallery, the machinery building, horticultural building, and agricultural building. The art gallery and the horticultural building are intended to be permanent; the others are temporary. The main building is 1,880 ft. long from E. to W. and 464 ft. wide, covering 20 acres. It is for the most part of one story, the main cornice on the outside being 45 ft. above the ground, and the interior height 70 ft. At the centres of the sides are projections 416 ft. long, and at the centres of the ends other projections 216 ft. long. In these projections are the main entrances, which are provided with arcades on the ground floor, and central façades extending to the height of 90 ft. On the corners of the building are towers 75 ft. high, and between these and the central projection there is a lower roof with the cornice 24 ft. above the ground. The roof over the central part for 184 ft. square has been raised above the surrounding portion, and at the corners of this elevated portion are towers 48 ft. square and 120 ft. high. The building is divided into sections of various size, which are assigned to the different states and nations. The foundations consist of piers of masonry. The superstructure is composed of wrought-iron columns, which support wrought-iron roof trusses. The sides for the height of 7 ft. from the ground are finished with hrickwork in panels between the columns, and above this with glazed sash.

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Fine Art Gallery.

The art gallery is situated on the “Lansdowne plateau,” N. of the main building, 116 ft. above the Schuylkill. The structure is in the modern renaissance style, and is built of granite, glass, and iron. It is 365 ft. long, 210 wide, and 59 high, above a spacious basement 12 ft. high, and is surmounted by a dome rising 150 ft. above the ground. The dome terminates in a colossal bell, from which the figure of America rises, and at each corner of its base stands a colossal figure.

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Agricultural Hall.  Horticultural Hall.  Memorial Hall or Art Gallery.  Main Exhibition Building.  Machinery Building.


The machinery building is W. of the main exhibition building, and consists of a main hall 360 by 1,402 ft., and an annex on the S. side 208 by 210 ft., the whole covering 12.82 acres. The horticultural building, situated on the plateau N. of the art gallery, is in the Moresque style of architecture of the 12th century, and is built principally of iron and glass; it is 383 ft. long, 193 wide, and 72 high to the top of the lantern. The main floor is occupied by the central conservatory, 230 by 80 ft. and 55 ft. high, surmounted by a lantern 170 ft. long, 20 wide, and 14 high. On the N. and S. sides of the central conservatory are four forcing rooms, each 100 by 30 ft., covered with curved roofs of iron and glass. The agricultural building is N. of the horticultural building, and is to be constructed of wood and glass. It consists of a nave crossed by three transepts, both nave and transepts being composed of Gothic arches. The nave is 820 ft. long, 125 wide, and 75 high from the floor to the point of the arch. The central transept is of the same height, and has a breadth of 100 ft., the two end transepts being 70 ft. high and 80 ft. wide. The ground plan of the entire structure is a parallelogram 540 by 820 ft., covering more than 10 acres. The entire cost of the five buildings is to be about $4,500,000.—There are many cemeteries in the city, beautifully laid out, ornamented with trees, flowers, and shrubbery, and containing numerous handsome monuments. The principal one is Laurel Hill, established in 1835, occupying a slope on the E. bank of the Schuylkill, adjoining the upper part of Fairmount park; it embraces nearly 200 acres, and is divided into three sections, called North, South, and Central Laurel Hill. West Laurel Hill cemetery, incorporated in 1869, is situated a short distance further up on the W. bank of the Schuylkill, within the limits of Montgomery co.; it contains 110 acres. Other cemeteries are Mount Peace and Mount Vernon, near Laurel Hill; Glenwood, Odd Fellows', and Monument, S. E. of these; and Cathedral (Roman Catholic), Mount Moriah, and Woodlands, in West Philadelphia, S. of Fairmount park, the last being situated on the bank of the Schuylkill.—The growth of Philadelphia has been steady and rapid. The population of the city and county, according to the United States censuses, has been as follows:

 Censuses.  City. County.

1790 28,522  54,391 
1800 41,220  81,009 
1810 53,722  111,210 
1820 63,802  137,097 
1830 80,458  188,797 
1840 93,665  258,037 
1850 121,376  408,762 
1860 565,529  565,529 
1870  674,022   674,022 

The total population in 1870 includes 22,147 colored persons. There were 320,379 males and 353,643 females, 490,398 natives and 183,624 foreigners, of whom 96,698 were born in Ireland, 50,746 in Germany, 22,034 in England, 4,175 in Scotland, 2,479 in France, 1,791 in Switzerland, and 1,488 in British America; 26,705 persons who could not read, and 42,565 who could not write, of whom 13,996 were natives and 28,569 foreigners, 5,012 were from 10 to 21 years old, and 37,553 were 21 and upward. There were 89,388 males and 93,433 females between 5 and 18 years of age, 138,526 males between 18 and 45, and 173,676 21 years old and upward, of whom 149,976 were citizens of the United States and 23,700 unnaturalized foreigners. The number of families was 127,746, with an average of 5.28 persons to a family; of dwellings, 112,366, with an average of 6.01 persons to a dwelling. The most densely populated ward averaged 8.42 persons to a dwelling. Philadelphia is conspicuous for the number and neatness of its dwellings, the great extent of the city in various directions rendering land comparatively cheap, and bringing the possession of a home within the means of artisans and others of limited income. It had nearly twice as many dwellings in 1870 as New York, and averaged less than one half as many persons to a dwelling. Of the 217,685 persons 10 years old and upward returned as engaged in all occupations, 3,690 were employed in agriculture, 63,869 in professional and personal services, 43,960 in trade and transportation, and 106,166 in manufactures and mechanical industries. In 1873 the number of marriages was 7,891, or 10.52 in every 1,000 of the inhabitants; of births, 18,702, or 24.93 in 1,000; of deaths, 16,736, or 20.29 in 1,000. In 1874 there were 6,639 marriages, 19,387 births, and 15,238 deaths.—Horse cars run frequently to various quarters of the city, to accommodate local travel. The latest statistics of the horse railroads are as follows: number of companies, 17; miles of road laid, 214; cost of road and equipment, $7,202,068; number of passengers carried during the year, 63,771,195; gross earnings, $4,622,351; expenses, $3,356,436. Several fine bridges, both for railroad and ordinary travel, span the Schuylkill, and six steam ferries (fare five cents) ply across the Delaware to the New Jersey shore, one to Gloucester and the others to Camden. Philadelphia is connected with New York and the west by the Pennsylvania railroad; with different points in the state of Pennsylvania by the Philadelphia and Reading, the Germantown and Norristown, the North Pennsylvania, and the West Chester and Philadelphia railroads, and the Philadelphia and Erie division of the Pennsylvania railroad; and with the south by the Philadelphia, Wilmington, and Baltimore, and the Philadelphia and Baltimore Central railroads. By ferry to Camden, N. J., communication is had with the Camden and Amboy division of the Pennsylvania railroad, for South Amboy; with the Camden and Atlantic railroad, for Atlantic City; with the Camden, Mt. Holly, and Pemberton railroad, for Long Branch; and with the West Jersey railroad, for Bridgeton, Salem, and Cape May. There are numerous regular lines of steamers to southern and other coastwise ports, a fortnightly line to Havana and New Orleans, a weekly line to Liverpool, and a weekly line to Antwerp. The bar in the river below the city has 19 ft. at low and 25 ft. at high water. The wharf front of the city has extraordinary depth of water, there being 57 ft. at low water at the pier heads for half a mile, and not less than 25 ft. for 3 m. of the river front. The occupied commercial front is 7 m. on the Delaware and 4 m. on the Schuylkill. A strong current setting on the W. shore of the Delaware at both flood and ebb tide prevents encroachments on the harbor by deposit. The rise of tide is but 6 ft., and floods or overflows are unknown. Just below the city, on Mud island, is Fort Mifflin, commanding the river; and on Tinicum island, 11 m. below, are the quarantine station and hospital. The United States navy yard, embracing 18 acres on the Delaware about a mile below Market street, is to be sold, and League island, comprising 600 acres, having been presented to the government by the city, is to be occupied as a naval station.—The customs district of which Philadelphia is the port includes the city of Camden, N. J., and all the shores of the Delaware and its tributaries within the state of Pennsylvania. The value of its foreign commerce for the five years ending June 30, 1874, is shown in the following table:

 YEARS.  Imports. Exports.

1870  $14,500,797   $16,934,610 
1871 17,728,006  17,920 283 
1872 20,383,853  21,016,750 
1873 25,393,150  24,239,357 
1874 26,447,037  33,121,337 

The exports of petroleum, breadstuffs, and provisions for the four calendar years last past have been as follows:

 YEARS.  PETROLEUM.  Breadstuffs.   Provisions. 

Refined. Crude.

 Quantity, gallons.  Value.  Quantity, gallons.  Value. Value. Value.
1871 51,352,996  $12,512,109  3,833,979 $673,906   $4,148,595  $341,382 
1872 47,981,845 11,209,583  7,216,058  1,192,090  4,100,979  282,954 
1873 80,166,187 14,967,786  4,837,394 566,448  5,556,846  1,137,832 
1874 70,810,711 9,366,517  1,614,116 145,939  8,159,371   3,372,719 

In 1874 there were also exported 1,729,862 gallons of naphtha and benzine, valued at $135,607; 61,043 tons of coal, $302,684; 14,298,118 lbs. of cotton, $2,107,981; hides, $656,647; engines and machinery, $998,567; leather and manufactures of, $315,568; 18,267,882 Ibs. of oilcake, $374,353; 9,126,657 lbs. of tallow, $738,704; 9,878,159 lbs. of leaf tobacco, $997,715; cooperage, $886,897; besides numerous minor articles. The number of entrances in the foreign trade during the year was 1,008, tonnage 621,641; clearances, 1,105, tonnage 647,965; entrances in the coastwise trade, 1,528, tonnage 664,456; clearances, 1,653, tonnage 812,409. The number of vessels belonging in the district on June 30, 1874, was 3,040, tonnage 394,760, viz.: 934 sailing vessels, 146,953 tons; 265 steamers, 72,206 tons; 1,810 canal boats, 170,567 tons; and 31 barges, 5,034 tons. There were built during the year ending on that date 120 vessels, tonnage 31,198, viz.: 26 sailing vessels, 7,610 tons; 33 steamers, 16,368 tons; 59 canal boats, 6,948 tons; and 2 barges, 272 tons. Of the steamers, 11, tonnage 14,383, were iron. The coal trade of the port is immense, vast quantities being brought here for shipment to coastwise ports. Kensington, about 2 m. N. of Market street, is the chief seat of ship building in the city, but the business is extensively carried on at Chester and other points on the Delaware within the customs district.—Philadelphia is preëminent for its manufactures, for which its proximity to the iron and coal fields of Pennsylvania affords great facilities. In 1870, according to the United States census, it was the first city in the Union in the number of manufacturing establishments and of hands employed, in the amount of capital invested and of wages paid, and in the value of materials used; it was surpassed only by New York in the value of manufactured products. The number of establishments was 8,184, with 1,611 steam engines of 40,528 horse power, and 59 water wheels of 2,696 horse power; number of hands, 137,496, of whom 95,421 were males above 16, 32,687 females above 15, and 9,388 youth; capital, $174,016,674; wages paid during the year, $58,780,130; value of materials used, $180,325,713; of products, $322,004,517. The statistics of the principal branches are contained in the following table:

Value of
 materials used. 
Value of

Bleaching and dyeing 75  709  $819,000   $5,834,424   $6,927,053 
Bookbinding 70  1,734   1,557,557  1,763,432  3,362,395 
Boots and shoes 200  6,864  3,269,302  3,908,227  9,231,848 
Brass founding and finishing 40  482  661,985  391,432  969,844 
Bread and other bakery products  531  1,619  1,287,625  2,132,832  3,781,189 
Brick 89  3,080  2,294,500  701,034  3,112,906 
Carpets 236  4,991  2,997,650  5,612,198  9,798,019 
Carriages and wagons 115  1,603  1,838,097  667,808  2,281,361 
Cars, freight and passenger 1,500  1,581,000  1,405,545  2,385,469 
Chromos and lithographs 33  448  572,000  187,378  739,184 
Cigars 391  1,680  963,140  888,622  2,112,521 
Clothing 589   13,933  8,047,493  9,741,219  17,757,932 
Coal oil, refined 15  207  792,000  1,082,979  1,404,582 
Coffee and spices, ground 16  171  377,800  1,019,035  1,299,235 
Confectionery 116  803  845,250  942,228  2,014,711 
Cooperage 73  695  391,515  458,595  1,111,340 
Cordage and twine 191  508,700  423,852  921,570 
Cotton goods, not specified 66  6,108  6,042,440  4,803,076  8,272,698 
Dentists' materials 322  797,000  140,250  512,500 
Drugs and chemicals 73  1,270  4,383,200  4,386,082  7,028,711 
Fertilizers 12  341  1,405,000  791,756  1,485,452 
Flouring-mill products 23  195  624,500  3,781,003  4,822,228 
Frames, mirror and picture 33  565  528,850  396,981  1,034,853 
Furniture 237  2,898  2,782,555  1,800,409  5,130,858 
Furs, dressed 44  457  628,350  497,718  959,888 
Galvanizing 111  169,000  466,296  639,526 
Gas 1,143  7,900,000  1,141,557  3,004,375 
Gas lamps and fixtures 919  1,134,894  423,447  1,171,783 
Glassware 1,174  1,038,016  403,672  1,365,643 
Glass, window 250  190,000  103,620  245,000 
Grease and tallow 46  128,175  432,581  587,706 
Hats and caps 51  1,125  564,575  720,547  1,688,306 
Heating apparatus 27  342  511,580  413,487  1,197,066 
Hosiery 72  4,702  2,871,900  2,821,995  5,164,405 
Iron, forged and rolled 11  1,046  1,493,500  1,863,994  2,970,492 
Iron, anchors 36  15,000  102,000  135,000 
Iron, bolts, nuts, &c. 17  770  900,100  697,330  1,392,132 
Iron, pipes, wrought 859  3,100,000  1,978,025  3,305,760 
Iron, railing, wrought 36  22,500  11,259  47,278 
Iron, ship building and engines 352  750,000  187,000  472,000 
Iron, castings, not specified 63  2,551  3,844,424  2,539,551  5,236,459 
Iron, stoves, heaters, &c. 980  2,270,000  583,026  1,678,532 
Jewelry 53  683  894,850  660,796  1,583,741 
Lead pipe 37  600,000  470,000  590,000 
Leather, tanned 23  337  1,003,172  1,121,950  1,651,643 
Leather, curried 32  205  354,528  1,037,580  1,294,288 
Leather, morocco, tanned, &c. 24  995  1,324,778  2,028,480  3,190,041 
Liquors, distilled 28  182  1,066,000  861,220  1,940,255 
Liquors, malt 57  648  3,325,850  1,900,525  3,380,618 
Lumber, planed 11  251  443,300  424,040  708,175 
Lumber, sawed 10  197  932,890  799,952  1,116,946 
Machinery, not specified 107  3,623  5,470,716  2,038,674  5,841,886 
Machinery, cotton and woollen 26  853  1,583,800  506,850  1,436,449 
Machinery, locomotive 2,178  2,275,000  1,799,832  3a,490,279 
Machinery, engines and boilers 30  1,098  1,582,241  1,136,816  2,450,224 
Malt 149  875,000  786,836  1,063,500 
Meat, cured and packed 13  200  1,861,000  2,994,550  4,300,802 
Meat, packed, pork 97  801,000  1,591,340  2,028,800 
Molasses and sugar, refined 14  1,154  5,494,000  23,809,762  25,949,876 
Oil, animal 53  382,000  750,150  1,049,000 
Oil, linseed 100  520,000  461,275  673,490 
Paints 23  429  1,750,250  1,736,941  2,958,608 
Paper 11  691  2,242,500  1,567,915  7,487,911 
Paper hangings 397  933,000  549,450  884,500 
Patent medicines 43  365  1,526,084  2,988,302  6,101,592 
Perfumery and fancy soaps 19  283  526,500  261,216  768,345 
Printing of cloths 673  1,495,000  4,673,960  5,713,584 
Printing and publishing 76  3,115  7,708,500  3,866,722  10,107,451 
Printing, job 76  734  714,800  362,482  1,041,714 
Saddlery and harness 87  614  588,600  509,577  1,135,453 
Sash, doors, and blinds 45  751  1,047,835  812,555  1,656,438 
Saws 619  760,500  466,250  1,037,700 
Sewing machines 325  721,500  188,928  685,500 
Ship building and repairing 32  648  962,800  361,608  1,085,177 
Silk, not specified 817  1,254,000  720,874  1,332,900 
Silk, sewing and twist 119  175,000  198,150  300,000 
Soap and candles 52  594  1,372,200  1,311,129  2,490,941 
Steel, cast 523  1,450,000  1,030,273  1,858,250 
Steel, springs 147  1,161,000  355,709  687,763 
Stereotyping and electrotyping 10  555  937,000  148,950  792,200 
Stone and earthenware 19  535  722,000  330,722  877,550 
Tin, copper, and sheet-iron ware  219  1,284  328,643  875,994  2,096,543 
Umbrellas and canes 22  1,348  1,013,982  1,050,300  2,044,726 
Upholstery 77  671  564,638  536,757  1,222,094 
Wood, turned and carved 55  567  218,502  186,969  707,452 
Woollen goods 123  7,528  8,101,050  11,173,978  17,943,826 
Worsted goods 29  3,724  3,149,600  4,858,286  7,762,369 

There are 29 national banks, the condition of which on Oct. 2, 1874, was as follows:

Loans and discounts $47,893,261 13
Overdrafts 21,519 97
United States bonds, to secure circulation 13,668,200 00
United States bonds, to secure deposits 225,000 00
United States bonds, on hand 321,300 00
Other stocks, bonds, and mortgages 1,573,250 81
Due from redeeming and reserve agents 4,935,566 48
Due from other national banks 2,595,314 03
Due from state banks and bankers 669,605 20
Real estate, furniture and fixtures 2,328,346 88
Current expenses 556,196 81
Premiums paid 188,139 21
Checks and other cash items 388,918 56
Exchanges for clearing house 6,723,983 25
Bills of other national banks 1,229,638 00
Bills of state banks 819 00
Fractional currency 134,880 55
Specie 372,049 67
Legal-tender notes 5,376,459 00
United States certificates of deposit for legal-tender notes  3,790,000 00
Deposit with United States treasurer 698,968 00

Total  $93,691,416 55
Capital stock paid in $16,935,000 00
Surplus fund 7,169,154 13
Undivided profits 1,922,460 62
National bank notes outstanding 11,722,725 00
State bank notes outstanding 42,491 00
Dividends unpaid 47,654 28
Individual deposits 46,734,450 55
United States deposits 150,792 51
Due to national banks 6,749,007 16
Due to state banks and bankers 2,215,049 26
Bills payable 2,632 04

Total $93,691,416 55

There are 12 state banks of deposit and discount; aggregate capital about $1,000,000; deposits $2,500,000; resources more than $4,000,000. Business between the banks is transacted through a clearing house. There are 5 safe deposit and trust companies (aggregate capital $5,925,000), 6 savings banks, 30 fire insurance, 8 fire and marine insurance, 14 life insurance, and 2 accident insurance companies, besides numerous agencies of companies domiciled elsewhere. The building and loan associations, of which there are about 600, are savings institutions, and have about $20,000,000 invested in dwellings and mortgages. There are several important commercial bodies, including the board of trade, chamber of commerce, commercial exchange, &c. The United States mint was established in 1792. The coinage for the year ending June 30, 1874, amounted to $29,842,390, viz.: gold, $26,467,330; silver, $2,963,135; other, $411,925. The entire coinage from the opening of the mint to the above date was $584,813,091 64, viz.: gold, $462,517,266; silver, $109,904,012 10; other, $12,391,813 54.—Nearly half the area of the city is still farm land, and in the N. and W. portions farming and market gardening are carried on. The number of acres of land in farms, according to the census of 1870, was 40,304, of which 37,518 were improved; cash value of farms, $18,945,000; estimated value of farm products, $2,231,366.—Philadelphia is divided into 31 wards. The chief executive officer is the mayor, elected by the people for three years. The legislative authority is vested in a select council of 31 members (one from each ward), elected for three years, and a common council of 68 members, elected for two years. There are also a city comptroller, city treasurer, city solicitor, and receiver of taxes. Boards of commissioners have the management of Fairmount park, the public buildings, the gas works, the city trusts, the health department, &c. The chief county officers are three commissioners, the sheriff, recorder of deeds, register of wills, district attorney, and coroner, elected by the people for three years. The United States courts for the eastern district of Pennsylvania meet here, and terms of the state supreme court are held here. There are four courts of common pleas, each consisting of three judges, which have coördinate jurisdiction in civil matters within the city. These judges designate one or more of their number to hold the courts of oyer and terminer and of quarter sessions, which have criminal jurisdiction only. There are also an orphans' court of three judges, with probate powers, and magistrates' courts. Philadelphia sends 8 senators and 38 representatives to the state legislature, and 5 members to congress. The police force is under command of a chief assisted by four captains, and consists of 1,200 men. There is a paid fire department, under the control of a board of seven commissioners. On Jan. 1, 1875, the force consisted of a chief engineer, 5 assistant engineers, and 389 men, organized into 27 steam engine companies and 5 hook and ladder companies. There is a fire alarm telegraph, but the number of alarm boxes is inadequate. The number of fires during 1874 was 592, with a loss of property estimated at $754,688. The amount appropriated for the use of the department during that year was $536,400. The city is supplied with water from the Schuylkill and Delaware rivers, chiefly from the former. There are seven works: the Fairmount, on the Schuylkill, at the lower extremity of the park, the Schuylkill, the Spring Garden, the Delaware, the Belmont, the Roxborough, and the Frankford. These works in 1874 pumped 14,533,425,097 gallons, an average of 42,111,730 gallons per day. At the close of that year there were 628 m. 4,507 ft. of pipe, 5,119 fire plugs, and 68 public drinking fountains, of which 61 were erected by the fountain society and 7 by the society for prevention of cruelty to animals. The water department is in charge of a chief engineer. Gas works were first constructed on a general scale in 1835; they were principally conducted by the authorities of the original city, and were very successful. In 1855 and 1858 the works owned by the municipalities were consolidated with those of the city proper; and in 1859 the works of two companies, previously independent, were purchased, bringing the whole service under the control of the city as its property. Great care was taken in the original establishment of the city gas works to secure the best improvements then effected in the manufacture of coal gas in European cities, and they have from the outset furnished gas cheaper than in any other American city. Philadelphia has a large number of markets, some of which are of large size and superior character. The city owns some of them, but most have been built by incorporated companies. The assessed value of property in 1875 was $575,283,968, of which $520,594,067 was city property, assessed at $1 90 per $100; $33,985,746 suburban, assessed at $1 2623; and $20,704,155 farm, assessed at $0 95. The tax produced by these rates amounted to $10,518,462 86. The true value of property in 1874 was estimated at $1,025,785,831. The receipts into the city treasury during that year amounted to $15,535,918 15, of which $10,755,726 42 were derived from taxes, $2,135,950 from loans, and $2,644,241 73 from miscellaneous sources. The payments amounted to $16,148,099 59. The principal items were as follows: warrants of previous years, $2,378,042 72; loans, $3,036,714 21; interest on city loans, $3,654,466 58; interest on indorsed warrants, $116,945 07; judgments, executions, &c., $122,723 70; sinking funds, $681,987; city commissioners, $353,507 76; markets, &c., $102,151 99; city solicitor, $179,416 54; fire commission, $299,567 23; highways, $1,118,096 12; board of health, $200,209 13; lighting the city, $332,676 06; police, $632,704 28; guardians of poor, $355,169 26; schools, $859,781 17; water, $416,386 29; park commission, $108,168 57; public buildings, $618,293 76. The funded debt on Jan. 1, 1875, was $55,272,132 40; debt guaranteed by the city for gas loans, $4,999,400; floating debt, $4,018,931 25; total, $64,290,463 65. The sinking fund amounted to $9,047,556 50, and the cash in the treasury to $1,976,019 60. The entire assets of the city, including public buildings, public grounds, &c., were estimated at $77,624,025 10. The post office department, besides the main office, embraces 20 stations or sub-offices, designated by letters of the alphabet, and also known locally by separate names. There are 880 letter boxes and 207 carriers, 157 attached to the main office and 50 to the stations at West Philadelphia, Port Richmond, Frankford, Germantown, Chestnut Hill, and Manayunk, the area covered by the carrier service being 6723 sq. m. The other 14 stations have only a superintendent, viz.: Tacony, Holmesburg, Torresdale, Byberry, Bustleton, Somerton, Oxford Church, Olney, Crescentville, Fox Chase, Milestown, Verree's Mills, Wheat Sheaf, and Falls of Schuylkill.—The benevolent institutions of Philadelphia are numerous. The Pennsylvania hospital, founded in 1752, has spacious buildings occupying the square bounded by 8th, 9th, Spruce, and Pine streets. It is supported almost entirely by voluntary contributions, and since its origin has expended more than $1,200,000 in the support of the sick and injured. A separate insane department (Pennsylvania hospital for the insane) was established in 1841; it has fine buildings and grounds in West Philadelphia. The Friends' asylum for the insane at Frankford, opened in 1817, has large and beautiful grounds and accommodations for about 100 patients, who are chiefly supported by their own means, but in some cases receive assistance from the funds of the asylum. There are more than 40 hospitals, dispensaries, and lying-in asylums, among which may be mentioned the hospital of the university of Pennsylvania and the Philadelphia and Presbyterian hospitals, in West Philadelphia; the Wills ophthalmic hospital, in Race street opposite Logan square; the children's hospital, in 22d street near Locust; the German hospital, in Corinthian avenue on the corner of Girard avenue; the Jewish hospital, in West Philadelphia; the charity hospital of Philadelphia, in Hamilton street; the Episcopal hospital, in Front and Huntingdon streets; St. Joseph's (Roman Catholic) hospital, in Girard avenue near 16th street; the homœopathic hospital, connected with the Hahnemann medical college; the woman's hospital, connected with the woman's medical college; the Philadelphia dispensary, in S. 5th street; the southern dispensary, in Bainbridge street; the northern dispensary, in Fairmount avenue; and the Preston retreat (lying-in charity), in Hamilton and 20th streets. The Blockley almshouse is in West Philadelphia near the university. The buildings, four in number, are each 500 ft. long and enclose a square. A well cultivated farm of 130 acres surrounds them. This institution embraces a department for the poor, a hospital, an insane asylum, and a children's asylum. The average number of inmates is more than 3,500, of whom about 1,000 are insane. It is supported by the city at an annual expense of more than $300,000. The Pennsylvania institution for the deaf and dumb, in Broad and Pine streets, was opened in 1820. There are a few paying pupils, and some are supported by the states of Delaware and New Jersey, but the greater number are maintained at the expense of Pennsylvania. The Pennsylvania institution for the instruction of the blind is similarly supported; it was founded in 1833, and is at the corner of 20th and Race streets. The United States naval asylum, built in 1832, is on Gray's Ferry road below South street. The main building has a marble front, 380 ft. long, 150 ft. deep, and three stories high, approached by a flight of marble steps. The grounds are large and finely ornamented. About 130 superannuated sailors are maintained here. In the rear of the asylum is a large hospital for the care of sick and wounded sailors. Among other benevolent institutions and associations, besides numerous lodges of freemasons, odd fellows, and similar societies, may be mentioned the Presbyterian home for women, in 58th street and Greenway avenue; the educational home for boys, in Greenway avenue near 49th street; St. John's male orphan asylum, in Westminster avenue near 49th street; the industrial home for blind women, in 39th and Locust streets; the Franklin reformatory home for inebriates, in Locust street; the Magdalen society, in 21st street near Race; St. Joseph's female orphan asylum, in Spruce street; the Penn widows' asylum, in Belgrade street near Otis; the colored orphans' shelter, in West Philadelphia; the home for aged and infirm colored persons, in Belmont and Girard avenues; and the house of the Good Shepherd (for the reformation of unfortunate females), in 22d street near Walnut. The eastern penitentiary, a state institution, completed in 1829, embraces an entire square, fronting on Fairmount avenue between 22d and 23d streets. It is the only prison in the country conducted on the separate system. It has a library of more than 8,000 volumes. (See Pennsylvania, and Prisons.) The county prison, first occupied in 1835, is on the Passayunk road below Reed street, and consists of a massive centre building, with wings flanked by heavy octangular towers, beyond which are walls terminating in bastions. It is in the Tudor style of English Gothic; the walls are of Quincy granite. With the exception of the women's department, it is overcrowded. The house of correction, recently erected at Holmesburg on the Delaware, at a cost of more than $1,000,000, is intended for the confinement of paupers able to work and of persons convicted of misdemeanors. It is of brown stone, and has accommodations for 1,500 inmates. The house of refuge, opposite Girard college, was incorporated in 1826, for “the employment of the idle, instruction of the ignorant, and reformation of the depraved.” It has separate apartments for boys and girls. The number of inmates on Sept. 30, 1874, was 597.—The public schools are under the charge of a board of public education, consisting of 31 members, one from each ward, with a subordinate board of directors for each ward. The following are the statistics for 1874:

Number of schools (2 high, 60 grammar, 29 consolidated, 121 secondary, and 212 primary)  424
Average number of months taught 10
Number of male teachers 78
Number of female teachers 1,698
Number of pupils registered 133,734
Number of pupils belonging to the schools at the close of the year 92,036
Average attendance 79,565
Amount paid for salaries of teachers $991,475 89
Amount paid for lots, houses, additions, and repairs $497,639 04
Books, stationery, fuel, and contingencies $527,269 43
Total amount expended for school purposes $2,016,378 36
Valuation of school property  $4,837,336 00

The high schools are the central high school for boys and the girls' normal school. The former affords instruction in Latin, German, and the higher English branches, and confers degrees. The latter is designed especially to prepare teachers for the public schools. The number of instructors in the high school in 1874 was 17; pupils at beginning of year, 570; admitted during year, 300; left, 259; remaining at close, 611; average attendance, 614. The number of instructors in the normal school was 13; pupils at beginning of year, 537; admitted during year, 250; left, 182; remaining at close, 605; average attendance, 582. There are also evening schools during the autumn and winter months for those unable or too old to attend the day schools. The number in 1874 was 41, with 215 teachers and 16,681 pupils. The system of public schools of Philadelphia was established on a free basis in 1818. It is supported by a city tax. The school houses are large, well built edifices, distributed so as to give access to them by the entire population. Textbooks are furnished by the city.

AmCyc Philadelphia - Girard College.jpg

Girard College.

—The Girard college for orphans was founded by Stephen Girard. The grounds are about 2 m. N. W. of Independence hall, bordering N. E. on Ridge avenue, and are surrounded by a high stone wall; they embrace upward of 40 acres. The main building, completed in 1847, is a splendid specimen of Corinthian architecture, of white marble. The roof commands a wide view of the city. In a room in the building, known as Girard's room, are preserved the books and personal effects of the founder. (See Girard,

) The grounds contain a monument to the graduates of the college who fell in the civil war. This institution is supported by the income of the residue of Girard's estate after the payment of certain specific legacies. The residuary estate is managed by the board of directors of city trusts, appointed by the judges of the court of common pleas, and on Dec. 31, 1874, amounted to $6,104,862 22. The total receipts during 1874, including $38,487 37 on hand at the beginning of the year, were $798,399 10; expenditures, $738,985 89, of which $174,073 40 were on account of the college and $564,912 49 on account of the estate, including investments, erection of buildings, &c. The institution can accommodate 550 pupils, and is now full. The number admitted from the opening of the college in 1848 to the close of 1874 was 1,796. The beneficiaries are white male orphans born in Pennsylvania, who are admitted between 6 and 10 years of age, and are maintained and educated in the institution until 18, unless sooner apprenticed to some trade or occupation. The course of study, arranged for 8½ years, embraces the English and scientific branches, besides French and Spanish. There are 24 teachers and 20 other officers. The polytechnic college of the state of Pennsylvania is situated in Market near 17th street. It was incorporated in 1853. This institution affords instruction in mechanics, engineering, geology, mineralogy, chemistry, mathematics, architecture, drawing, modern languages, bookkeeping, &c.

AmCyc Philadelphia - University of Pennsylvania.jpg

University of Pennsylvania.

The university of Pennsylvania occupies fine buildings recently erected near 36th and Locust streets in West Philadelphia, in two squares of over 16 acres, comprising a hall for the departments of arts, science, and law, the medical hall, and the university hospital. The site of the hospital was presented by the city on condition of the maintenance of 53 free beds for the indigent sick. The state granted $200,000 for its establishment, and $350,000 was obtained by subscriptions. The university had its origin in a charitable school established by subscription in 1745. The institution was founded as an academy in 1749, and incorporated in 1755 as “the college, academy, and charitable school of Philadelphia.” In 1779 it was erected into a university, at which time the college separated from it, remaining distinct until 1791, when the present organization of the university was established. The medical department was founded in 1765, and the law department in 1789. The department of arts affords instruction in the usual collegiate branches, and the department of science in chemistry, mineralogy, geology, mining, metallurgy and assaying, engineering, drawing, and architecture. The regular course in each department is four years, but special and partial courses are allowed. Instruction in the medical department is given by the regular faculty and by clinical lecturers in the hospital during the autumn and winter. Instruction is also given during the spring and summer in certain collateral branches of science, by an auxiliary faculty organized in 1865. The regular course in this department and in the law department is two years. In 1874-'5 the number of instructors in the department of arts was 13, and of students 99, of whom 11 were pursuing partial courses; in the department of science there were 18 instructors and 116 students, of whom 16 were pursuing special and partial courses; in the law department, 5 professors and 59 students; in the charity schools, one for boys and one for girls, giving instruction in the English branches, 3 teachers and 136 pupils. In the medical department the regular faculty numbered 11, the auxiliary faculty 5, and the hospital faculty 12; total, deducting repetitions, 24. The number of students in the regular course was 371; in the auxiliary course, 101; total, deducting repetitions, 390. The whole number of professors in the university, deducting repetitions, was 41; of other instructors, 15; of students, 800. The number of volumes in the libraries was 18,000. In the department of science there are a collection of American fossils and a mineralogical cabinet, containing 10,000 specimens. The medical department also has a valuable museum and cabinets. The Wagner free institute of science, founded by Prof. William Wagner, occupies a fine building on the corner of 17th street and Montgomery avenue. It was incorporated and opened in 1855; a supplementary act of incorporation was passed in 1864, and in that year the building now occupied was completed. It has a library of 16,000 volumes, and its cabinets of minerals, geological specimens, shells, dried plants, &c., are very valuable. There are six professors, and two courses of lectures, attended by from 500 to 1,000 persons, are annually delivered on chemistry, geology and palæontology, anatomy and physiology, astronomy, natural philosophy, and elocution and oratory. Instruction is also given in civil, mining, and steam engineering. The divinity school of the Protestant Episcopal church, in 39th and Walnut streets, West Philadelphia, was established in 1862. In 1874-'5 it had 6 professors, 36 students, and a library of 6,000 volumes. The theological seminary of the Evangelical Lutheran church, in Franklin street, was founded in 1864. In 1874-'5 it had 6 professors and a library of 2,500 volumes. The whole number of graduates was 103. There are three medical colleges, besides the medical department of the university, two dental colleges, and a college of pharmacy. These are the Jefferson medical college, in 10th street, between Chestnut and Walnut; the Hahnemann medical college of Philadelphia, in Filbert near llth street, the oldest homœopathic college in the world; the woman's medical college of Pennsylvania, in College avenue near N. 22d street; the Pennsylvania college of dental surgery, in 10th and Arch streets; the Philadelphia dental college, in N. 10th street; and the Philadelphia college of pharmacy, in 10th street, near Race. The latest statistics of these institutions appear in the following table:

No. of
No. of

Jefferson medical college 1825  12  483 
Hahnemann medical college  1848  19  130 
Woman's medical college 1850  14  50 
Pa. college of dental surgery  1856  59 
Phil. dental college 1863  78 
Phil. college of pharmacy 1821  251 

—The Franklin institute occupies a plain and substantial building in 7th street near Chestnut, containing a fine lecture room; it was incorporated in 1824, and is designed to promote manufactures and the mechanic and useful arts. It has a library, and maintains courses of lectures on different branches of science. The school of design for women in Penn square, founded in 1848, affords gratuitous instruction. The American philosophical society, in S. 5th street, was incorporated in 1780. It has a cabinet of coins and relics, and a library containing 15,000 pamphlets besides bound volumes. The academy of natural sciences, founded in 1812 and incorporated in 1817, has a valuable library and very extensive collections in zoölogy, ornithology, geology, mineralogy, palæontology, conchology, ethnology, archæology, and botany. Gratuitous instruction is given in natural science. Admission is obtained to the collection upon payment of a small fee. The building now occupied is on the corner of Broad and Sansom streets. A new and extensive building of serpentine stone with trimmings of Ohio sandstone, in the collegiate Gothic style, is in course of erection on the corner of 19th and Race streets. The academy of fine arts, in Broad and Cherry streets, was founded in 1805 and incorporated in 1807; it has very valuable art collections, and holds annual exhibitions. The building has a front of 100 ft. on Broad street and a depth of 258 ft. on Cherry street; it is of a modified Gothic style, and is profusely ornamented. The Handel and Haydn society, in Arch street, is chiefly devoted to music, but possesses a library of standard works. The historical society of Pennsylvania, in Spruce street, was incorporated in 1826; its library, containing besides bound volumes 40,000 pamphlets and 20,000 folios of manuscripts, is particularly rich in local and family histories. The numismatic and antiquarian society of Philadelphia, in Walnut street, has a library and a collection of 6,700 coins, medals, &c., chiefly ancient, and 300 antiques and medallions; it was incorporated in 1858. The American Baptist historical society, in Arch street, has a library containing besides bound volumes 16,000 pamphlets and 453 manuscripts. The Athenæum of Philadelphia occupies an imposing building in 6th and Adelphi streets; it has a fine library and a reading room supplied with the principal American and foreign newspapers and periodicals. The library company of Philadelphia was formed in 1731 by Benjamin Franklin and others; its library, commonly known as the Philadelphia library, is next to the mercantile the largest in the city; the building, in S. 5th and Library streets, was erected in 1789. The mercantile library, organized in 1821, belongs to shareholders, and is accessible to others upon the payment, of annual dues; its reading room is supplied with the principal American and foreign newspapers and periodicals; the building, in 10th street above Chestnut, has a frontage of 74 ft. and a depth of 184 ft., and is one of the finest buildings for library purposes in the country. Other libraries are the apprentices' (free), established in 1821, in Arch street; that of the Catholic Philopatrian literary institute, in Locust street; the Dial library, in S. 5th street; that of the German society of Pennsylvania, in S. 7th street; of the library association of Friends, in Race near 15th street; of the mechanics' institute of Southwark, in S. 5th street; of St. Philip's literary institute, in Queen street; of the law association of Philadelphia, at 6th and Chestnut streets; of the Moyamensing literary institute, at S. llth and Catharine streets; of the Spring Garden institute, at Broad and Spring Garden streets; and the Southwark library, in S. 2d street. The latest statistics of the libraries above mentioned are as follows:

LIBRARIES.  No. of vols. 

Mercantile library 112,000 
Library company of Philadelphia 100,000 
Academy of natural sciences 26,000 
Apprentices' library 20,000 
Athenæum of Philadelphia 20,000 
American philosophical society 15,000 
German society of Pennsylvania [1]15,000 
Historical society of Pennsylvania 15,000 
Pennsylvania hospital 13,000 
Southwark library 8,000 
Law association of Philadelphia 8,000 
Library association of Friends 7,814 
Franklin institute 7,500 
American Baptist historical society 7,315 
Spring Garden institute 5,728 
Mechanics' institute of Southwark 3,650 
Numismatic and antiquarian society of Phila.  3,500 
Moyamensing literary institute 2,900 
Handel and Haydn society 2,500 
Catholic Philopatrian literary institute 1,500 
Dial library 1,500 
St. Philip's literary institute 1,500 
  1. 8,000 German and 7,000 English.

—The Walnut street theatre, at 9th and Walnut streets, seating 1,500, is chiefly devoted to the standard drama; it has a front of 90 ft. and a depth of 146 ft., presenting from Walnut street a façade in marble of two stories, with a range of Doric columns. The principal other theatres are the Arch street, in Arch near 6th street, with a marble front, seating 1,800; the Chestnut street, in Chestnut near 12th street, one of the finest theatres in the country, seating 2,500; the American, in Chestnut near 10th street, seating 2,800; and the Grand Central, in Walnut near 8th street. The museum is in 9th and Arch streets. Minstrel entertainments are given in the Arch street opera house, in Arch near 10th street, and in the Eleventh street opera house, in 11th near Chestnut street. The academy of music, in Broad and Locust streets, seating 3,000, was opened in 1857; it has a front of 140 ft. and a depth of 238 ft. The exterior is of fine pressed brick, with handsome brown stone trimmings, the façade being in the Byzantine style. The interior is elaborately ornamented. It is chiefly devoted to operas and classic concerts. Classic music may also be heard in the musical fund hall, Locust near 9th street; in Concert hall, Chestnut near 12th street; and in Horticultural hall.—There are 105 newspapers and periodicals, viz.: 17 daily (3 German), 2 tri-weekly, 1 semi-weekly, 40 weekly (5 German), 6 semi-monthly, 37 monthly (1 German), and 2 quarterly.—The number of church organizations according to the census of 1870 was 388, with 424 edifices, 302,239 sittings, and $18,330,667 property. The statistics of the principal denominations are as follows:

DENOMINATIONS.  Organizations.   Sittings. 

Baptist 43  32,800 
Episcopal 68  44,061 
Evangelical Association 2,950 
Lutheran 27  17,800 
Methodist 63  44,300 
Presbyterian 87  66,378 
Reformed (late German Reformed)  13  10,050 
Roman Catholic 37   50,000 

The city directory enumerates 488 churches and missions, viz.: 61 Baptist, 3 Congregational, 2 Disciples of Christ, 90 Episcopal, 7 Evangelical Association, 14 Friends' (7 Hicksite and 7 Orthodox), 11 Jewish, 26 Lutheran (14 English and 12 German), 91 Methodist Episcopal (several colored), 1 Methodist Protestant, 4 Moravian, 77 Presbyterian, 4 Reformed (late Dutch Reformed), 15 Reformed (late German Reformed), 11 Reformed Presbyterian, 42 Roman Catholic, 2 Second Advent, 3 Swedenborgian, 2 Unitarian, 11 United Presbyterian, 3 Universalist, and 8 miscellaneous.—Philadelphia was founded by William Penn, as his first act in taking possession of the grant of a province by Charles II. He sent out a body of colonists in August, 1681, but the town was not laid out till near the close of 1682, Penn arriving meanwhile. The name was selected more because of its intrinsic significance than from historical regard to the city of that name in Asia Minor. The Swedes had settled in considerable numbers on both shores of the Delaware below the site of the city before Penn came, and several proprietors of Swedish origin at this time held small tracts on the present site of the city by titles derived from the Dutch and English governors of New York. None of these had serious difficulty with the proprietor of the province. Emigration to the colony was very rapid at the outset, 23 ships arriving in 1682. In 1682 and 1683, 357 houses were built. In 1683 and 1684 a large emigration arrived from Holland and Germany as well as from England and Wales. They were nearly all Friends, and the city continued to be almost exclusively occupied and controlled by Friends for half a century after it was founded. The population in 1684 was estimated at 2,500. In 1683 the first legislative assembly held in Philadelphia was convened, the first sheriff was appointed, and the first grand jury summoned. A court house was not completed till 1707. Penn presented Philadelphia with a city charter, Oct. 28, 1701. It prospered in a high degree, and was the most important city in the country during the colonial period and for more than a quarter of a century subsequent to the declaration of independence. In 1719 Andrew Bradford began to publish the “American Weekly Mercury.” In 1741 the city was divided into 10 wards, which divisions were retained till 1854. In 1744 the population was estimated at 13,000. The first continental congress met in Philadelphia in Carpenters' hall on Sept. 5, 1774, and continued in session till Oct. 26, 1774. The second assembled in the state house on May 10, 1775, and on July 4, 1776, adopted the declaration of independence. Other sessions of congress were commenced here on March 4, 1777, and July 2, 1778. The British forces occupied the city from September, 1777, to June, 1778. A census was then taken by Gen. Cornwallis, and there were found to be 21,767 inhabitants and 5,470 houses; but the people were then much scattered. The battle of Germantown, Oct. 4, 1777, was fought within the present chartered limits of the city, 6 m. N. W. of the centre of the old city. Philadelphia was the capital of the colony and state of Pennsylvania till 1799, except during the British occupation. From 1790 to 1800 it was the seat of government of the United States. Its foreign commerce and general trade increased rapidly after the revolution, the domestic exports rising to $7,000,000 in 1793, and to $17,500,000 in 1796. In 1806 the export of foreign goods rose to $13,809,389, and the total export to $31,384,091. At the war of 1812 this commerce almost wholly ceased; in 1816 business and speculation revived, but the results were not fortunate, and direct external trade never recovered its former importance. Previous to 1839 the banking capital of Philadelphia was large, and for most of the period down to 1836 it was the monetary centre of the country. The first bank of the United States, established by act of congress in 1791, with a capital of $10,000,000, was located here; and the second bank of the United States was established here in 1816 with a capital of $35,000,000. The failure of the bank under its state charter in 1839, and the loss of its large capital, greatly weakened the financial strength of the city, and the monetary centre was permanently transferred to New York. The revulsion of 1837, and the subsequent financial depression, were severely felt, the recovery from them not being apparent till 1844. In 1793 the yellow fever made terrible ravages, nearly decimating the population, and driving great numbers into the country; and again in 1798 it was epidemic. In 1832 the Asiatic cholera was very destructive, the victims numbering 770. In 1835 riots were incited against the colored population, and in 1838 Pennsylvania hall, belonging to the anti-slavery societies and occupied by their meetings, was burned by a mob. In 1844 the districts of Kensington and Southwark were the scene of riots arising from the hostility between the Roman Catholics and “Native Americans;” the disturbance was protracted over a considerable time, two Catholic churches were burned, the military were called out, and some lives were lost. During the civil war Philadelphia was active in the cause of the Union, and furnished a large number of men to the federal armies.