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SOUTH CAROLINA, one of the original states of the American Union, lying between lat. 32° and 35° 10' N., and lon. 78° 25' and 83° 19' W. It has the form of an irregular triangle, with the coast line for its base, and Georgia and North Carolina for its converging sides. Its extreme length, from Little River inlet on the east to Chattooga river on the west, is about 275 m., and its greatest breadth from the mouth of Savannah river on the south to the North Carolina line on the north, about 210 m.; area, about 34,000 sq. m. It is bounded N. and N. E. by North Carolina, S. E. by the Atlantic ocean, and S. W. by Georgia, from which it is separated by the Savannah river and its upper branches.

AmCyc South Carolina - seal.jpg

State Seal of South Carolina.

It is divided into 32 counties (called districts prior to 1868), viz.: Abbeville, Aiken, Anderson, Barnwell, Beaufort, Charleston, Chester, Chesterfield, Clarendon, Colleton, Darlington, Edgefield, Fairfield, Georgetown, Greenville, Horry, Kershaw, Lancaster, Laurens, Lexington, Marion, Marlborough, Newberry, Oconee, Orangeburg, Pickens, Richland, Spartanburg, Sumter, Union, Williamsburg, and York. The chief city is Charleston, which had 48,956 inhabitants in 1870 and 56,540 in 1875. Columbia (pop. in 1870, 9,298; in 1875, 14,449) is the capital. The chief towns having, according to the census of 1870, from 1,000 to 3,000 inhabitants are Abbeville, Greenville, Aiken, Georgetown, Newberry, Sumter, Beaufort, Anderson, Pickensville, Winnsborough, Spartanburg, and Camden. Other less important towns are Rock Hill, Cheraw, Cokesbury, Conwayborough, Edgefield, Greenwood, Lancaster, Marion, Pendleton, Walterboro, and Walhalla. The population of the state at decennial periods since 1790, according to the federal census, and in 1875 as reported by the state census, and its rank in the Union, have been as follows:

 YEARS.  White.  Free colored.  Slave.  Aggregate.   Rank. 

1790  140,178  1,801   107,094  240,078
1800 196,255 3,185  146,151 345,501
1810 214,196 4,554  196,365 415,115
1820 237,440 6,826  258,475 502,741
1830 257,868 7,921  315,401 581,185
1840 259,084 8,276  327,038 594,398 11 
1850 274,568 8,960  384,984 668,507 14 
1860 291,300 9,914  402,406 703,708 18 
1870 289,667 415,814  ...... 705,606 22 
1875 350,721 572,726  ...... 928,447 .. 

Included in the aggregate of 1860 were 88 Indians, and in that of 1870 124 Indians and 1 Chinaman. Of the total population in 1870, 343,902 were males and 361,704 females; 697,532 were of native and 8,074 of foreign birth. Of the natives, 678,708 were born in the state, 8,282 in North Carolina, 3,254 in Virginia and West Virginia, 2,874 in Georgia, and 945 in New York; 246,066 persons born in the state were living in other parts of the United States. Of the foreigners, 3,262 were born in Ireland, 2,754 in Germany, 617 in England, and 310 in Scotland. The density of population was 20.75 to a square mile. There were 151,105 families, with an average of 4.67 persons to each, and 143,485 dwellings, with an average of 4.92 to each. There were 233,915 persons from 5 to 18 years of age, 120,150 males from 18 to 45, and 146,614 male citizens 21 years old and upward. The increase of population from 1860 to 1870 was 27 per cent. There were 265,892 persons 10 years old and over who could not read, and 290,379 unable to write; of the latter, 55,167 were white and 235,164 colored, 137,246 males and 153,085 females, and 179,145 were 21 years old and over. The number of paupers supported during the year ending June 1, 1870, was 2,343, at a cost of $224,805. Of the total number (2,071) receiving support at the end of the year, 965 were white and 1,106 colored. The number of persons convicted of crime during the year was 1,399. Of the 732 persons in prison at the end of the year, 148 were white and 584 colored. The state contained 451 blind, 212 deaf and dumb, 333 insane, and 465 idiotic. Of the total population (503,763) 10 years old and over, there were engaged in all occupations 263,301; in agriculture, 206,654, of whom 163,528 were laborers and 42,546 farmers and planters; in professional and personal services, 34,383, including 553 clergymen, 16,214 domestic servants, 10,654 laborers not specified, 387 lawyers, 789 physicians and surgeons, and 1,074 teachers not specified; in trade and transportation, 8,470; and in manufactures and mechanical and mining industries, 13,794. The total number of deaths from all causes was 7,380, being 1.05 per cent. of the entire population; from consumption, 657, there being 11.2 deaths from all causes to one from this disease. There were 255 deaths from cholera infantum, 273 from measles, 709 from pneumonia (or 10.4 deaths from all causes to one from this disease), 367 from intermittent and remittent fevers, 515 from enteric fever, and 537 from diarrhœa, dysentery, and enteritis.—The topography of the state resembles that of North Carolina and Georgia. The coast for about 100 m. inward is flat and sandy, with a light soil, covered by pitch-pine forests, traversed by sluggish streams, and interspersed with numerous swamps. This portion of the state is of alluvial formation. Beyond this plain is a belt of low sand hills called the middle country, which is moderately productive. West of the middle country is a belt called the ridge, where the land rises abruptly, and thence continues to ascend, exhibiting beautiful alternations of hill and dale, till it terminates at the extreme N. W. part of the state in the Blue Ridge, the highest peak of which in South Carolina is Table mountain, 4,000 ft. above the Atlantic. The coast line extends from Little River inlet, in a S. W. direction, to the mouth of the Savannah river, about 200 m. The coast presents numerous inlets, bays, shallow sounds and lagoons, and a few good harbors. Winyaw bay, the easternmost harbor of any note, is 14 m. long and about 2 m. wide. Georgetown is at the head of this bay, to which vessels of light draught ascend. Passing S. W., Bull's bay is next in order, then Charleston harbor, St. Helena sound, and Beaufort harbor, or Port Royal entrance, besides a number of small inlets. Beaufort harbor, which admits vessels of 24 ft. draught, is one of the best in the southern states. Stono inlet, a few miles S. of Charleston, admits vessels drawing 9 or 10 ft. of water. St. Helena sound is a spacious opening 10 m. long and 3 m. broad. Small islands skirt the S. portion of the coast, shut off from the mainland by narrow channels, which afford inland steamboat communication between Charleston and Savannah. These islands are low and flat, and produce sea island cotton. Rice is also here produced in large quantities, and tropical fruits flourish.—Savannah river, which forms the boundary between South Carolina and Georgia, is formed by the influence of the Tugaloo and Keowee, which rise in the mountains near the line of North Carolina and unite at Anderson, in the W. part of South Carolina; flowing thence in a S. S. E. direction 450 m., it empties into the Atlantic 18 m. below Savannah, near lat. 32° N. and lon. 81° W. The Savannah is navigable for large vessels to the city of Savannah, and for steamers of 150 tons to Augusta, 230 m. further, and by means of a canal round the falls at Augusta smaller boats ascend 150 m. further. The other principal rivers are the Great Pedee, the Santee, and the Edisto. The first, which rises in the Blue Ridge, flows E. S. E. and S. S. E. through North Carolina, where it is called the Yadkin, passes through the E. portion of South Carolina, receives the Black river and Lynch's creek on the right, and the Little Pedee and Waccamaw on the left, and empties into Winyaw bay. It is navigable for steamboats to Cheraw, a distance of about 150 m., above which navigation is obstructed by a fall. The Santee is formed by the junction of the Congaree and Wateree, which by their tributaries rise in the Blue Ridge (W. part of North Carolina), flow S., and unite in the central part of South Carolina; the stream thus formed, flowing upward of 120 m. in a S. E. direction, reaches the Atlantic by two mouths, North and South Santee, a few miles S. W. of Winyaw bay. The principal tributaries of the Congaree are the Saluda and Broad rivers. The Santee is navigable for its entire length, and its tributaries, the Wateree and Congaree, by aid of canals, are navigable for small boats nearly to the mountains, about 200 or 300 m. from the ocean. The Edisto and Combahee rise in the interior, and flowing S. reach the Atlantic near the southernmost point of the state. These streams are navigable for very small boats. The state is remarkably well watered, and almost every county abounds in good water power.—Geologically South Carolina is nearly equally divided between the primitive and the alluvial formations; the former prevailing in the upper portion, the latter along the coast. Among the beautiful granites of the state, the porphyritic granite of Camden and Buffalo creek, and the red granite near Columbia, are conspicuous. Of the syenites, those found in Abbeville, Fairfield, and Lexington counties are the most beautiful. The first resembles the Quincy granite, and the last is remarkable for its white feldspar, contrasting so strikingly with the black crystals of hornblende. White and variegated marbles are found in Spartanburg and Laurens. Gneiss, sufficiently slaty to be split into flagging stones, has been discovered in Pickens and in the lower part of York. Porcelain earth abounds through the primary regions, wherever the feldspathic granite is found in a state of disintegration. Soapstone of fine quality exists in several localities. Red and yellow ochres abound in Chesterfield co. Limestone is most abundant in Laurens and Spartanburg, while the white feldspathic sandstone, buhrstone, and flagstone are found in many of the upper counties. Manganese occurs in nearly every county N. of Columbia. Coal is found in Chesterfield and Marlboro. The gold-bearing rocks of the Atlantic slope extend through the N. W. corner of South Carolina, the metal being found in Abbeville, Edgefield, Lancaster, Pickens, Spartanburg, Union, and York counties. There are mines in Abbeville, Edgefield, and Union. The first mint deposits from South Carolina were $3,500 in 1827; the aggregate of such deposits to June 30, 1874, was $1,379,077. In several cases large nuggets of pure gold have been found, and gold-bearing veins have been successfully worked; but the largest quantities of gold have been obtained from surface washings. Copper occurs in some counties, while iron ore is found in the N. part of the state, above the King's mountain range, but no extensive efforts have been made to develop the deposits. Lead is found in Pickens co., bismuth in Chesterfield and Lancaster, and black lead in Spartanburg and Pickens. The limestones of the Blue Ridge may be used as fertilizers, while the richest deposits of bone phosphates on the continent, if not in the world, have recently been discovered in Charleston co., near the Ashley and Cooper rivers. These deposits underlie many square miles of surface continuously, at a depth ranging from 6 in. to 12 ft., and exist in such quantities that from 600 to 1,000 tons underlie each acre. In fact, it seems there are no rocks in this section which are not phosphates. In 1870 it was officially estimated that $2,500,000 capital was invested in the business of converting the phosphates into forms available to agriculturists. The production of crude phosphates from 1867 to 1872 was valued at about $1,700,000.—Among the natural curiosities, the most prominent is Table mountain, 20 m. from Greenville, 4,000 ft. above the sea, which looms up perpendicularly on one of its faces 1,100 ft. above the surrounding country. “Cæsar's Head,” a rock projection resembling a human skull, near Table mountain, is a place of summer resort. Glenn's Spring, the waters of which are im- pregnated with magnesia and sulphur, is a watering place of some note in Spartanburg. The falls of the Saluda among the mountains have a descent of from 300 to 400 ft., and the region presents much grand and picturesque scenery. Aiken has since the war become a place of resort for consumptives and other invalids, on account of its comparatively dry and equable climate. The mean temperature of Charleston (lat. 32° 45', lon. 79° 57') is: spring, 65.8°; summer, 80.6; autumn, 68.1°; winter, 51.7°; year, 66.6°. The average rainfall is: spring, 8.60 inches; summer, 18.68; autumn, 11.61; winter, 9.40; year, 48.29. Prevailing wind, S. W. The following tables exhibit the result of observations taken at Aiken, Aiken co., 120 m. N. W. of Charleston, in lat. 33° 30', lon. 81° 40', and Gowdeysville, Union co., during the year 1870:


PLACES.  Spring.   Summer.   Autumn.   Winter.  Year.

Aiken  63.4°   79.1°   68.7°   46.4°   63.1½° 
Gowdeysville   62.6  79.7  63.5  44.3  62.5
Aiken  11.97  13.89  7.34  7.16  40.36
Gowdeysville  15.05  10.67  7.55  14.00  47.27

The maximum temperature at Aiken was 96° in July; minimum, 10 in December and 15° in February; maximum at Gowdeysville, 94° in July and August; minimum, 7° in December and 16° in February. Yellow fever occasionally occurs as an epidemic at Charleston.—South Carolina has very little waste land, and produces cotton, rice, tobacco, maize, oats, rye, barley, sweet and Irish potatoes, peas, beans, &c. The soil comprises six varieties: 1, tide swamp, appropriated to the culture of rice; 2, inland swamp, to rice, cotton, corn, peas, &c.; 3, salt marsh, to long cotton; 4, oak and pine, to long cotton, corn, potatoes, &c.; 5, oak and hickory, to short cotton, corn, &c.; 6, pine barren, to fruits, vegetables, &c. The pine lands, embracing about 6,000,000 acres, are perhaps the most neglected section of the state. The swamps, covering 2,000 sq. m. (1,280,000 acres), of inexhaustible fertility, are capable of drainage. The soil of much the larger portion of the state is clay, which, except in the immediate vicinity of the ocean, is almost the universal substratum. In the N. part of the state, particularly that portion bordering on the Blue Ridge, corn, wheat, oats, and barley flourish, while cotton is liable to suffer from early frosts. This region is also well adapted to the production of apples, pears, peaches, plums, grapes, and other small fruits. The central and lower portions of the state are better fitted to the culture of cotton, corn, and rice. Strawberries are abundant. The English walnut and Spanish mavson chestnut bear good crops, beginning to produce six or seven years after planting. On the sea islands grow the live oak and palmetto. In 1870 the state contained in farms 3,010,539 acres of improved land, 6,443,851 of woodland, and 2,650,890 of other unimproved land. The total number of farms was 51,889; average size, 233 acres. There were 10,286 containing from 3 to 10 acres, 9,146 from 10 to 20, 16,415 from 20 to 50, 8,148 from 50 to 100, 7,112 from 100 to 500, 465 from 500 to 1,000, and 418 of 1,000 and over. The cash value of farms was $44,808,763; of farming implements and machinery, $2,282,946; total amount of wages paid during the year, including value of board, $7,404,297; total (estimated) value of all farm productions, including betterments and additions to stock, $41,909,402; orchard products, $47,960; produce of market gardens, $127,459; forest products, $167,253; home manufactures, $312,191; animals slaughtered or sold for slaughter, $2,507,149; value of live stock, $12,443,510. There were 44,105 horses, 41,327 mules and asses, 98,693 milch cows, 17,685 working oxen, 132,925 other cattle, 124,594 sheep, and 395,999 swine. The productions were 317,700 bushels of spring and 465,910 of winter wheat, 36,165 of rye, 7,614,207 of Indian corn, 613,593 of oats, 4,752 of barley, 460,378 of peas and beans, 83,252 of Irish and 1,342,165 of sweet potatoes, 5,830 of clover seed, 10,665 tons of hay, 224,500 bales of cotton, 32,304,825 lbs. of rice, 34,805 of tobacco, 1,461,980 of butter, 194,253 of honey, 11,404 of wax, 1,055 hogsheads of cane sugar, 13,179 gallons of wine, 241,815 of milk sold, 436,882 of cane and 183,585 of sorghum molasses. The production of cotton in 1873-'4 amounted to 438,194 bales of 468 lbs. each, including 8,759 bales of sea island.—The total number of manufacturing establishments in 1870 was 1,584, having 210 steam engines of 4,537 horse power, and 700 water wheels of 10,395 horse power, and employing 8,141 hands, of whom 7,099 were males above 16, 578 females above 15, and 464 youth. The capital invested amounted to $5,400,41 8; wages paid during the year, $1,543,715; value of materials used, $5,855,736; of products, $9,858,981. The leading industries were as follows:

No. of
Capital. Value of

Blacksmithing 147  345  $39,960  $151,329 
Bread, crackers, &c 17  71  36,200  142,045 
Carpentering and building 64  431  286,135  313,350 
Carriages and wagons 77  288  81,820  186,114 
Cotton goods 12  1,123   1,337,000   1,529,937 
Fertilizers 825  350,000  425,000 
Flouring and grist-mill products 624  1,138  835,814  3,180,247 
Iron, forged and rolled 15  20,000  22,190 
Iron, castings 85  64,251  119,750 
Leather, tanned 34  72  24,125  85,778 
Leather, curried 31  55  16,075  80,247 
Lumber, planed 19  19,000  35,000 
Lumber, sawed 227  1,212  583,425  1,197,005 
Machinery 21  415  443,702  496,425 
Oil, cotton-seed 24  40,000  27,200 
Paper, printing 43  109,000  79,000 
Printing and publishing, newspapers 11  164  102,550  237,930 
Printing, job 18  27,000  19,225 
Ship building, repairing, and ship materials  27  26,800  45,650 
Tar and turpentine 54  876  205,425  774,077 
Tin, copper, and sheet-iron ware 20  63  37,650  87,294 
Wool-carding and cloth-dressing 12  40  17,200  21,259 
Woollen goods 13  8,700  13,200 

The number of cotton mills in 1874 was 18, having 1,238 looms and 62,872 spindles; the amount of cotton used during the year was 7,134,558 lbs. South Carolina has three United States customs districts, indicated in the following statement of foreign commerce for the year ending June 30, 1875, with the number of vessels registered, enrolled, and licensed:

 PORTS OF ENTRY.  Imports. Exports.  Registered, &c. 

 Vessels.   Tons. 

Beaufort $122,318  $1,047,257  16  2,104 
Charleston 680,343  19,655,966  185  12,051 
Georgetown ......  17,635  25  3,288 

Total  $802,661   $20,720,858  226   17,443 

The chief article of export is cotton. During the fiscal year 259,053 bales were exported from Charleston, valued at $17,930,603, besides 6,357 bales of sea island, valued at $779,346. The shipments of cotton, rice, naval stores, phosphates, and lumber to ports of the United States constitute an extensive trade. The amount of shipping in 1875 was as follows:



 Vessels.   Tons.   Vessels.   Tons.   Vessels.   Tons.   Vessels.   Tons. 

Beaufort 80  32,862  88  39,516  44  25,852  27  17,875 
Charleston 236  102,023  268  119,274  504  382,018  461  328,266 
Georgetown  174  2,394  55  14,356  1,408 

Total  317   135,059  363   161,134  603   422,226  494   347,549 

The state had 204 m. of railroad in 1845, 759 1855, 1,007 in 1865, and 1,298 in 1875. The following table shows the railroads lying wholly or partly within the state:

operation in
 South Carolina 
in 1875.
Total length
of line when
 different from 


Atlanta and Richmond Air Line  Atlanta, Ga.  Charlotte, N. C.  125  265 
Charlotte, Columbia, and Augusta  Charlotte, N. C.  Augusta, Ga. 183  195 
Cheraw and Darlington  Florence  Cheraw 40  .... 
Chester and Lenoir  Chester  Yorkville 22  .... 
Cheraw and Salisbury  Cheraw  Salisbury, N. C. 12  80 
Greenville and Columbia  Greenville  Columbia 143  .... 
Branch  Cokesbury  Abbeville 12  .... 
Leased, Blue Ridge  Belton  Walhalla 43  .... 
Northeastern  Charleston  Florence 102  .... 
Port Royal  Port Royal Harbor   Augusta, Ga. 111  .... 
Savannah and Charleston  Savannah, Ga.  Charleston 96  104 
South Carolina  Charleston  Augusta, Ga. 111  .... 
 Branchville  Columbia 38  .... 
 Kingsville  Camden 68  .... 
Spartanburg and Union  Alston  Spartansburg 68  .... 
Wilmington, Columbia, and Augusta   Wilmington, N. C.  Columbia 124  l89 

The Santee canal, 22 m. long, connects Charleston, through Cooper river, with the Santee. There are also several short canals, having an aggregate length of about 30 m. At the beginning of 1875 there were 12 national banks in operation, with a capital stock of $3,135,000; circulation, $2,167,420; circulation per capita, $3 07; ratio of circulation to the wealth of the state, 1 per cent.; to bank capital, 69.1 per cent.—The government is administered under the constitution adopted in 1868, which provides that slavery shall never exist in the state; that every citizen owes paramount allegiance to the United States; that the state shall ever remain a member of the American Union; no property qualification shall be necessary to eligibility to office; distinctions on account of race or color shall be prohibited, and all citizens shall enjoy all common public, legal, and political privileges; no debt contracted by the state in behalf of the rebellion shall ever be paid; presidential electors shall be elected by the people; the distinction between actions at law and suits in equity is abolished. The right of suffrage is bestowed upon every male citizen of the United States, 21 years old and upward, who has resided in the state one year, and in the county where he shall offer to vote 60 days preceding the election. Elections are by ballot, and a plurality only of the votes cast is necessary to a choice. Qualified electors, who acknowledge the existence of the Supreme Being, are entitled to hold office, with unimportant exceptions. The legislative power is vested in a general assembly, consisting of a senate composed of one member from each county except Charleston, which elects two senators, and a house of 124 representatives apportioned among the counties according to population, each county having at least one. The senators hold office for four years and the representatives for two. They receive $6 a day during the session, and 20 cents a mile for travel to and from the capital. The sessions of the legislature are annual, beginning on the fourth Tuesday of November. The state election is held on the third Wednesday of October in even years. The executive power is vested in a governor (annual salary $3,500 with a furnished residence) and a lieutenant governor ($2,500), ex officio president of the senate, who hold office for two years; a comptroller general ($3,000), treasurer ($2,500), secretary of state ($3,000), and attorney general ($3,000), who hold office for four years; a superintendent of education ($2,500), and an adjutant and inspector general ($2,500). These officers are elected by the people. The governor and lieutenant governor must have been two years resident in the state. The governor's veto may be overcome by a two-thirds vote of the legislature. The judicial power is vested in a supreme court, circuit courts (each of which is subdivided into a court of common pleas with civil jurisdiction, and a court of general sessions with criminal jurisdiction), probate courts, and courts of justices of the peace. The supreme court consists of a chief and two associate justices, elected by joint vote of the two houses of the legislature for six years. The chief justice receives an annual salary of $4,000, and the associates $3,500 each. The state is divided into eight circuits, for each of which a judge is elected by joint vote of the legislature for four years; each receives a salary of $3,500 a year. The supreme court has in general appellate jurisdiction only. The courts of common pleas have exclusive jurisdiction in matters of divorce, exclusive original jurisdiction in civil cases not cognizable by justices of the peace, and appellate jurisdiction in cases provided for by law. The courts of sessions have exclusive jurisdiction in criminal cases not otherwise provided for by law. A judge of probate is elected for each county by the people for two years. Trial justices appointed by the governor have jurisdiction of civil cases where the amount involved does not exceed $100, and of criminal proceedings for minor offences. A homestead not exceeding $1,000 in value is exempt from sale under execution, to every head of a family. A poll tax not exceeding $1 may be levied for school purposes. Provision is made for taking decennial censuses, beginning in 1875. The property of a married woman is not liable for the debts of her husband, and she may deal with it in all respects as if unmarried. Before the adoption of the present constitution, divorce was unknown in the state. Divorces are now granted for adultery or desertion for two years; and the one deserting may obtain a divorce if the desertion is justified by cruel treatment, or by neglect of the husband to provide maintenance. The death penalty is abolished, except in cases of wilful murder. Arson and rape are punishable by imprisonment for life or for a period not less than 10 years; the penalty of manslaughter and of burglary is imprisonment for a period not exceeding 30 years. The legal rate of interest, in the absence of agreement, is 7 per cent., but any rate may be contracted for. A convention to revise the constitution may be called by vote of the people, the question having been submitted to them by a two-thirds vote of each house of the legislature. Specific amendments must be proposed by two thirds of each house, voted for by a majority of the people at the next general election, and afterward ratified by a two-thirds vote of each house of the next general assembly. The state has two senators and five representatives in congress, and is therefore entitled to seven votes in the electoral college.—The state debt on Nov. 1, 1874, was reported at $17,017,651, including $9,540,750 bonded debt, $2,679,293 floating debt, and $4,797,608 contingent liabilities. Not included in this statement are bonds to the amount of $5,966,000 issued under the act of March 23, 1869, for the conversion of state securities, which have been declared by the legislature to have been issued without authority, and to be therefore null and void; but the statement includes interest on these bonds, amounting to $894,750, which it is asserted is illegal and should be deducted from the state's liabilities. The bonded debt falls due at different dates between 1877 and 1893; the rate of interest on most of it is 6 per cent. The floating debt consists of unpaid appropriations and over-due interest. The contingent liabilities were created by the indorsement by the state of the following railroad bonds, the state being secured by mortgages on the roads:

South Carolina railroad $2,093,312
Northeastern 92,000
Charleston and Savannah 505,000
Savannah and Charleston  245,750
Laurens 75,000
Spartanburg and Union 350,000
Greenville and Columbia  1,436,546

Total  $4,797,608

The receipts from all sources during the year ending Oct. 31, 1874, amounted to $1,712,268, and the expenditures to $1,599,232. The assessed valuation of taxable property in 1874 was $141,624,952, viz.: real estate, $87,794,305; personal property, $43,944,070; railroad property, $9,886,577. The total valuation in 1873 was $176,956,502. The rate of the tax levy for state purposes in 1874 was 102360 mills.—The constitution of 1868 provides for a uniform system of free common schools to be supported by a tax on property and polls, and for the establishment of a state normal school, a state reform school, a state university, and educational institutions for the deaf and dumb and the blind. It also declares that all public schools, colleges, and universities, supported wholly or partly by the public funds, shall be free to all the children of the state without regard to color; but separate schools are generally provided. Provision was made for the compulsory attendance upon public or private schools of all children between the ages of 6 and 16 years, but no law for this purpose has yet (1876) been passed by the legislature. The state superintendent, who is elected by the people for four years, has general supervision of the public schools. The state board of education consists of the superintendent and the several county school commissioners. There are 32 of the latter officers (one in each county), elected for two years by the people, at an annual salary of $1,000, except in Charleston county, where the salary is $1,200. Each county has a board of school examiners, composed of the commissioner and two members appointed by him; their chief duties are the examination of teachers and the appointment of district trustees. There are no graded schools except in Charleston. The sources of school revenue are: 1, state school tax; 2, poll tax; 3, district taxes. The common school statistics for 1873-'4 were as follows:

School population, 6 to 16 years of age, inclusive  230,102
White males 43,474
White females 41,501
Colored males 73,442
Colored females 71,685
Number of school districts 429
Number of schools 2,353
School attendance 104,738
White 45,774
Colored 58,964
Number of teachers 2,627
Males 1,625
Females 1,002
White 1,772
Colored 855
Average monthly wages, males $32 73
Average monthly wages, females $30 48
Average length of schools  5 months
Number of school houses 2,228
Value of school houses $274,803
Expenditures for schools $448,251
Total school revenue $512,924
From state tax $300,000
From poll tax $59,514
From local tax $110,785
From other sources $42,675
Net school revenue $483,145

The state normal school was opened in Columbia in September, 1874, with two instructors and 32 students. The course of study occupies two years. In 1874 there were ten teachers' institutes held in eight counties. The university of South Carolina, in Columbia, has preparatory, academical, law, and medical departments, which are open to white and colored pupils. In 1874-'5 there were 166 students, viz.: 17 in the law, 4 in the medical, and 79 in the preparatory school, 64 in the academical department, and 2 in a special course. State scholarships were established in the university in 1874, and $6,400 appropriated for that purpose. In 1874-'5 57 students were holding state scholarships. The state appropriations for the university during the year ending Oct. 31, 1874, amounted to $41,750. The library of the university in 1875 had 30,000 volumes. Claflin university, at Orangeburg, was opened in 1870 for the education of colored persons of both sexes. In 1872 the state college of agriculture and the mechanic arts was established in connection with this institution, which was then named “Claflin University and South Carolina Agricultural College and Mechanical Institute.” The departments which have been organized are: 1, common English; 2, classical preparatory and higher English; 3, agricultural and scientific. In 1874-' 5 there were 5 instructors and 188 students, including 65 pursuing scientific, agricultural, and military studies. Furman university (Baptist), opened in 1851 at Greenville, in 1874-'5 had 5 professors and 55 students in the collegiate department. The institution has an endowment of $200,000, contributed by the Baptists of South Carolina; and for ten years from Jan. 1, 1876, tuition is to be free. Newberry college (Lutheran), at Walhalla, Oconee co., opened in 1858, in 1874-'5 had 6 instructors and 101 pupils, including 70 in the preparatory department. Wofford college (Methodist Episcopal church, South), opened in 1853, is at Spartanburg Court House; it has collegiate and preparatory departments, and in 1874-'5 there were 7 instructors. The principal institutions for the higher instruction of women are Columbia female college in Columbia, which in 1874-'5 had 7 teachers and 97 students; Due West female college, at Due West, Abbeville co., with 9 teachers and 113 pupils; the Greenville Baptist female college, at Greenville, with 10 teachers and 117 pupils; and the Williamston female college, at Williamston, with 8 instructors and 119 pupils. The Southern Baptist theological seminary at Greenville, established in 1859, in 1874-'5 had 5 professors and 66 students. The theological seminary of the general assembly of the Presbyterian church in the United States was opened at Lexington, Ga., in 1829, and was removed to Columbia, its present seat, in 1830. It has a library of about 19,000 volumes, and endowments, not including buildings and library, amounting to $164,000. In 1873-'4 there were 5 instructors and 57 students. The medical college of the state of South Carolina, in Charleston, was opened in 1832, and in 1875 had 8 instructors and 60 students.—The state institution for the education of the deaf, dumb, and blind is at Cedar Springs in Spartanburg co.; but it is now (1876) suspended. The state orphan asylum, in Columbia, had in 1874 an average of 80 inmates, of whom 38 were girls. The legislature appropriated $25,000 for this institution in 1874; the expenditures amounted to $18,900. The state lunatic asylum, in Columbia, opened in 1828, had an average of 312 patients during the year ending Oct. 31, 1874, and 311 at the end of the year. The average annual cost of maintenance is $250 for each patient; $65,000 was appropriated for it in 1874, and the expenditures were $71,590. The state penitentiary, in Columbia, had in 1874 an average of 250 prisoners, who were chiefly employed upon public buildings on account of the state; their earnings amounted to $23,774. The expenses of the institution were $69,838; the state appropriation was $50,000. Religious exercises are held on Sunday. There is a day school for all convicts, and a reformatory school for those under 18 years of age, who are kept separate from the other convicts.—The total number of libraries reported by the census of 1870 was 1,663, containing 546,244 volumes. Of these, 922 with 397,020 volumes were private, and 741 with 149,224 volumes other than private; among the latter were one state library, with 2,700 volumes; 3 court and law, 6,324; 4 school, college, &c., 20,800; 647 Sunday school, 93,200; 84 church, 25,100; and 2 circulating, 1,100. The total number of newspapers and periodicals was 55, having an aggregate circulation of 80,900 and issuing annually 8,901,400 copies. Of these, 5 were daily, with an aggregate circulation of 16,100; 4 tri-weekly, circulation 9,600; 42 weekly, 44,000; 3 monthly, 10,000; and 1 quarterly, 1,200. In 1875 there were reported 7 daily, 3 tri-weekly, 3 semi-weekly, 62 weekly, 1 bi-weekly, 2 semi-monthly, 4 monthly, and 2 quarterly; total, 84. The total number of religious organizations in 1870 was 1,457, having 1,308 edifices, with 491,425 sittings and property valued at $3,276,982. The denominations were represented as follows:

DENOMINATIONS.  Organizations.   Edifices.   Sittings.   Property. 

Baptist, regular 518  466   190,750   $688,882
Baptist, other 800  1,600
Christian 200  400
Congregational 300  10,000
Episcopal, Protestant 83  81  35,350  729,600
Friends 300  500
Jewish 900  91,200
Huguenot 400  10,000
Lutheran 49  44  17,900  137,450
Methodist 611  532  164,050  652,100
Presbyterian, regular 148  136  61,450  537,900
Presbyterian, other 16  17  5,650  33,500
Reformed church in America (late Dutch Reformed)  300  4,000
Roman Catholic 12  13  10,775  271,500
Unitarian 750  20,000
Universalist 850  58,350
Unknown (local mission) 700  10,000

—The first attempt to colonize the territory now comprised in South Carolina was made by Jean Ribault, a Frenchman. (See Ribault.) The province of Carolina was created by Charles II. in 1663. (See North Carolina.) The first permanent settlement in South Carolina was made on the banks of the Ashley river in 1670 by English colonists, who removed in 1680 to the present site of Charleston. Under the name of Carolina, both the present states of North and South Carolina were held as a proprietary government, nominally under the celebrated model constitution prepared by John Locke, till July, 1729, when the king bought out the proprietors, and formed the Carolinas into two royal colonies. In 1685 a large number of French Huguenots settled in South Carolina, and subsequently there were considerable settlements of Swiss, Irish, and German emigrants. The colony at various times suffered severely from Indian depredations, and with Georgia was engaged under Oglethorpe in a contest with the Spanish settlements in Florida. South Carolina was the scene of severe warfare during the revolutionary struggle, hotly contested battles being fought at Fort Moultrie, Charleston, Camden, King's Mountain, Cowpens, Eutaw Springs, &c. The British held the country for the greater part of the years 1780 and 1781. The battle of Eutaw Springs, September, 1781, between Gen. Greene and Col. Stuart, in which both sides claimed the victory, was the last engagement of any importance during the revolution. A state constitution was first adopted on March 26, 1776; the constitution of the United States was ratified by South Carolina on May 23, 1788. Immediately after the presidential election of 1832, a convention of the people of South Carolina was called to meet at Columbia, to take action on the high tariff of 1828 and 1832. The convention met on Nov. 19, unanimously adopted the “nullification ordinance,” which pronounced the tariff “null, void, and no law, nor binding on this state, its officers and citizens,” and prohibited the payment of duties on imports imposed by that law within the state after Feb. 1 ensuing. The ordinance contemplated an act of the legislature nullifying the tariff, and declared that no appeal should be made to the supreme court of the United States against the validity of such act. It was also declared that should the general government attempt to enforce the law thus nullified, or to interfere with the foreign commerce of the state, the people of South Carolina would “hold themselves absolved from all further obligation to maintain or preserve their political connection with the people of the other states.” This action was approved by the governor, Robert Y. Hayne, in his message to the legislature, and measures were adopted by that body to give practical effect to the ordinance. In view of the threatened emergency, President Jackson ordered Gen. Scott to Charleston for the purpose of “superintending the safety of the ports of the United States in that vicinity,” and soon after the meeting of congress in December issued a proclamation in which he held that nullification was treason and should be punished as such. During the session of this congress the compromise tariff was passed, which being acceptable to South Carolina, the course threatened by that state was not pursued. In April, 1860, the South Carolina delegates to the national democratic convention in session at Charleston withdrew from that body because the convention did not expressly deny in its platform “the power either of the federal government, or its agent, the territorial government, to abolish or legislate against property in slaves by either direct or indirect legislation.” South Carolina was the first of the southern states to institute active measures for withdrawing from the Union on the election of Mr. Lincoln, and the first to pass an ordinance of secession. On Nov. 7, 1860, an act was passed by the legislature calling a state convention. On the same day the United States officials in Charleston resigned, and on the 10th the South Carolina senators withdrew from the United States senate. An election of delegates having been held on Dec. 6, the convention assembled in Charleston on the 18th, and passed the ordinance of secession on the 20th without a dissenting vote. Commissioners were appointed to go to Washington to treat with President Buchanan for the possession of federal property within the limits of South Carolina, while others were sent to the slaveholding states to invite their coöperation in the formation of a southern confederacy. On the 24th the representatives in congress withdrew from that body, and on the same day Gov. Pickens proclaimed the dissolution of the union between South Carolina and the other states. On the 27th Fort Moultrie and Castle Pinckney were seized by the state. The bombardment and capture of Fort Sumter, April 12, 13, by Gen. Beauregard (see Sumter, Fort), was the beginning of open hostilities, and caused great excitement throughout the country. The ports of the seceded states were declared blockaded by President Lincoln on April 19. Hilton Head and Bay Point were captured on Nov. 7 by an expedition under Admiral Du Pont and Gen. T. W. Sherman. On April 7, 1863, Admiral Du Pont made an unsuccessful attempt to reduce the defences of Charleston harbor, losing one of his vessels in the engagement. A land attack was made in July by Gen. Q. A. Gillmore, who took possession of Morris island, but was repulsed with great loss in an assault upon Fort Wagner. That work was reduced by bombardment, Sept. 7, and shells were thrown into the city itself. In the latter part of January, 1865, Gen. W. T. Sherman's army began its march from Savannah through South Carolina, having Goldsboro, N. C., as an objective point, and threatening Charleston and Augusta at the same time. Columbia was surrendered on Feb. 17, and Charleston and all its defences were evacuated on the same day. (See Charleston, and Columbia.) Gen. Sherman, resuming his march from Columbia, and destroying railroads, bridges, &c., reached Cheraw on the Great Pedee, March 3, whence he moved to Fayetteville, N. C. B. F. Perry was appointed provisional governor of South Carolina, June 30, 1865. On Sept. 4 delegates were chosen to a convention, which assembled in Columbia, Sept. 13, repealed the ordinance of secession, and declared slavery abolished. James L. Orr was chosen governor at a general election held on Oct. 18. At the same time a legislature was elected, which met before the close of the month. Gov. Orr assumed the duties of his office on Nov. 29, but it was not till Dec. 25 that the provisional governor was relieved and the authority in the state restored to the officers elected by the people. This government continued in force until supplanted by the military government provided by congress in March, 1867, when Gen. Sickles was appointed to the command of the second military district, embracing North and South Carolina. He was succeeded in the beginning of September by Gen. Canby. A registration of voters was now held, preliminary to an election to ascertain the will of the people in reference to calling a state convention to frame a constitution and civil government, and 78,982 colored and 46,346 white voters were registered. At the election, held on Nov. 19 and 20, 68,876 colored and 130 white persons voted for a convention, and 2,081 whites against it. Of the delegates chosen, 34 were white and 63 colored. The convention assembled on Jan. 14, 1868, and adopted a constitution, which was ratified by the people, April 14, 15, and 16, by a vote of 70,758 to 27,288. At the same time state officers, members of the legislature (of whom 72 were white and 85 colored), and representatives to congress were chosen. The legislature assembled on July 6, and on the 9th Gov. Scott was inaugurated. The state became entitled to representation in congress by the ratification (108 to 10) of the fourteenth amendment to the federal constitution, and reconstruction was practically completed by the withdrawal of the military authorities on the 13th. The fifteenth amendment to the federal constitution was ratified by the legislature on March 11, 1869, by a vote of 18 to 1 in the senate and 88 to 3 in the house. At the presidential election in 1868, 62,916 votes were cast for Grant (republican) and 45,237 for Seymour (democrat). This was the first time in the history of the state that the people had voted for president and vice president; previously the presidential electors had been chosen by the legislature. During 1868 and subsequently disorders alleged to have been committed by masked outlaws called “Ku-klux” were reported in this state, especially in the N. W. counties. In the latter part of 1871 and the beginning of 1872 numerous arrests were made under an act of congress for the suppression of these outrages, and many persons were convicted in the United States courts and punished.