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TEXAS, a S. W. state of the American Union, the 15th admitted under the constitution, situated between lat. 25° 50' and 36° 30' N., and lon. 93° 30' and 106° 40' W.; greatest length, from the mouth of the Rio Grande to the N. W. corner, about 825 m.; greatest breadth, along the 32d parallel, about 740 m.; area, 274,356 sq. m., being greater than that of any other state or territory except Alaska, and nearly six times as great as that of New York. It is bounded N. by New Mexico (W. of the 103d meridian), the Indian territory, and Arkansas, the Red river being the dividing line E. of the 100th meridian; E. by the Indian territory (N. of lat. 34° 30'), Arkansas, and Louisiana, from the last of which it is mostly separated by the Sabine river and lake; S. E. by the gulf of Mexico; S. W. by Mexico, from which it is separated by the Rio Grande; and W. by New Mexico.

AmCyc Texas - seal.jpg

State Seal of Texas.

The state is (1876) divided into 174 counties, of which 26, marked with an *, are unorganized, viz.: Anderson, Angelina, Aransas, Archer,* Atascosa, Austin, Bandera, Bastrop, Baylor,* Bee, Bell, Bexar, Blanco, Bosque, Bowie, Brazoria, Brazos, Brown, Burleson, Burnet, Caldwell, Calhoun, Callahan,* Cameron, Camp, Cass, Chambers, Cherokee, Clay, Coleman, Collin, Colorado, Comal, Comanche, Concho, Cooke, Coryell, Crockett,* Dallas, Dawson,* Delta, Denton, De Witt, Dimmitt,* Duval,* Eastland, Edwards,* Ellis, El Paso, Encinal,* Erath, Falls, Fannin, Fayette, Fort Bend, Franklin, Freestone, Frio, Galveston, Gillespie, Goliad, Gonzales, Grayson, Greer* (see Greer), Gregg, Grimes, Guadalupe, Hamilton, Hardeman,* Hardin, Harris, Harrison, Haskell,* Hays, Henderson, Hidalgo, Hill, Hood, Hopkins, Houston, Hunt, Jack, Jackson, Jasper, Jefferson, Johnson, Jones,* Karnes, Kaufman, Kendall, Kerr, Kimble,* Kinney, Knox,* Lamar, Lampasas, La Salle,* Lavaca, Lee, Leon, Liberty, Limestone, Live Oak, Llano, McCulloch,* McLennan, McMullen,* Madison, Marion, Mason, Matagorda, Maverick, Medina, Menard, Milam, Montague, Montgomery, Morris, Nacogdoches, Navarro, Newton, Nueces, Orange, Palo Pinto, Panola, Parker, Pecos, Polk, Presidio, Rains, Red River, Refugio, Robertson, Rockwall, Runnels,* Rusk, Sabine, San Augustine, San Jacinto, San Patricio, San Saba, Shackleford, Shelby, Smith, Somerville, Starr, Stephens,* Tarrant, Taylor,* Throckmorton,* Titus, Tom Green, Travis, Trinity, Tyler, Upshur, Uvalde, Van Zandt, Victoria, Walker, Waller, Washington, Webb, Wegefarth,* Wharton, Wichita,* Wilbarger,* Williamson, Wilson, Wise, Wood, Young, Zapata, Zavala.* An extensive region in the W. part of the state N. of the 32d parallel is not divided into counties, the N. portion being known as Bexar territory and the S. portion as Young territory. The principal cities are Galveston (pop. in 1870, 13,818), San Antonio (12,256), Houston (9,382), Brownsville (4,905), Austin (the capital, 4,428), and Jefferson (4,190). Other important places are Bastrop, Bonham, Brazoria, Bremond, Brenham, Columbus, Corpus Christi, Dallas, Eagle Pass, Fairfield, Fredericksburg, Gonzales, Henderson, Huntsville, Independence, Indianola, La Grange, Laredo, Lavaca, Marshall, Nacogdoches, Navasota, New Braunfels, Richmond, San Marcos, Seguin, Sherman, Sulphur Springs, Victoria, Waco, and Waxahachie. The population of Texas in 1806 has been estimated at 7,000; in 1834, at 21,000; in 1836, at 38,500; and in 1845, at 150,000. The results of the three federal censuses are as follows:

 YEARS.  Whites. Free
 colored. 
Slaves. Total. Gain
 per cent. 
 Rank. 







1850 154,034 397  58,161  212,592 ......  25
1860 420,891 355   182,566   604,215   184.20  23
1870  564,100   253,475  ......  818,579 35.48  19

The total for 1860 includes 403 Indians, and that for 1870 379 Indians and 25 Chinese. There are very few inhabitants W. of the 100th meridian, except along the Rio Grande. In the vicinity of San Antonio there is a large population of German origin. Of the total population in 1870, 423,557 were males and 395,022 females, 756,168 native and 62,411 foreign born. Of the natives, 388,510 were born in the state, 62,224 in Alabama, 51,435 in Tennessee, 42,537 in Mississippi, 41,206 in Georgia, 27,290 in Louisiana, 23,357 in Arkansas, 22,165 in Virginia and West Virginia, 18,655 in North Carolina, 18,419 in Missouri, 17,813 in Kentucky, 17,717 in South Carolina, 5,854 in Illinois, 2,873 in New York, 2,783 in Indiana, 2,385 in Maryland, 2,052 in Ohio, 1,934 in Florida, and 1,877 in Pennsylvania. Of the foreigners, 23,985 were natives of Germany, 23,020 of Mexico, 6,762 of the British isles (including 2,037 English and 4,031 Irish), 2,232 of France, and 1,748 of Austria (proper). 6f the colored population, 225,658 were blacks and 27,817 mulattoes. There were 145,184 males and 139,667 females between 5 and 18 years of age, 158,765 males from 18 to 45, and 184,094 males 21 and upward, of whom 169,258 were citizens of the United States and 14,736 unnaturalized foreigners. The number of families was 154,483, with an average of 5.3 persons to each; of dwellings, 141,685, with an average of 5.78 to each. Of persons 10 years old and upward, 189,423 could not read, and 221,703 could not write; of the latter 203,334 were natives and 18,369 foreigners, 110,562 males and 111,141 females, 70,895 whites, 150,617 colored, and 191 Indians; 47,636 were between 10 and 15 years of age, 41,768 between 15 and 21, and 132,299 21 and upward, of whom 64,819 were males. There were 404 blind persons, 232 deaf and dumb, 270 insane, and 451 idiotic. Of the 237,126 persons 10 years old and upward returned as engaged in all occupations, there were employed in agriculture 166,753, including 81,123 agricultural laborers, 79,015 farmers and planters, 3,338 stock raisers, and 2,049 stock herders; in professional and personal services, 40,882, including 831 clergymen, 13,692 domestic servants, 14,371 laborers, 1,027 lawyers, 1,906 physicians and surgeons, and 1,709 teachers; in trade and transportation, 13,612; and in manufactures and mining, 15,879.—Texas may be divided into four sections, eastern, central or middle, western, and northern Texas. Eastern Texas embraces the territory between the Sabine and Trinity rivers, and is the great timber region of the state, there being only a few prairies confined to the gulf coast. The southern portion is low and level, the northern rolling and elevated, but not mountainous. The greater portion of central Texas, between the Trinity and Colorado rivers, is prairie, but there is considerable timber along the streams. Northern Texas, including two or three tiers of counties from Red river, is about equally divided between prairie and forest. Western Texas embraces the region between the Colorado and Rio Grande rivers. Prairies cover about four fifths of its surface; with the exception of occasional districts covered with post oak or the mezquite tree, timber is confined almost entirely to the valleys of the streams, which are densely wooded. The N. W. extremity of the state, between Indian territory and New Mexico, is known as the “panhandle.” In general, the S. and S. E. portion, along the coast, is level and of little elevation; N. of this the country is undulating; the W. and N. W. region is mostly an elevated table land; while the district between the Pecos and Rio Grande is mountainous. The table land includes a large portion of the Llano Estacado, and has been but imperfectly explored; it is said to vary from 2,000 to 4,000 ft. in height. The Llano Estacado or Staked Plain (so named from the great abundance of yucca stems, resembling stakes) extends from the Rio Pecos in New Mexico on the west to the head waters of the Colorado, Brazos, and Red rivers on the east, and from the valley of the Canadian on the north to the Pecos on the south. Its surface is gently undulating; vegetation is scanty, owing to the dryness of the climate and the lack of streams. The principal ranges between the Pecos and Rio Grande are the Guadalupe, Sierra Hueca, Eagle, Sierra Blanca, and Apache mountains, attaining in places an elevation of between 5,000 and 6,000 ft. Between the upper waters of the Colorado and Brazos is a large tract of timbered land known as the “mezquite timber,” and between the upper Brazos and Trinity a long tract from 5 to 30 m. in width, extending from Johnson co. to the Canadian river in Indian territory, and called the Cross Timbers.—The coast of Texas, which extends along the gulf of Mexico about 400 m., is bordered with a chain of low sand islands, between which and the mainland lie a series of bays, sounds, and lagoons; the most important of these, beginning at the northeast, are Galveston, Matagorda, Espiritu Santo, Aransas, and Corpus Christi bays, and the Laguna del Madre. Galveston bay is the largest, and has the best entrance, its inlet having 13 ft. of water, while in good anchorage just outside there is 24 ft.; it extends inland from the gulf of Mexico 35 m. Matagorda bay, nearly 60 m. long by 6 to 10 m. wide, and Laguna del Madre, nearly 100 m. long by 3 to 6 m. wide, are properly sounds, and run parallel with the shore. The entrance of Matagorda bay, which is rapidly filling up, has only 7 ft. of water; and San Luis inlet, the entrance to West bay, a sound connecting with Galveston bay, has but 6 ft. Aransas bay is 25 m. long from N. E. to S. W. and about 10 m. wide, and Copano bay, a sound opening into it, is 20 m. long by 3 m. wide; Corpus Christi bay is 20 m. long by 15 m. wide, and Espiritu Santo 20 by 10 m. The entrance to all these is much obstructed by the bars at the inlets.—E. of the 100th meridian the state is generally well watered. The Rio Grande forms the boundary with Mexico, and is navigable for 400 or 500 m. The Rio Pecos, its principal tributary, entering from New Mexico, flows S. E. through the W. extremity of the state. The most important rivers, proceeding N. E. along the coast from the mouth of the Rio Grande, are: the Nueces, emptying into Corpus Christi bay; the San Antonio and Guadalupe, into Espiritu Santo bay; the Lavaca, into Lavaca bay and thence into Matagorda bay; the Colorado, into Matagorda bay; the Brazos, into the gulf of Mexico; the San Jacinto and Trinity, into Galveston bay; and the Neches and Sabine, into Sabine lake, which discharges into the gulf of Mexico through Sabine pass. The Sabine rises in the N. E. part of Texas, flows S. E. to the Louisiana border (about lat. 32°), and thence S., separating the two states. It is navigable in some portions by small craft. The Neches and its chief tributary, the Angelina, are navigable for about 200 m. from Sabine lake. The Trinity rises in the N. part of the state near the Red river, and flows S. S. E.; it is navigable for about 250 m. The Brazos, Colorado, Guadalupe, San Antonio, and Nueces rivers are during most of the year navigable but a short distance, though susceptible of improvement. The chief tributary of the Nueces is the Rio Frio. The Colorado and Brazos rise on the E. edge of the Llano Estacado, and flow S. E. across the state. The chief tributaries of the former are the Concho, San Saba, and Llano from the west; of the latter, the Little river from the west and the Navasota from the east. The N. E. corner of the state is watered by the Sulphur fork of Red river, which joins the main stream in Arkansas. A little S. of this are Big and Little Cypress bayous, which discharge through lakes into Red river in Louisiana. Red river rises by several forks in the N. W. part of the state, flows E., and after crossing the 100th meridian separates Texas from Indian territory and Arkansas, and enters the latter state. It is navigable for nearly its whole course on the boundary, though obstructed somewhat by shifting sands for a part of the distance. Its largest Texan tributary is the Big Wichita, entering near lon. 98°. The N. extremity of the state is crossed by Canadian river, running E. from New Mexico into Indian territory.—The principal geological formations are the alluvial, tertiary, cretaceous, and carboniferous. The alluvial extends along the gulf coast; back of this is the tertiary, having its widest expansion in the east, where it reaches Red river in Lamar co.; N. W. of the tertiary is the cretaceous, extending W. on Red river to Cooke co. and S. to San Antonio, and probably forming the table lands and plains of the west and southwest. The carboniferous formation extends through the counties W. of Cooke to the Staked Plain, stretching S. from Red river to and beyond the upper Colorado. Coal beds have been discovered here, but scarcely anything has been done to test the quality or quantity of the mineral. Coal has also been found at various points in the tertiary, particularly in Bastrop co., W. of the Colorado; in Milam, Robertson, Leon, and Limestone cos., near the Brazos and Trinity; and in Anderson and Rusk cos., in eastern Texas. The tertiary coal has to some extent been proved valuable for fuel. Iron ores are abundant in the tertiary in eastern and central Texas; they also occur in the N. W. part of Grayson co., on Red river, and in the upper Cross Timbers; in Burnet and Llano cos., N. W. of Austin; and also, it is said, in Stephens co., further N. They were worked during the civil war in Cherokee and Nacogdoches cos., in eastern Texas, and in Bowie and other counties in the N. E. corner of the state. Copper ore occurs in the carboniferous formation, particularly in the N. part. Lead has been found in connection with silver in western Texas; steatite or soapstone in Llano co.; and marble of various colors and fair quality in Burnet, Llano, and San Saba cos. In the N. W. part of the state, about the head waters of Red river, is an extensive gypsum region. There are salt wells in Van Zandt co., in the northeast, in Young and Wise cos., in the northwest, and in Lampasas and Llano cos., on the Colorado. Salt beds are reported in the gypsum region and on the Rio Pecos. Between Corpus Christi and Brownsville are many shallow lagoons or arms of the gulf, which during the prevalence of winds blowing inland are filled with salt water. This is evaporated, depositing the salt, which is collected upon the subsidence of the water. Chalybeate springs are common in the iron districts of the tertiary. At Lampasas in the county of the same name are fine sulphur springs, which also exist in Grimes, Rusk, and Hopkins cos., in the E. part of the state.—The climate is remarkably salubrious, and though warm enough for the production of most of the semi-tropical and some of the tropical fruits, it is less enervating and more free from malarious diseases than that of any other of the gulf states. Northers, cool, dry winds, occur from October to May at intervals of about a week, rarely lasting more than three days. They produce a sudden depression in the temperature, but are said to make the climate more healthful and the air purer. The heat of summer is tempered by winds from the gulf, which blow far inland. The mean annual temperature in the southwest, near the mouth of the Rio Grande, is 72°; about the parallel of Austin, 68°; thence N. it gradually diminishes to 60° along the Red river. The highlands in the west are cooler, and in the extreme northwest the mean annual temperature is not more than 66°. The thermometer seldom falls below 25° in winter or rises above 95° in summer. The E. and S. portions have the most rain; as we proceed N. W. from the gulf, the moisture diminishes. The average annual rainfall in the northeast is 48 in., decreasing to 24 in. in the southwest near the gulf. In the extreme northwest it is only 16 in., and at some points between the Pecos and Rio Grande not more than 8 in. The following are the results of observations for 17 years (1858 to 1874 inclusive) at Austin (lat. 30° 15', lon. 97° 47'): mean annual temperature, 67.61°, varying from 65.82° in 1869 to 68.92° in 1862; mean temperature of the hottest month (July), 84°; of the coldest month (January), 50°; minimum observed, 6°; maximum observed, 106°; average annual rainfall, 34.54 in., varying from 23.17 in 1862 to 48.79 in 1874. The most rain fell in September (average 4.96 in.) and the least in December (average 1.93 in.). Corn planting usually begins about the middle of February, and grain is harvested in the latter part of May, and Indian corn in July. Cotton picking begins about July 10, and continues to Dec. 1. The number of deaths, according to the census of 1870, was 11,197, of which there were from general diseases 3,848, including 680 from consumption, 464 from enteric fever, 596 from intermittent fever, and 327 from remittent fever; from diseases of the nervous system, 1,430; of the circulatory system, 204; of the respiratory system, 1,979, including 1,499 from pneumonia; of the digestive system, 1,498.—The soil of Texas is in general very fertile. The river bottoms are unsurpassed in this respect by those of any state of the Union. There are three or four varieties of soil, each well adapted to certain crops. The stiff black soil of the river bottoms is fittest for sugar and cotton, though the latter grows well on the prairies and uplands; the finer black or chocolate-colored soil of the prairie lands yields abundant crops of corn and the cereals, and the lighter copper-colored soil of the uplands is admirable for the grasses and fruits; while the fine silt of the islands produces the best sea island cotton known. The soil of the desert tracts of the northwest is sandy and charged with carbonate of soda and other alkalies; but even this, wherever it can be irrigated, produces grass and herbage moderately. Irrigation has been successfully practised in some instances in the west, where rain is scanty. In 1875 an act was passed granting land in aid of companies organized for constructing canals for irrigation and navigation. Texas is especially noted as a stock-raising country, for which the mildness of its climate and the great variety of its nutritious grasses peculiarly fit it. The W. portion, even where too dry for agriculture, is particularly adapted to cattle and sheep, and here are vast herds and flocks. Large numbers of horses and hogs are also kept. The buffalo and deer are found in the northwest, and wild horses or “mustangs” roam over the W. prairies. The other wild animals and the birds are similar to those of other portions of the Union. Among the more important grasses are the mezquite grasses of the west, which afford excellent pasturage at all seasons. The principal forest trees, of some of which several species occur, are the oak, elm, maple, hickory, pecan, sycamore or buttonwood, magnolia, willow, pine, cypress, mulberry, cedar, sweet gum, ash, walnut, palmetto, cottonwood, Osage orange, and mezquite. Eastern Texas is an extensive pine region. The principal species in the north is the short-leafed pine (pinus mitis), and in the south the long-leafed (P. palustris); the latter is valuable for timber and turpentine. The soil of the pine lands, though sandy, is productive. The cypress occurs in swamps and on the river banks in various parts of the state, and attains a great size. The live oak extends N. through central and western Texas to the Red river. The Osage orange is especially valuable for hedges, and in northern Texas attains a large size. The mezquite is one of the indigenous trees of Texas, growing in the west, valuable for fuel and for various other uses. (See Mezquite.) Numerous species of cactus are abundant W. of the Nueces river. Peaches do well in a large portion of the state, and apples thrive in the north. Pears, blackberries, and strawberries are also raised. Seven species of grapes are indigenous. In the south figs and oranges may be produced. The chief crops are cotton, Indian corn, and wheat. Cotton and corn may be grown in nearly every part of the state. Wheat is raised chiefly in the north. The sugar cane is cultivated principally on the Brazos near its mouth, and rice in the S. E. corner of the state. Oats, barley, beans, tobacco, and sweet and Irish potatoes are also raised to some extent.—The number of acres of land in farms according to the census of 1870 was 18,396,523, of which 2,964,836 were improved; number of farms, 61,125, of which 717 contained under 3 acres each, 4,659 from 3 to 10, 13,594 from 10 to 20, 24,620 from 20 to 50, 10,890 from 50 to 100, 6,268 from 100 to 500, 305 from 500 to 1,000, and 72 more than 1,000; cash value of farms, $60,149,950; of farming implements and machinery, $3,396,793; amount of wages paid during year, including value of board, $4,777,638; estimated value of all farm productions, including betterments and additions to stock, $49,185,170; value of orchard products, $69,172; of produce of market gardens, $74,924; of forest products, $66,841; of home manufactures, $293,308; of animals slaughtered or sold for slaughter, $4,835,284; of all live stock, $37,425,194. The productions were 66,173 bushels of spring wheat, 348,939 of winter wheat, 20,554,538 of Indian corn, 762,663 of oats, 44,351 of barley, 28,521 of rye, 44 of buckwheat, 42,654 of peas and beans, 208,383 of Irish potatoes, 2,188,041 of sweet potatoes, 7 of clover seed, 497 of grass seed, 2 of flax seed, 63,844 lbs. of rice, 59,706 of tobacco, 1,251,328 of wool, 3,712,747 of butter, 34,342 of cheese, 51 of hops, 25 of flax, 13,255 of wax, 275,169 of honey, 6,216 gallons of wine, 5,032 of maple molasses, 174,509 of sorghum molasses, 246,062 of cane molasses, 2,020 hogsheads of cane sugar, 5 tons of hemp, 18,982 of hay, and 350,628 bales of cotton. There were on farms 424,504 horses, 61,322 mules and asses, 428,048 milch cows, 132,407 working oxen, 2,933,588 other cattle, 714,351 sheep, and 1,202,445 swine; besides which there were 150,137 horses and 496,115 neat cattle not on farms. The number of cattle was gueater than in any other state. In 1873 718,247 horses and mules, 3,175,682 cattle, and 1,476,844 sheep were returned by the assessors.—There were 2,399 manufacturing establishments in 1870, having 540 steam engines of 11,214 horse power, and 116 water wheels of 1,830 horse power; hands employed, 7,927; capital invested, $5,284,110; wages paid, $1,787,835; value of materials used, $6,273,193; of products, $11,517,302. The particulars of the principal branches are as follows :

 INDUSTRIES.   Establishments.  Hands
 employed. 
Capital. Value of
 products. 





Agricultural implements 12  44  $12,559  $42,420
Blacksmithing 380  761  177,238  534,550
Boots and shoes 98  186  56,710  166,761
Bread and other bakery products  14  38  35,800  98,685
Brick 24  268  82,175  172,670
Butchering 117  79,150  484,775
Carpentering and building 147  399  154,065  652,067
Carriages and wagons 115  325  130,585  289,124
Cars, freight and passenger 16  12,000  45,905
Clothing, men's 33  78  18,800  85,467
Cotton goods 291  496,000  874,598
Flouring and grist-mill products 533  1,123   1,066,898   2,421,047
Food preparations, animal 13  2,545  48,000
Furniture 54  140  97,400  209,536
Gas 13  355,500  91,210
Hides and tallow 112  65,000  272,740
Iron castings 30  54,000  77,000
Leather, tanned 34  62  37,476  60,524
Leather, curried 22  28  17,367  57,387
Liquors, malt 27  76  117,300  145,840
Lumber, sawed 324  1,750  870,491  1,960,851
Machinery 11  123  137,550  170,210
Meat packed, beef 15  275  200,500  1,052,106
Molasses and sugar, refined 155  50,220  75,137
Oil, cotton-seed 23  46,000  39,400
Printing and publishing, newspaper  25  158  108,675  194,430
Saddlery and harness 138  292  153,590  348,307
Sash, doors, and blinds 10  118  140,000  266,400
Tin, copper, and sheet-iron ware 71  237  154,136  334,665
Wheelwrighting 86  140  33,645  102,020
Wool-carding and cloth-dressing 18  41  28,250  74,372
Woollen goods 59  69,000  78,596

—Texas is divided into five customs districts: Brazos de Santiago (port of entry, Brownsville), Corpus Christi (the same), Paso del Norte (El Paso), Saluria (Indianola), and Texas (Galveston). The chief item of export is cotton. The trade with Mexico is important. There are no returns of the trade with other portions of the Union. The following table contains details of the foreign commerce for the year ending June 30, 1875:

DISTRICTS. Imports. Exports
 of domestic 
products.
Exports
 of foreign 
products.
ENTRANCES. CLEARANCES.


 No.   Tons.   No.   Tons. 








Brazos de Santiago  $2,002,748  $833,312  $997,658  49  30,984  41  20,956 
Corpus Christi 322,803  205,557  243,966  5,142  5,930 
Paso del Norte 308,991  40,323  ........  18  4,080  18  4,079 
Saluria 97,663  237,294  40,165  18  16,785  28  24,359 
Texas 1,218,034  15,876,632  349,275  163  91,913  206  127,579 







Total  $3,950,239   $17,193,118   $1,631,064   256   148,904   302   182,903 

The entrances and clearances in the coastwise trade during the same period, with the number and tonnage of vessels registered, enrolled, and licensed on the above date, are as follows:

DISTRICTS. ENTRANCES. CLEARANCES. REGISTERED,
&C.



 No.   Tons.   No.   Tons.   No.   Tons. 







Brazos de Santiago  46  36,504  18  11,019  14  1,546
Corpus Christi 82  52,023  43  9,310  35  774
Paso del Norte 79  14,888  71  13,567  ..  ....
Saluria 214  197,534  52  11,519  46  1,612
Texas 453  418,645  335  290,426  250  18,116






Total  874   719,594   519   335,841   345   22,048

—On Oct. 1, 1875, there were 10 national banks in the state, of which the resources were as follows: loans and discounts, $1,366,805 99; bonds for circulation, $789,000; bonds for deposits, $175,000; total, including other items, $3,617,757 88. The following were the chief liabilities: capital stock, $1,200,000; surplus and undivided profits, $344,287 28; circulation, $673,102; individual deposits, $1,081,196 02. There are 15 or 20 state banks.—There were 32 m. of railroad in operation in 1854, 451 in 1862, and 711 in 1870. The following table contains the particulars of the different lines for 1875:

LINES. TERMINI. Miles in
 operation 
in the
state.

FROM TO




Galveston, Harrisburg, and San Antonio   Harrisburg (on the Galveston, Houston, and Henderson)   Luling, Caldwell co. 155 
Galveston, Houston, and Henderson  Galveston  Houston 50 
Gulf, Western Texas, and Pacific  Indianola  Cuero, De Witt co. 70 
Houston and Great Northern[1]  Houston  Palestine (on the International) 152 
Huntsville branch  Phelps  Huntsville
Columbia division  Houston  Columbia, Brazoria co. 50 
Northern division  Troupe (on the International)  Mineola (on the Texas and Pacific) 44 
Houston and Texas Central  Houston  Red River City 341 
Western division  Hempstead  Austin 114 
Waco branch  Bremond  Waco 45 
International[1]  Longview (on the Texas and Pacific)  Rockdale, Milam co. 205 
Texas and New Orleans  Houston  West Liberty, Liberty co. 35 
Texas and Pacific  Shreveport, La.  Eagle Ford, Dallas co. (192 m.) 172 
Branch  Marshall  Texarkana (just across the Arkanansas border)  75 
Transcontinental division  Sherman (on the Houston and Texas Central)  Brookston, Lamar co. 56 

Total 1,572 
  1. 1.0 1.1 Consolidated as the International and Great Northern.

The Galveston, Harrisburg, and San Antonio railroad is in progress (1876) toward San Antonio, and the extension of the Gulf, Western Texas, and Pacific railroad to that city is contemplated. The Houston and Texas Central railroad connects at Red River City with the Missouri, Kansas, and Texas railroad for St. Louis. The International railroad is intended to extend S. W. to Laredo on the Rio Grande. The Texas and Pacific railroad has permission by its charter to continue its line across the continent to San Diego, Cal.; the Transcontinental division, when completed, will extend from Texarkana to Fort Worth, Tarrant co., on the main line. The Texas and New Orleans railroad was in operation to the Sabine river previous to the civil war, during which it was nearly destroyed; it is to be repaired. The Galveston and Santa Fé railroad has been chartered to connect those two points, and 40 m. are in course of construction from Galveston. The Texas Western railroad (narrow gauge), from Houston to San Antonio, is in progress W. from Houston.—A new constitution was adopted by vote of the people, Feb. 15, 1876, which was to go into effect on the third Tuesday in April following. The executive officers are a governor (annual salary, $4,000), lieutenant governor, secretary of state ($2,000), comptroller of public accounts ($2,500), treasurer ($2,500), commissioner of the general land office ($2,500), and attorney general ($2,000, besides fees not exceeding $2,000). They hold office for two years, and are all elected by the qualified voters, except the secretary of state, who is appointed by the governor and senate. The lieutenant governor is ex officio president of the senate, and in that capacity receives the pay of a senator. The legislature consists of a senate of 31 members, elected by districts, and a house of representatives of 93 members, distributed among the counties. At the apportionment in 1880 the number of representatives may be increased to not more than 150. The representatives are elected biennially; the senators hold office four years, one half being elected biennially. The sessions are biennial. Two thirds of each house are necessary to a quorum, and a two-thirds vote is necessary to overcome the governor's veto. Members of the legislature receive not more than $5 for each day's attendance, and not more than $5 for each 25 miles' travel to and from the capital. The judicial authority is vested in a supreme court, a court of appeals, district courts, county courts, and justices of the peace (inferior cases). The supreme court consists of a chief justice and two associates, and has appellate jurisdiction of civil cases of which the district courts have original or appellate jurisdiction. The court of appeals consists of three judges, and has appellate jurisdiction of criminal cases, and of civil cases of which the county courts have original or appellate jurisdiction. The judges of the supreme court and court of appeals are elected by the qualified voters for six years, and receive an annual salary of $3,550 each. A district court is held twice a year in each county, having original jurisdiction of felonies, divorce, land titles, &c., and of civil cases involving $500 and upward, and appellate jurisdiction of probate cases from the county courts. A district judge (annual salary, $2,500; term, four years) is elected by the qualified voters of each of the 26 judicial districts. A county judge is elected by the qualified voters of each county for two years. The county courts have original jurisdiction of misdemeanors, probate cases, and civil cases involving from $200 to $1,000, and appellate jurisdiction of judgments of justices of the peace. The right of suffrage is conferred upon every male citizen of the United States, or person who has declared his intention to become such, of sound mind and not a pauper or convict, who has attained the age of 21 years and has resided one year in the state and six months in the county or district. Elections are by ballot. In elections in cities and corporate towns to determine expenditure of money or assumption of debt only taxpayers may vote. General elections are held biennially on the Tuesday next after the first Monday of November in even years (commencing with 1878). Amendments to the constitution must be proposed by two thirds of each house of the legislature, and approved by a majority of the people. Texas is entitled to six representatives and two senators in congress, and therefore has eight votes in the electoral college.—The valuation of property, according to the United States censuses, has been as follows:

 YEARS.  ASSESSED VALUE. True value
of real and
 personal estate. 

Real
estate.
Personal
estate.
Total.





1850 ...........  ...........  ...........   $52,740,473
1860  $112,476,013   $155,316,322   $267,792,335  365,200,614
1870 97,186,568  52,546,361  149,782,929  159,052,542

The decrease from 1860 to 1870 was due to the civil war, and particularly to the emancipation of the slaves. The assessed value of property in 1874 was $241,841,860; in 1875 it was believed that with a proper system of assessment it would amount to $300,000,000. The taxation of 1873 amounted to $2,517,394, of which $1,286,188 ($168,254 on polls and $1,117,934 on property) was state and $1,231,206 county. The estimated receipts during the year ending Aug. 31, 1876, available for the general expenses of the state, are $1,289,348; available for school purposes, $715,129 70; total, $2,004,477 70, of which $1,400,130 are from taxes on property, $279,000 from occupation tax, $170,347 70 from poll taxes, $125,000 from interest on permanent school fund, and $30,000 from office fees. The appropriations for the same period are as follows: for executive departments, $182,230; judicial department, $256,625; school department, $505,400, including $500,000 for teachers' wages; blind asylum, $16,120; deaf and dumb asylum, $14,000; lunatic asylum, $38,300; penitentiary, $40,000; interest, $480,000; frontier defence, $150,000; other purposes, $5,610; total, $1,688,285. The bonded debt on Aug. 31, 1875, amounted to $4,107,588; floating debt, $614,326 36; total, $4,721,914 36. Besides this there was a debt of doubtful validity, amounting to $829,687 66, and consisting of bonds issued by the state to the school and university funds, with accrued interest thereon.—The state institutions are the penitentiary, at Huntsville, and the institution for the deaf and dumb (opened in 1857), the institute for the blind (1856), and the lunatic asylum (1861), at Austin. The labor of the convicts is leased to contractors. The number registered at the penitentiary in November, 1875, was 1,686, of whom 452 were employed at the penitentiary and the rest elsewhere. The institution for the deaf and dumb in 1874 had 46 pupils (31 males and 15 females); the blind institute, 40 (16 males and 24 females); and the lunatic asylum, 127 inmates (68 males and 59 females). In 1875 an act was passed providing for the erection of two additional penitentiaries, one N. E. of the Trinity river and the other W. of the Colorado river.—The governor, comptroller, and secretary of state constitute a board of education. The public schools are regulated by an act of 1873, with amendments. In each county a board of five school directors is elected for four years; these choose one of their number president, who is ex officio county superintendent of public instruction. In each school district three trustees are elected annually. Cities may assume control of the schools within their limits, subject to the general school law. The schools for white and colored children are separate. Under the provisions of the constitution one fourth of the revenue from general taxation and a poll tax of $1 on males between 21 and 60 years of age, together with the interest on the permanent school fund, are annually set apart for the support of public schools; there is also a landed endowment, consisting of 60,314,000 acres of the public domain. In 1874 there were 2,129 public schools, with 98,308 pupils enrolled, out of a school population (6 to 18 years) of 313,061; private schools, 132, with 4,381 pupils; public school houses, 1,007; amount of state school fund apportioned, $499,930 50; teachers' wages, $612,878 67. Only 77 counties reported the number of pupils enrolled in the public schools; the number enrolled in the entire state was estimated by the superintendent of public instruction at 161,670. The permanent school fund on Aug. 31, 1875, amounted to $2,637,673 31. Under acts of congress of 1862 and 1866, the state received a donation of 180,000 acres of land scrip for the establishment of an agricultural and mechanical college. This was sold in 1871, and the proceeds were invested in 7 per cent. gold bonds of the state ($174,000). Buildings have been erected by the state near Bryan. The following table gives particulars of collegiate institutions for 1874-'5:

INSTITUTIONS. Location. Denomination. Date of
 organization. 
Number of
 instructors. 
 Number of 
students.






Baylor university  Independence  Baptist 1845 80 
Austin college  Huntsville  Presbyterian 1850 ... 
University of St. Mary   Galveston  Roman Catholic 1854 10  163 
Soule university  Chappell Hill, Washington co.   Methodist Episcopal, South  1856 ..  ... 
Waco university  Waco  Baptist 1857 14  291 
Salado college  Salado, Bell co.  Non-sectarian 1869 204 
Trinity university  Tehuacana, Limestone co.  Cumberland Presbyterian 1869 13  408 
Henderson college  Henderson, Rusk co.  Non-sectarian 1871 200 
Texas university  Georgetown, Williamson co.  Methodist Episcopal, South 1874 63 

These institutions, besides the ordinary college course, have preparatory and inferior departments, which embrace the greater part of the students. Several of them admit both sexes. A law department has been organized in Trinity university. The American dental college at Austin, organized in 1873, and the Galveston medical college, founded in 1864, have each six professors. The Barnes institute, at Galveston, Coronal institute at San Marcos, Hays co., St. Mary's Catholic institute, at San Antonio, and the Texas military institute, at Austin, are important. Among female seminaries are the Andrew female college, at Huntsville; Baylor female college, at Independence; Bryan female seminary, Brazos co.; Chappell Hill female college; Lamar female college, at Paris, Lamar co.; Ursuline academy, at Galveston; and Waco female college. The state has set apart 1,221,000 acres of land for the establishment of a university, but no steps have yet been taken to found the institution. There were also in the treasury on Aug. 31, 1874, bonds to the amount of $134,472 26 belonging to the university fund.—The number of libraries returned by the census of 1870 was 455, with an aggregate of 87,111 volumes, of which 135, with 25,018 volumes, were other than private, including 131 Sunday school libraries, with 19,318 volumes. There were 112 newspapers and periodicals, issuing 4,214,800 copies annually and having a circulation of 55,250, viz.: 12 daily, circulation 3,500; 5 tri-weekly, 2,450; 5 semi-weekly, 3,700; 89 weekly, 45,300; and 1 semi-monthly, 300. The following are the statistics of churches, according to the census:

DENOMINATIONS.  Organizations.   Edifices.   Sittings.   Property. 





Baptist 275  211  61,700  $196,540
Christian 18  17  4,450  11,650
Congregational 500  5,000
Episcopal 32  31  11,400  109,400
Jewish 400  6,000
Lutheran 23  21  7,650  47,900
Methodist 355  244  69,100  251,140
Presbyterian, regular  86  70  22,750  128,500
Presbyterian, other 15  14  4,850  14,100
Roman Catholic 36  36  16,000  264,200
Union 300  1,000




Total 843  647   199,100   $1,085,430

—In 1685 a colony of French emigrants led by the sieur de La Salle, designing to found a settlement in the delta of the Mississippi, sailed past it unawares, landed in Matagorda bay, and erected Fort St. Louis on the Lavaca. In 1689 Capt. De Leon, a Spanish officer, was despatched to the Lavaca to scour the country and hunt out the French. He arrived there on April 22, found the garrison scattered, and returned the next year with 110 men and some friars, and established on the site of Fort St. Louis the mission of San Francisco. In 1691 a Spanish governor of the region was appointed, and soldiers were sent to enforce his authority; but in 1693 the hostility of the Indians, the failure of the crops, and the death of their cattle discouraged the colonists, and the settlements were abandoned. The Spaniards had settlements at El Paso and at San Juan Bautista, both on the right bank of the Kio Grande, but none within the present bounds of Texas. In 1714 the French again attempted to effect a settlement within its limits, and Crozat, to whom Louis XIV. had granted the whole of Louisiana, sent Huchereau Saint-Denis upon an expedition thither. He penetrated from the Sabine to the Rio Grande, and visited the Spanish mission of San Juan, where he was taken prisoner by the governor of Coahuila; but having subsequently married the daughter of the commandant of that mission, he introduced Spanish missionaries into Texas, who established a mission on the bay of San Bernardo or Matagorda, another west of the Sabine and near the coast (the famous mission of Dolores), and a third on the right bank of the San Pedro, near San Antonio, subsequently removed eastward, and known as the Alamo. Two other missions were established soon after, one near Nacogdoches, the other not far from San Augustine. The name of “the New Philippines” was now given to the country, and in 1715 the marquis de Aguayo was made governor general of the colony. For 20 years the Spaniards held sole sway, and multiplied their settlements. In 1735 Saint-Denis, who had acquired great influence over the Texas Indians, aided in removing a French settlement on Red river into Texas; the Spaniards protested, but owing to quarrels among themselves did not drive them out, and finally conceded that they had a right to the region they were occupying. In 1758 the Indians attacked the mission of San Saba, and killed all its inhabitants. This caused the decline of the missions in Texas, as the slaughter was never avenged; in 1765 there were not more than 750 European inhabitants, with about the same number of domiciled Indians. In 1762-'3 the feud between France and Spain was finally settled by the cession of the vast Louisiana territory by the former power to the latter. In 1803, Spain having re-ceded Louisiana to France, that power sold it to the United States; and as there had been no well defined boundary between Louisiana and the old Spanish possessions W. of it, a controversy at once ensued between Spain and the United States on the question of boundaries, Spain claiming a region E. of the Sabine, and the United States urging that they were entitled to the country W. as far as the Rio Grande. In October, 1806, Gen. Herrera, the Spanish commander, entered into an agreement with Gen. Wilkinson establishing the territory between the Sabine and Arroyo Honda as a neutral ground, and retired W. of that line. At this time the population of Texas was about 7,000, many of the settlers being adventurers engaged in illicit trade between the United States and Mexico. From 1806 a series of revolutionary efforts commenced, beginning with the projected movement of Aaron Burr, and embracing the expeditions of Magee, a former lieutenant of the U. S. army; of Col. Kemper, his successor; of Bernardo Gutierrez; of Col. Ellis P. Bean, who had suffered a protracted and cruel imprisonment from the Spanish authorities; of Gen. J. A. Toledo, a Cuban republican; of Col. Perry, an American officer; of Auzy, who styled himself governor of Texas; and of Xavier Mina, a Spanish refugee, who aided in the capture of Galveston island in 1816. In these expeditions there were several severe battles fought between the invaders and the Spanish authorities; on two occasions in 1813, the invaders defeated the Spanish forces, and caused them a loss of more than 1,000. In the same year, of a force of 2,500 Americans and Mexicans, all were slain but about 100, a considerable number being butchered in cold blood, and nearly 700 of the peaceable inhabitants of San Antonio murdered. In 1817 Mina won several victories in conflict with the Spanish troops, but was finally defeated, taken prisoner, and shot on Nov. 11 of that year. After the close of the war of 1812 Lafitte, the pirate of the gulf, made Galveston island his headquarters, and established a town there named Campeachy. He remained here till 1821, when a naval force was despatched by the United States government to break up the settlement In 1819 the long controversy between the United States and Spain in regard to the Texan boundary was terminated by the establishment of the Sabine as the boundary line. This treaty occasioned much dissatisfaction on the part of the western and southwestern states. Mr. Clay and other prominent men opposed it. A revolutionary expedition was organized at Natchez the same year, under the command of Dr. James Long, a Tennesseean, which penetrated as far as Nacogdoches and established a provisional government there, and the leader went to Galveston island to secure the coöperation of Lafitte; but while he was absent his force was routed and cut to pieces by the royalist troops. In a second expedition Long took possession of La Bahia without difficulty; but, though Mexico had become independent under Iturbide, he and his followers were taken prisoners and sent to the city of Mexico, where after a brief imprisonment he was set at liberty, but was almost immediately assassinated, in 1822. Texas at this time was almost wholly deserted, the settlement at Galveston entirely abandoned, and the few inhabitants at other points reduced to poverty by the civil war. In 1820 Moses Austin, then residing in Missouri, received from the Spanish authorities of Mexico a grant of lands in Texas. He died before he was able to avail himself of it, and his son, Stephen F. Austin, received a confirmation of the grant in 1823, having already in the beginning of 1822 conducted a considerable number of colonists to the site he had selected in the vicinity of the present county of Austin. The colony increased rapidly, and Austin obtained permission to bring in 500 more families (his first grant was for 300). Others also followed in the establishment of colonies in the same vicinity. The Mexican constitution, adopted in 1824, united Coahuila, hitherto a separate province, with Texas in a single state, and the congress of the united state placed a Mexican as commandant of the department of Texas. The injustice of this commandant toward the American citizens, especially those attached to the colony of Hayden Edwards, created difficulty; and an appeal being made to the governor of the state, who was also a Mexican, he without trial or examination annulled Edwards's grant and ordered his expulsion from the state. Edwards and his colonists attempted unsuccessfully to effect a revolution; and in January, 1827, they were compelled to retreat into the United States. In 1830 Bustamante, who had seized the dictatorship of Mexico, issued a decree forbidding the people of the United States to enter Texas as colonists, and suspending all colony contracts which interfered with this prohibition. In 1832 the Texans sustained the pronunciamiento of Vera Cruz in favor of the constitution, and in opposition to the rule of Bustamante, and defeated a force under Col. Piedras, who favored the dictator. In 1833 the American settlers, now numbering over 20,000, held a convention, determined to separate themselves from Coahuila, and prepared a state constitution and an address to the general government, of which Santa Anna was now the head, requesting admission as a separate state into the republic. Col. S. F. Austin went to Mexico to present the request of the memorialists. He was unsuccessful, and was detained in Mexico till September, 1835, but in 1834 procured the revocation of the decree of Bustamante prohibiting the admission of colonists from the United States, and several other favorable concessions. Santa Anna sought to amuse Austin and the Texans with promises of allowing them a separate state government till he could occupy the country with his troops. The government of the state of Coahuila and Texas having been overthrown, committees of safety were established, the first being appointed at a meeting at Mina (now Bastrop), May 17, 1835. The first battle, or rather skirmish, was fought near Gonzales, Oct. 2. Other battles followed. Goliad was captured by the Texans on Oct. 9, and the battle of Concepcion, near San Antonio, was fought on the 28th. On Nov. 3 the “Consultation,” a body composed of delegates from the municipalities, met at San Felipe de Austin, and proceeded to the organization of a provisional government. Henry Smith was elected governor and J. W. Robinson lieutenant governor, and a general council was organized. At the same time Sam Houston was elected Commander-in-chief, and Austin was appointed a commissioner to the United States. San Antonio do Bexar was taken on Dec. 10, after being cannonaded for six days. By this victory the entire armed Mexican force was driven out of Texas. On the 20th a “Declaration of Independence” was issued at Goliad by Capt. Philip Dimitt and others there. Santa Anna set out with an army of 7,500 men, well provided with artillery, ammunition, and stores. On Feb. 23, 1836, he invested the Alamo, a strong fort near San Antonio, which was garrisoned at this time by 140 men under command of W. B. Travis, and 32 more subsequently forced their way through the Mexicans into it. Santa Anna with 4,000 men bombarded it for 11 days, and finally carried it by storm. On March 6 the whole garrison were put to the sword, and but three persons, a woman, a child, and a servant, were spared. The Mexican loss was 1,600. On March 1 a convention assembled at Washington on the Brazos, and on the 2d issued a declaration of independence; on the 16th a provisional president (David G. Burnet) and other officers were elected, and a constitution was adopted, which was signed on the 17th. Meanwhile Gen. Houston found it necessary on the approach of Santa Anna to evacuate Gonzales. The tragedy of the Alamo, the murder of Col. Fannin's command in cold blood at Goliad, March 27, 1836, by Santa Anna's order, in violation of the terms of surrender (see Fannin, James W.), and the successive defeats of the Texan troops, produced a temporary panic. This was increased by the continued retreat of Gen. Houston, who fell back first to the Colorado, then to the Brazos, and finally to the San Jacinto, his design being to scatter and divide the Mexican force, in which he was eminently successful. The alarm soon passed away, and having collected a force of about 800 troops, he gave battle on April 21 to the Mexican forces which had pursued them, of about twice the number, and defeated them completely, killing 630, wounding 208, and taking 730 prisoners; among the latter (though not captured till the next day) was the Mexican president, who had commanded in person. The Mexicans were at once demoralized, and retreated rapidly westward in disorder. Santa Anna was held a prisoner, but the war was practically ended; and though the Mexican government made several attempts to fit out other armies to reconquer Texas, and refused to acknowledge its independence, their forces did not again invade the country. Gen. Houston, who had been wounded in the battle of San Jacinto, and had resigned his command of the army, was elected president in September, 1836, and on Oct. 22 was inaugurated. The first congress of the republic assembled about the same time, the constitution having been adopted in the election of September. In March, 1837, the United States acknowledged the independence of Texas. In 1838 Mirabeau B. Lamar succeeded Gen. Houston as president. Repeated incursions were made by the Comanches and other Indian tribes; and in 1840 the Texans pursued them after one of their forays, penetrated into their country, and inflicted summary and severe punishment. In 1839 the independence of the republic was acknowledged by France, and in 1840 by England, Holland, and Belgium. But while thus recognized by leading powers as independent, her financial condition was every month becoming more deplorable. In September, 1841, Gen. Houston was again elected president. In 1841 and 1842 the Mexican government sent several marauding expeditions into Texas, and in the latter year San Antonio was twice captured and plundered. The Texans attempted reprisals by two ill-judged expeditions, neither under the direction of the government, the first in 1841 to Santa Fé, the second in 1842 to Mier in the state of Tamaulipas. Both were unsuccessful, and many of the Texans were taken prisoners by the Mexicans and executed. In the spring of 1843 a third expedition, intended to intercept the Mexican traders to Santa Fé, was fitted out by private parties, but with the approbation of the government, which also proved a failure. The same year, on the remonstrance of the British chargé d'affaires to Mexico, Santa Anna informed Gen. Houston that he would agree to an armistice, and commissioners were appointed. While the negotiations were pending, President Tyler made propositions to the president of Texas for her annexation to the United States, which after a time were favorably received, and a treaty was made looking to annexation. This treaty was completed and signed by the Texan commissioners and Mr. Calhoun, secretary of state, April 12, 1844, but was rejected by the United States senate on June 8. The agitation of this subject greatly irritated Mexico, and caused her to terminate the armistice and threaten the renewal of hostilities; it also displeased Great Britain and France, who desired to see Texas under an English or joint protectorate, without slavery, and free from the influence of the United States. In December, 1844, Dr. Anson Jones was inaugurated president of the republic. Its revenues were now increasing, and its population growing with great rapidity, and the threats of war from Mexico were rendered powerless by her weakness and dissensions. The only disturbances within the boundaries of Texas were the conflicts between the “regulators” and the “moderators” in Shelby and adjacent counties. These were finally put down by armed force. Joint resolutions providing for the annexation of Texas passed the United States house of representatives by a vote of 120 to 98, Jan 25, 1845, and the senate by a vote of 27 to 25 on Feb. 27, with an amendment, which was concurred in by the house the next day by a vote of 132 to 76. On March 1 these resolutions were approved by President Tyler. President Jones called a convention of 61 delegates to meet on July 4 to consider the propositions for annexation, and that convention ratified the act and prepared a constitution for the republic as a state of the federal Union, which was submitted to the people and approved by them. On Dec. 29 a joint resolution of congress declared Texas admitted into the Union as a state. Its annexation led to a war with Mexico, which terminated in 1848. (See Mexico.) Under the Spaniards Texas was bounded W. by the Nueces and N. by Red river, but at the time of its annexation the republic claimed as its W. boundary the Rio Grande and a line running N. from the source of that stream to the 42d parallel, making its area 376,133 sq. m. In 1850 the state ceded to the United States its claim to all territory beyond its present limits, in consideration of $10,000,000 in bonds, with the proceeds of which the state debt was paid. At the presidential election in 1860, 47,548 votes were cast for the Breckinridge electors, and 15,438 for the Bell electors. As soon as the election of Lincoln became known, the secessionists began to urge the governor (Sam Houston) to call an extra session of the legislature, which he for some time refused to do. Finally, the secessionists having called an irregular convention, the governor assembled the legislature on Jan. 21, 1861, which sanctioned the convention thus called. The convention met on Jan. 28, and on Feb. 1 adopted an ordinance of secession by a vote of 166 to 7, which on Feb. 23 was ratified by the people by a vote of 34,794 to 11,235. The governor having neglected to take the oath of allegiance to the confederacy, as required by the convention, an ordinance was passed on March 16 declaring his seat vacant, which action was confirmed by the legislature on the 20th. The permanent constitution of the Confederate States was ratified on March 23 by a vote of 68 to 2. In the mean time, on Feb. 18, Gen. Twiggs, in command of the United States forces in Texas, surrendered his entire command and all the military posts and munitions of war to the state authorities. No very important military operations occurred in the state during the war. Galveston was occupied by a federal force on Oct. 8, 1862, but it was retaken by the confederates on Jan. 1, 1863. On Oct. 26 Gen. Banks set out from New Orleans with an expedition under the immediate command of Gen. Dana, and landed at Brazos Santiago on Nov. 2. Brownsville was entered on the 16th, and other points in western Texas were occupied. The last fight of the war took place in western Texas on May 13, 1865, between a federal force under Col. Barret and a confederate force under Gen. Slaughter, the latter being victorious. On the 26th Gen. Kirby Smith surrendered the last confederate army. On July 21 Gen. A. J. Hamilton, appointed provisional governor by President Johnson, arrived at Galveston. An election was held on Jan. 8, 1866, for delegates to a state convention, those being entitled to vote who were qualified according to the laws in force prior to secession, and who had taken the amnesty oath prescribed by the president's proclamation of May 29, 1865. The convention met on Feb. 10 and adjourned on April 25, having adopted amendments to the constitution declaring the ordinance of secession void, abolishing slavery, and repudiating the war debt. At an election held in June these amendments were ratified, and J. W. Throckmorton was chosen governor. On Aug. 13 he entered upon his duties. Under the reconstruction acts of 1867 Texas with Louisiana was constituted the fifth military district under Maj. Gen. Sheridan, and was placed in immediate command of Brev. Maj. Gen. Charles Griffin. Gen. Sheridan assumed command March 19, 1867. On July 30 Gov. Throckmorton was removed, and E. M. Pease appointed in his place. Several changes of military commanders subsequently took place. On a registration, 59,633 white and 49,497 colored voters were enrolled. At an election in February, 1868, a convention was called, which assembled on June 1 and remained in session till Aug. 31, when it took a recess. Reassembling on Dec. 7, it adopted a constitution, and adjourned in February, 1869. At an election held Nov. 30 to Dec. 3, 1869, the constitution was ratified by a vote of 72,366 to 4,928, and E. J. Davis, republican, was chosen governor over A. J. Hamilton, conservative republican. The legislature elected at the same time assembled on Feb. 8, 1870, and ratified the 14th and 15th amendments to the constitution of the United States. On March 30 an act was passed readmitting the state to representation in congress, and on April 16 the government was turned over to the civil authorities. Within the last few years Texas has suffered severely from Indian incursions on the N. W. frontier and Mexican raids on the Rio Grande.