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SALEM, a S. W. county of New Jersey, bordered W. by the Delaware river, drained by Salem, Alloway's, and other creeks, and traversed by several railroads; area, 540 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 23,940. The surface is level and the soil a fertile sandy loam. Marl abounds, and iron ore is found. The chief productions in 1870 were 259,777 bushels of wheat, 756,342 of Indian corn, 164,678 of oats, 350,955 of Irish and 220,574 of sweet potatoes, 67,496 of grass seed, 39,454 tons of hay, 11,658 lbs. of wool, and 373,849 of butter. There were 5,155 horses, 630 mules and asses, 7,352 milch cows, 9,946 other cattle, 6,668 sheep, and 9,836 swine; 5 manufactories of carriages and wagons, 3 of window glass, 4 of machinery, 2 of paper, 10 of saddlery and harness, 3 founderies, 5 brick yards, 4 tanneries, 14 flour mills, and 19 saw mills. Capital, Salem.