The American Cyclopædia (1879)/Utahs
UTAHS, or Utes, a large tribe of American Indians belonging to the Shoshone family, and roaming over a great part of New Mexico, Utah, Colorado, and Nevada. They are hunter tribes, hardy, athletic, and brave where game abounds; but some bands in sterile parts, where there are only sage rabbits, roots, seeds, &c., are wretchedly poor. The men wear long braided cues, while the hair of the women is short. Most of the work is done by women, and the Indians in some bands sell their wives and children to neighboring tribes. They are filthy in their habits, and their arms range from the original club, bow, and lance to good rifles. The principal bands of late years, for they vary, are the Tabequache, Muache, Capote, Weeminuche, Yampa, Grand River, and Uintah bands in Colorado and New Mexico; the Pi Edes, Pi Utes, Elk mountain Utes, and Shebe Ucher in the south and east of Utah; and the Weber Utes, Timpanagos, Sanpitches, Pahvants, and Goshutes in other parts of that territory. They have generally been friendly to the whites, though at times some bands have plundered emigrants on the plains. The bands in Utah were at first friendly to the Mormons, but after an attack by Walker's bands a body of volunteers defeated them, killing and taking many. A treaty was made with the Capotes in 1855, but some bands became hostile again. The Mohuaches declined to join the Mormons against the United States, but there was some fighting between the Utes and the miners at Pike's peak, and Winnemucca defeated Maj. Ormsby on Truckee river in a well fought battle. By a treaty made June 8, 1865, some of the bands ceded all their lands, the largest concession ever made by a tribe, and agreed to go on reservations; but a bad spirit soon became manifest. Black Hawk, a chief of the Pah Utes, for several years carried on a bloody warfare. Sanpitch, chief of the tribe so called, was arrested for aiding Black Hawk, and killed in endeavoring to escape; and in October, 1866, Col. Alexander defeated Ankotash, a Mohuache chief, killing many. In 1866 a treaty was made with the Grand Eiver Utes and Tabequacb.es, to secure roads, &c. The reservation plan was carried out with so little judgment, that great suffering and general demoralization resulted. The treaty of 1865 guaranteed them $25,000 a year for 10 years, $20,000 for 20 years, and $15,000 for 30 years. The Goship Utes have $1,000 a year for 20 years under treaty of Oct. 12, 1863. It was found that valuable mines existed on the Ute reservation in Colorado, and under the act of April 23, 1872, for reducing the reservation, the secretary of the interior was authorized to contract with the tribe for a part of it. The Indians on the reservation, Tabequaches, Muaches, Capotes, Weeminuches, Yampas, Grand Rivers, and Uintahs, at last consented; and they ceded 4,000,000 acres for $25,000 a year for ever. Very soon however Miller, one of the Indian agents, was killed by two Utes, and this with theft of stock by the Capotes led to a collision between them and the troops. A careful census of the whole tribe in 1874 gave in Utah 8 bands of Pi Utes, numbering 528; 3 bands in northern Arizona, 284; 15 in southern Nevada, 1,031; 5 in S. E. California, 184; the Uintahs, Sanpitches, Timpanagos, and 4 other bands of Utes on the Uintah reservation, 556; the Pahvants of Utah, 134; and the Goshutes of Utah and Nevada, 460; 300 Chemehueves in California, who belong really to the Utes; the Pah Utes at Walker river, 6,000; at Southeast agency, 3,000; the Tabequaches, Capotes, Muaches, and Weeminuches, 3,199; and Peah's band, 350. Their property is chiefly in horses.