The American Cyclopædia (1879)/Salem (Oregon)
SALEM, a city and the county seat of Marion co., Oregon, capital of the state, beautifully situated on the E. bank of the Willamette river, and on the Oregon and California railroad, 50 m. S. of Portland; pop. in 1870, 1,139; in 1875, about 6,000. The river is navigable to this point during three fourths of the year, and steamers run regularly to Portland. The city is surrounded by a fertile prairie. Mill creek enters the river at this point, and its rapid fall affords good water power. There are flouring mills, tanneries, machine shops, founderies, a woollen mill, a linseed oil mill, and other manufactories. The city has two private banks, one daily and three weekly newspapers, and eight churches. It is the seat of Willamette university and of three state institutions, the penitentiary, deaf-mute school, and institute for the blind. It was settled in 1834, incorporated in 1853, and became the state capital in 1860.