The Ancient Stone Implements, Weapons, and Ornaments of Great Britain/Chapter 10
Under this head I propose to treat of those implements which have apparently been used as hammers, but which, for that purpose, were probably held in the hand alone, and not provided with a shaft, as the groove or shaft-hole characteristic of the class last described, is absent. At the same time there are some hammer-stones in which there are cavities worked on either face, so deep and so identical in character with those which, in meeting each other, produce the bell-mouthed perforations commonly present in the hammers intended for hafting, that at first sight it seems difficult to say whether they are finished implements, or whether they would have become perforated hammer-heads had the process of manufacture been completed. Certainly in some cases the cavities appear to be needlessly deep and conical for the mere purpose of receiving the finger and thumb, so as to prevent the stone slipping out of the hand; and yet such apparently unfinished instruments occur in different countries, in sufficient numbers to raise a presumption that the form is intentional and complete. There are some instances where, as was thought to be the case with a quartz pebble from Firth, in Orkney, the unfinished implements may have been cast aside owing to the stone having cracked, or to the holes bored on each face not being quite opposite to each other, so as to form a proper shaft-hole.
In other instances, as in Figs. 160 and 161, the battering of the end proves that the stones have been in actual use as hammers. It is of course possible that these cavities may have been worked for the purpose of mounting the stones in some other manner than by fixing the haft in a socket. A split stick may, for instance, have been used, with a part of the wood on each side of the fissure worked away, so as to leave projections to fit the cavities, and have then been bound together so as to securely grasp the pebble. A stone mallet, consisting of a large pebble mounted between two curved pieces of wood, somewhat resembling the hames of a horse collar, and firmly bound together at each end, is still used by the quarrymen of Trichinopoly, in India. Another method of hafting stones, by tying them on to the side of a stick with little or no previous preparation, is practised by the Aymara Indians of Bolivia and Peru. Mr. D. Forbes, F.R.S., in his interesting account of this people, has engraved a pebble thus mounted, which was in use as a clod crusher. One of them is preserved in the Christy Collection. Among the Apaches, in Mexico, hammers are made of rounded pebbles hafted in twisted withes.
Fig. 160.—Helmsley. 1
A remarkable hammer-head, found at Helmsley, in the North Riding of Yorkshire, is in the collection formed by Canon Greenwell. It is shown in Fig. 160, and has been made from a rather coarse-grained quartzite pebble, both ends of which have, however, been worn away by use to an extent probably of an inch in each case, or of two inches in the whole pebble. The worn ends are rounded, but somewhat hollow in the middle, as if they had at that part been used for striking against some cylindrical or sharp surface. The funnel-shaped cavities appear almost too deep and too sharp at their edges to have been intended merely to assist in holding the hammer in the hand, and it seems possible that their original purpose may have been in connection with some method of hafting. The hammer has, however, eventually been used in the hand alone, for the wear of the ends extends over the face, quite to the margin of one of the cavities, and at such an angle, that it would have been almost impossible for any handle to have been present. But if the stone be held in the hand, with the middle finger in the cavity, the wear is precisely on that part of the stone which would come in contact with a flat surface, in hammering upon it. What substance it was used to pound or crush it is impossible to determine, but not improbably it may have been animal food; and bones as well as meat may have been pounded with it.
A quasi-cubical hammer-stone, with recesses on two opposite faces, found at Moel Fenlli, Ruthin, Denbighshire, has been figured. It is now in my collection.
The specimen engraved as Fig. 161 has been made from a quartzite pebble, and has the conical depression deeper on one face than the other. It was found at Winterbourn Bassett, Wilts, and is now in the British Museum.
Fig. 161.—Winterbourn Bassett. 1
In the Norwich Museum is a similar pebble, from Sporle, near Swaffham. It is 33 inches long, recessed on each face, with a conical depression, the apex rounded. These cavities are about 11 inches diameter on the face of the stone, and about 3 inch in depth. The Rev. W. C. Lukis, F.S.A., had a hammer-stone of this kind, 3 inches long, found at Melmerby, Cumberland. One (6 inches) was found at Langtree, Devon, another (31 inches) at Trefeglwys, Montgomeryshire. I have one (3 inches) from Ryton-on-Dunsmore, Coventry, and a thinner example, 23 inches, much worn at the ends, from Litlington, Cambs.
A circular rough-grained stone, 3 inches in diameter, with deep cup-like indentations on each face, found on Goldenoch Moor, Wigtownshire, is in the National Museum at Edinburgh; where is also another hammer formed of a greenstone pebble (31 inches), with broad and deep cup-shaped depressions on each face, and much worn at one end, which came from Dunning, Perthshire. There are other examples of the same kind in the same museum. Many have, indeed, been found in Scotland. A good example from Machermore Loch, Wigtownshire, and several others, have been figured.
That from Goldenoch, shown in Fig. 161a, has a deep recess on each face. Others from Fife have the recess on one face only. In the case of one from the Island of Coll the recesses are at the sides instead of on the faces.
In some cases the depressions are shallower, and concave rather than conical. I have a flat irregular disc of greenstone, about 21 inches diameter and 5 inch thick, thinning off to the edges, which are rounded, and having in the centre of each face a slight cup-like depression, about 5 inch in diameter. It was found in a trench at Ganton, Yorkshire. In the Greenwell Collection is a somewhat larger disc of sandstone, worn on both faces and round the whole edge, and with a slight central depression. It was found in a cairn at Harbottle Peels, Northumberland. In form, these instruments are identical with the Tilhuggersteene of the Danish antiquaries, and it is possible that some of them, especially those of the circular form, may have been used for the purpose of chipping out other kinds of stone implements.
The type is not of uncommon occurrence in Ireland. It is rare in France, but a broken example from the neighbourhood of Amiens is in the Blackmore Museum.
I have a specimen which might be mistaken for Danish or Irish, but which was brought me from Port Beaufort, Cape of Good Hope, by Captain H. Thurburn, F.G.S. It must have been in use there at no very remote period.
An oval stone, with what appears to be a cup-shaped depression on one face, 3 inch deep, is engraved by Schoolcraft as a relic of the Congarees. Another, from the Delaware River, of the Danish form, is described by Nilsson as a tool for making arrow-points. He also engraves one from Greenland. Other so-called hammer-stones in the same plate are more probably "strike-a-light" stones, and under any circumstances belong to the Early Iron Period. Abbott and Rau also describe Indian hammer-stones, some like Fig. 161.
Highly polished, and deep cup-shaped or conical depressions are occasionally to be observed occurring on one or both faces of large pebbles, usually of quartz, and sometimes in two or three places on the same face. Though very similar to the hollows on the hammer-stones, they are due to a very different cause, being merely the results of stone bearings or journals having been employed, instead of those of brass, for the upright spindles of corn mills. It seems strange that for such a purpose stone should have gone out of use, it being retained, and indeed regarded as almost indispensable for durability, in the case of watches, the pivot-holes of which are so frequently "jewelled."
Fig. 162, which I have reproduced from the Sussex Archæological Collections on the same scale as the other figures, shows a pivot-stone of quartzite (?) found in the ruins of St. Botolph's Priory, Pembrokeshire, a few yards from a pebble (41 inches) of similar material, in which a hole had been bored to the depth of half an inch apparently by the friction of the pointed end of the smaller pebble. Another pivot-stone of the same kind was found at Bochym, Cornwall. Such socket-stones were, until recently, in use in Scotland and Piedmont for the iron spindles of the upper mill-stones of small watermills. Pivot-stones with larger socket-stones were also used for field-gates. Similar socket-stones occur in Switzerland, and have puzzled Dr. Keller.
A stone, with a well-polished cavity, found on the site of an old mill near Carluke, Lanarkshire, was exhibited at Edinburgh in 1856. Another was found in Argyllshire; and I have seen other specimens from Ireland. The socket of the hinge of the great gate at Dunnottar Castle is said to have consisted of a similar stone. Stones with highly-polished hollows in them, in which apparently the ends of drill-sticks revolved, are common on the site of ancient Naukratis.
As has already been observed at page 223, it is by no means uncommon to find portions of polished celts which, after the edge has been by some means broken away, have been converted into hammers. Very rarely, there is a cup-like cavity worked on either face in the same manner as in the celts shown in Figs. 87 and 88. A specimen of this character, from the neighbourhood of Bridlington, is shown in Fig. 163. It is of close-grained greenstone, and, to judge from the thickness of the battered end, the celt, of which this originally formed the butt, must have been at least half as long again as it is in its present form. The cavities have been worked out with some kind of pick or pointed tool, and from their position so near the butt-end, it seems probable that they did not exist in the original celt, but were subsequently added when it had lost its cutting edge, and was destined to be turned into a hammer-stone. In the Greenwell Collection is a similar specimen, 4 inches long, found at Wold Newton, in the East Riding of Yorkshire. In the celts with cup-shaped depressions on their faces, but still retaining their edge, the depressions are nearer the centre of the blade.
This hollowing of a portion of the surface is sometimes so slight as to amount to no more than a roughening of the face, such as would enable the thumb and fingers to take a sufficiently secure hold of the stone, to prevent its readily falling out of the hand when not tightly grasped; a certain looseness of hold being desirable, to prevent a disagreeable jarring when the blows were struck. If, as seems probable, many of these hammers or pounders were used for the purpose of splitting bones, so as to lay bare the marrow, we can understand the necessity of roughening a portion of the greasy surface of the stone, to assist the hold.
In Fig. 164 I have represented a large quartz pebble found in Easton Field, Bridlington, which has the roughened depression on both faces rather more strongly marked than usual, especially on the face here shown. It is more battered at one end than the other, and has evidently been long in use. It shows some traces of grinding at the lower end in the figure, as if it had been desirable for it to have a sort of transverse ridge at the end, to adapt it to the purpose for which it was used.
Canon Greenwell found in a barrow at Weaverthorpe, Yorkshire, a hammer-stone of this kind, but nearly circular in form. It is a flat quartz pebble, about 13 inches in diameter, battered all round, and broken at one part, and having the centre of one face artificially roughened.
A round hammer (21 inches), with depressions on each face, was found at Gatley, Cheshire. Hammer-stones of the same character occurred abundantly on the site of ancient Naukratis. The wallong, or stone used by the Australian natives for grinding nardoo seeds on the yow wi, a large flat stone, is curiously like Fig. 164.
To the same class, belongs the hammer-stone shown in Fig. 165, found at Huntow, near Bridlington. It has been made from a quartz pebble, of the original surface of which but little remains, and has a well-marked depression about 1 inch, deep in the centre of each face. The periphery is much worn away by use.
A fine-grained sandstone pebble, in form like a small cheese, about 3 inches in diameter, having the two faces smooth and perfectly flat, was found at Red Hill, near Reigate, and was regarded as a muller or pounding-stone used possibly in husking or bruising grain; or even for chipping flint, its surface bearing the mark of long-continued use as a pestle or hammer. "Precisely similar objects have been found in Northumberland, and other parts of England."
Canon Greenwell informs me that about twenty such, differing in size and thickness, were found on Corbridge Fell, together with several stone balls. He thinks they may possibly have been used in some game. A paper on the stone hammer and its various uses has been published by Mr. J. D. McGuire.
The circular stone from Upton Lovel Barrow, engraved by Sir E. Colt Hoare, appears to be a hammer or, more probably, a rubbing-stone, but it is worn to a ridge all round the periphery. I have a precisely similar instrument from Ireland. Other mullers from Wiltshire barrows have been figured by Dr. Thurnam. Several such discoidal stones, somewhat faceted on their periphery, were found by the late Hon. W. O. Stanley, in his examination of the ancient circular habitations in Holyhead Island, and some have been engraved.
An almost spherical stone, but flattened above and below, where the surface is slightly polished, was found in Whittington Wood, Gloucestershire, and exhibited to the Society of Antiquaries in 1866. It is of quartzite, about 3 inches in diameter. Another, of the same size, of depressed spherical form, was found in Denbighshire, and another flat disc of quartz in Aberdeenshire.
Pebbles that have been used in this way, as pounders or mullers, belong to various ages and different degrees of civilization. Some well worn have been found in Yorkshire barrows and elsewhere. One from Philiphaugh, Selkirkshire, has been figured. I have one such, worn into an almost cubical form, which was found with Roman remains at Poitiers, and I have seen several others said to be of Roman date. A pounding-stone of much the same form as Fig. 165, found on the summit of the Mont d'Or, Lyonnais, has been engraved by M. Chantre, with others of the same character. I have seen examples in Germany.
I have a flat granite pebble, about 31 inches by 3 inches, the sides straight, the ends round, and with well-marked circular depressions in each face, from Cayuga County, New York. It has certainly been used as a hammer-stone. Such mullers are by no means uncommon in North America. Some of the American stone discs, which are occasionally pierced, appear to have been more probably used in certain games.
Cup-shaped cavities occasionally occur on stones which have not apparently been intended for use as hammers. In the soil of one of the barrows at Rudstone, near Bridlington, Canon Greenwell found a fragment of a greenstone pebble, nearly flat on one face, in which a concave depression, about an inch over and 1 inch deep, had been picked. In the National Museum at Edinburgh is a subquadrate flat piece of grit, 1 inch thick and about 31 inches long, on each face of which is a cup-shaped depression about 11 inches in diameter. It does not appear to have been used as a hammer. Mr. James Wyatt, F.G.S., had a piece of close-grained grit, in shape somewhat like a thick axe-head, 41 inches long, 3 inches wide, and 3 inches thick, with four concave depressions, one on each face and side, found at Kempston Road, near Bedford. What purpose these hollows fulfilled, it is difficult to guess. The stones in which they occur may, however, have been used as anvils or mortars on which to hammer or pound; or the cavities may have served to steady objects of bone, stone, or wood in the process of manufacture. Anvil stones, with pits worn on their faces, probably by flints having been broken upon them, have been found in Scotland. A sandstone with a concave depression on each of its six faces has been regarded by Mortillet as a grindstone for fashioning stone buttons or the convex ends of other implements. I have seen analogous cavities produced, on a larger scale, on blocks of granite which have been used as anvils, on which to break road materials. The cup and ring cuttings common on ancient stone monuments, especially in Scotland, do not come within my province. Flat stones, with cup-shaped markings upon them, sometimes as many as seven on a stone, were found in considerable abundance in some of the Yorkshire barrows examined by Canon Greenwell.
The stones with cup-shaped depressions in them, found in the caves of the Reindeer Period in the south of France, have the hollows, in nearly all instances, upon one of their faces only, and have therefore more probably served as mortars than as hammers. The pebbles, from the same caves, which have been used as knapping or chipping stones, are usually left in their natural condition on the faces, though worn away at the edges, sometimes over the whole periphery. A very few of the hollowed stones show signs of use at the edges.
Stones with cup-shaped depressions, like those from the French caves, are in use in Siberia for crushing nuts and the seeds of the Cembro Pine; and among the natives of Australia for pounding a bulbous root called bellilah, and the roasted bark of trees and shrubs for food. Some Carib examples of the same kind are in the Ethnological Museum at Copenhagen, as well as some from Africa, used in the preparation of poison.
Some of the so-called corn-crushers and mealing-stones from the Swiss Lake-dwellings have shallow depressions on the faces, but for the most part they belong to the class to be subsequently described. I have one of granite, from Nussdorf, with a depression on one face, in which the thumb can be placed, while the forefinger lies in a groove, like that of a pulley, which extends about half-way round the stone. The opposite part of the edge is much worn by hammering. It approximates in form to the pulley-like stones to which the name of sling-stones has been given, but the use of which is at present a mystery.
A hammer-stone, curiously like that which I have engraved as Fig. 165, is among those found in the settlements of the Lac du Bourget, by M. Rabut. This or a similar one is in the British Museum. Another from Picardy has been figured.
Fig. 166.—Scamridge. 1
A hammer-stone, if so it may be called, of bronze, is among the antiquities from Greenland in the Ethnological Museum at Copenhagen.
Occasionally the depression is reduced to a minimum, and consists of merely a slight notch or roughening on one or both faces of the pebble which has served as a hammer or pounding-stone.
The irregular, flat greenstone pebble, worn away at both ends, shown in Fig. 166, has on one face only a notch, apparently intended to receive the thumb. It was found at Scamridge, Yorkshire, and is in the Greenwell Collection. It will be observed that it is worn into a curved ridge at one end. In the same collection is an oval quartzite pebble (41 inches), battered at both ends, and with a slight diagonal ridge at that most worn away. This was found in a barrow at Weaverthorpe, with an unburnt body. I have a flat greenstone pebble from Scamridge, Yorkshire, worn away at one end to a curved ridge somewhat oblique to the faces of the pebble, one of which is slightly polished as if by constant rubbing. There is in the Greenwell Collection a granite pebble (31 inches), from the same place, battered at one end, and the other much worn away by use, which also has one face flat and slightly polished. In the camp at Little Solsbury Hill, near Bath, I found two quartzite implements of rudely quadrangular prismatic form, each having one end worn away to a ridge. Another quartzite pebble, rubbed to an obtuse edge at one end, was found by General Pitt Rivers, F.R.S., within an ancient earthwork at Dorchester, Oxfordshire.
A hammer-stone of close-grained grit, having a ridge all round the periphery, was found in Anglesea. Others with ridged ends have occurred in crannogs at Lochlee, Ayrshire, and in Wigtownshire. Some of them seem to belong to the Iron Age.
Among the specimens just described, there are three peculiarities which, though not occurring together on all, are worthy of notice—the notch on the face, the ridge at the end, and the polished face.
There can be no doubt of the notch on the face being, like the cup-shaped depressions, merely intended as an aid in holding the stone. On the hammer-stones discovered by the late Mr. J. W. Flower, F.G.S., in a post-Roman kjökken-mödding, in the island of Herm, there were usually one or two rough notches or indentations on each face, exactly adapted to receive the ends of the thumb and some of the fingers; and, curiously enough, I have a pebble notched in precisely the same manner from Delaware Water Gap, Pennsylvania, and no doubt intended for a hand-hammer or pounder.
In the same kjökken-mödding at Herm were several celt-like implements of porphyry and greenstone which, instead of an edge, had the end blunt, but with a ridge obliquely across it, as on these pebbles. Somewhat similar pounding-stones have been found by the late Hon. W. O. Stanley, at Pen-y-Bonc, Holyhead, in some instances provided with a depression fitting the thumb or finger, and several having the ridge at the end.
The same sort of ridge occurs on pounding-stones from Denmark, Portugal, Spain, Ireland, and elsewhere, and occasionally extends all round the stone when it happens to be disc-shaped, like those already mentioned from Upton Level and elsewhere. Hammer-stones worn to a ridge are also found in Egypt. It would appear that the face of the hammer was ground away, either by a rocking motion on a flat stone, or by the blows given with it being administered alternately from the right and from the left, so as to keep any matter that was being pounded with it from being driven out of position.
I have, lastly, to notice the more or less polished condition of one of the faces of these stones, which may be due to their being used for grinding the material already pounded by their edges to a finer powder on the slab, which served instead of a mortar. One of the flat pebbles found in the Cave of La Madelaine, Dordogne, appears to have served as a muller for grinding the hæmatite used as paint.
Sometimes these hammer-stones are mere pebbles without any previous preparation, and indeed it is but natural that such should have been the case. Canon Greenwell has found pebbles of quartz and greenstone, worn and battered at the ends, accompanying interments on the Yorkshire Wolds, and such are also occasionally present on the surface, though they are, of course, liable to escape observation. A quartzite pebble that has served as a hammer-stone, and is much worn and fractured by use, was found at Ty Mawr, and is figured in the Archæological Journal, as are also several from hut-circles in Holyhead and Anglesea. A large sarsen-stone pebble, weighing 43 lbs., and which had obviously been used as a hammer, was found in the Long Barrow, at West Kennet, Wiltshire. A large conical sort of muller of sarsen-stone, weighing 121 lbs., was discovered with twenty-two skeletons, various animal remains, and pottery, in a large cist, in a barrow near Avebury. Mr. G. Clinch has a hammer from West Wickham, made from a nearly cylindrical quartz pebble, much worn at both ends, one of which is more rounded than the other.
On the Downs of Sussex, in the pits of Cissbury, in Yorkshire, Suffolk, Dorsetshire, and other counties, hammer-stones of flint, apparently used for chipping other flints, have been found, but from their rudeness it seems hardly worth while to engrave any specimens. At Grime's Graves the hammer-stones consisted principally of quartzite pebbles, though some were of flint. In many instances the hammers made of flint seem to be cores from which flakes have been struck, but which, proving to be of refractory stone, have been found more serviceable as hammers. Some of the cores found at Spiennes, near Mons, have been thus used, as well as fragments of celts. Some of the hammer-stones from the French caves consist also of such cores. Stone mullers are in common use in most countries at the present day, for grinding paint and similar purposes. They occur at the Cape of Good Hope, but were there, no doubt, originally intended for other uses.
1Figs. 167 and 168.—Yorkshire Wolds. 1
The general character of the chipped flint hammer-stones will be gathered from Figs. 167 and 168, both from the Yorkshire Wolds. Neither of them shows any trace of the original surface or crust of the flint from which it has been fashioned. The larger one has been chipped with numerous facets somewhat into the shape of a broad bivalve shell, and is much battered round the margin. Fig. 168 is much smaller than usual, and is more disc-like in character.
Fig. 168a.—Culbin Sands. 1
A large number of discoidal stones, formed from flattish quartzite pebbles, have been found on the Culbin Sands, Elginshire. By the kindness of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, one of them is shown in Fig. 168a. They maybe hammer-stones, but show no traces of use.
Fig. 169.—Bridlington. 1 More commonly, perhaps, the form is approximately spherical. Fig. 169 is, however, a more symmetrical specimen than usual. It was found by Mr. E. Tindall at Grindale, near Bridlington, and its surface is battered all over by continual pounding. I have others of similar character from Icklingham, Suffolk; Jordan Hill, Weymouth; and elsewhere. Two from Old Geir, Anglesea, are engraved in the Archæological Journal.
Numerous rude hammer-stones have been found at Carnac, Brittany.
One of chert, 3 inches in diameter, was found in the Isle of Portland, and several have been found in Dorsetshire which were supposed to have been used in fashioning flint implements; and balls of chert, 21 inches and 21 inches in diameter, found at West Coker, Somersetshire, and another from Comb-Pyne, Devonshire, have been thought to have been "intended for the sling, or else to be tied up in a leather thong attached to a staff, and employed as a sort of mace."
A globular nodule of flint, one pound in weight, and chipped all over, found with numerous flint flakes in the long-chambered barrow at West Kennet, appeared to Dr. Thurnam to have been used in their production. Several others found together in the parish of Benlochy, near Blairgowrie, were regarded as sling-stones. A lump of red flint found in a barrow near Pickering, in company with a flint spear-head and two arrow-heads at the right hand of a skeleton, was considered by Mr. Bateman to have been used as a hammer for chipping other flints. A more highly-decorated class of stone balls will be described at a subsequent page. Stone balls, such as were in common use for cannon in the Middle Ages, and those thrown by catapults and other military engines, do not come within my province.
Judging from the battered surface of the spherical stones now under consideration, there can be no doubt of their having been in use as hammers or pounders; but they were probably not in all cases used merely for fashioning other implements of stone, but also for triturating grain, roots, and other substances for food, in the same manner as round pebbles are still used by the native Australians. One such root, abundant in this country, is a principal article of food consumed by the Ahts of North America, among whom "the roots of the common fern or bracken are much used as a regular meal. They are simply washed and boiled, or beaten with a stone till they become soft, and are then roasted." In New Zealand also fern roots are pounded for food, with pestles of basalt. The corn-crushers and mealing-stones found in the Swiss Lake-dwellings have evidently been intended for the purposes which their names denote; and at the present day among many savage tribes, the only form of mill that is known is that of a flat or slightly concave bed-stone, with a stone rolling-pin or muller. Among the Kaffirs and in West Africa the mill is of this character, the bed-stone being large and heavy, slightly hollowed on its upper surface; the muller, a large oval pebble which is used with a peculiar rocking and grinding motion. The corn (maize or millet) is often boiled before grinding. In Abyssinia the bed-stone of gneiss or granite is about 2 feet in length and 14 inches in width. The face of this is roughened by beating it with a sharp-pointed piece of harder stone, such as quartz or hornblende, and the grain is reduced to flour by repeated grinding or rubbing with a stone rolling-pin. Such mealing-stones are also in use in South America. They have been occasionally found in Britain, and the annexed figure shows a pair found in a hut-circle at Ty Mawr, in the island of Holyhead. Others have been found in Anglesea. Similar specimens have been obtained in Cambridgeshire and Cornwall, and Mr. Tindall had a pair found near Bridlington. A mealing-stone with the muller was found in Ehenside Tarn, Cumberland. I have myself found a muller at Osbaston, Leicestershire. A pair of stones from the Fens is in the museum of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society. Some large blocks of flint, having a flat face bruised all over by hammering, have also been found in the Fens, and may have served as mealing-stones.
The same form of mill is found also in Ireland, and not improbably remained in occasional use until a comparatively late period. Fynes Moryson mentions having seen in Cork "young maides, stark naked, grinding corne with certaine stones, to make cakes thereof;" and the form of the expression seems to point to something different from a hand-mill or quern, which at that time was in common use in England. The name of saddle-quern has been given to this form of grinding apparatus. In the Blackmore Museum is one from the pit-dwellings at Highfield, near Salisbury, which are not improbably of post-Roman date; and in the British Museum is one found near Macclesfield.
They are also known in Scotland. One of granite, found near Wick, is in the National Museum at Edinburgh; as is also another, 20 inches by 12 inches, with a rubber 12 inches by 8 inches, found in a cave near Cullen, Banffshire.
They likewise occur in Shetland. Mr. J. W. Cursiter has a long narrow muller with a curved back, in which are five grooves to receive the fingers, so as to give it the appearance of being a fragment of an ammonite.
Some were likewise found in the Genista Cave at Gibraltar. They are common in West Prussia and in the Island of Rügen, as well as in Scandinavia generally.
A German saddle-quern, from the ancient cemetery at Monsheim, has been engraved by Lindenschmit. Others are mentioned by Klemm. MM. Siret have also found them in their explorations in Spain.
It will have been observed, in the instances I have cited, that the movable muller or grinding-stone is not spherical, but elongated; but what is possibly the more ancient form approached more closely to a pestle and mortar in character, and consisted of a bed-stone with a slight concavity in it, and a more or less spherical stone for a pounder.
A grinding-stone of granite, with a cavity, apparently for bruising grain by a globular stone, was found in Cornwall, and undressed slabs with concavities of the size and shape of an ordinary soup-plate, are of frequent occurrence in the Hebrides. Others have been found in company with stone balls, in the ancient habitations in Anglesea.
Fig. 171 shows a trough of stone, found at Ty Mawr, Holyhead, by the late Hon. W. O. Stanley, who kindly lent me the wood-cuts of Figs. 170 and 171. The cylindrical grinding-stone or muller was found within it, and has a central cavity on each face, to give the hand a better hold in grinding. A similar appliance was found at Pen-y-Bonc in the same island.
A triturating trough from Cleveland has been figured.
Fig. 171.—Ty Mawr.
Others have been discovered in Brittany.
Hand-mills of granite formed in much the same manner have been in use until lately in Brandenburg. The lower stones are described as from 2 feet to 4 feet long, and nearly as wide, with channels, after long use, as much as 6 inches deep; the mullers are either spherical or oval, and of such a size that they can be held in the hand.
A large sandstone, with a small bowl-shaped concavity worked in it, was found near burnt bones, in a barrow at Elkstone, Staffordshire; and two others in barrows near Sheen. Another, with a cup-shaped concavity, 21 inches in diameter, occurred in a barrow near Pickering; and in other barrows were found sandstone balls roughly chipped all over, from 4 inches to 1 inch in diameter, in one instance associated with a bronze dagger. A ball of sandstone, 21 inches in diameter, was found with flint instruments accompanying a contracted skeleton in a barrow near Middleton. A round stone like a cannon-ball was also found in a barrow near Cromer, and three balls of stone, from 21 inches to 13 inches in diameter, were picked up in a camp at Weetwood, Northumberland.
Mealing-stones, both flat and hollowed, were found in Schliemann's excavations at Troy.
In grinding and pounding a considerable amount of grit must have been worn off the stones and been mixed with the meal. The usual worn condition of the teeth in the skulls from ancient barrows may be connected with this attrition. Mr. Charters-White, by examination of some teeth from a long barrow at Heytesbury, Wilts, was able to show the presence of grains of sand of different kinds in the dental tartar.
There are two other forms of grinding apparatus still in use—the pestle and mortar, and the rotatory mill—both of which date back to an early period, and concerning which it will be well to say a few words in this place. The ordinary form of pestle—a frustum of a very elongated cone with the ends rounded, is so well known that it appears needless to engrave a specimen on the same scale as the other objects. In Fig. 172 is shown one of a more than usually club-shaped form, 11 inches long, found in Holyhead Island.
This cut originally appeared in illustration of an interesting paper by Mr. Albert Way, F.S.A., on some relics found in and near ancient circular dwellings in Holyhead Island, in which paper some of the other discoveries about to be mentioned are also cited. A pestle like a small club, 91 inches long, was found in a gravel-pit near Audley End, with a Roman cinerary urn. Another, of grey granite, more cylindrical in form, and flatter at one end, 111 inches long and 2 inches in diameter, was found at Pulborough, Sussex, and is engraved in Fig. 173. A limestone pestle of the same character, 12 inches long and 21 inches in diameter, found at Cliff Hill, is in the museum at Leicester. A fine pestle of granite or gneiss (125 inches) from Epping Forest has been figured, as has been a shorter one from a barrow at Collingbourn Ducis, Wilts. Another of greenstone, probably a naturally-formed pebble, 101 inches long and 21 inches in diameter, rounded at both ends, was found with three porphyry celts in a cairn at Daviot, near Inverness. It is now in the National Museum at Edinburgh. Another of greenstone, 16 inches long, was found near Carlisle; and the late Mr. J. W. Flower, F.G.S., had one of the same material 10 inches long, tapering from 2 inches in diameter to 11 inches, found in Hilgay Fen, Norfolk. A similar pestle-like stone, 6 inches long, found in Styria, is engraved by Professor Unger. Another of the same length was among the objects found in the Casa da Moura, Portugal. Many pestles, more or less well finished in form, have been discovered by the late Dr. Hunt, Dr. Mitchell, Mr. Petrie, Mr. Long, and others in the Orkney and Shetland Isles, and in different parts of Scotland.
Those who wish to make themselves thoroughly acquainted with the different circumstances of these discoveries, and with the various forms of rough implements brought to light, will have to consult the original memoirs which have been written concerning them. Both in cists or graves, and in the remains of ancient circular habitations, have numerous hammer-stones and pestles been found, associated with various other articles manufactured from stone and bone. Some of these are extremely rude, and appear hardly deserving of the names of spear-heads, knives, chisels, battle-axes, &c., which have been bestowed upon them. There can, however, be no doubt of their being of human manufacture, whatever purpose they may have served. A few well-formed and polished stone celts were found in company with the objects of this class in the "Underground House of Skaill," Orkney, which, however, was not, strictly speaking, subterranean. In the building, and in the midden around it, were very great numbers of oval sandstone pounding-stones and of large sandstone flakes, probably knives of a rude kind, a pebble with a groove round it like a ship's block, and a few celts. In Shetland these rude stone implements have been found with human skeletons interred in cists, sometimes with polished weapons. A very curious implement, somewhat T-shaped, with pointed extremities, and grooves round the transverse part, was found in the broch of Quoyness, Sanday, Orkney, and has been figured.
Many of the pestle-like stones are merely chipped into a somewhat cylindrical form, but others have been picked or ground all over, so as to give them a circular or oval section. The ends in many instances are more or less splintered, as if by hammering some hard substance rather than by pounding, and the exact purpose to which they were applied it is extremely difficult to divine.
Four of them are shown, on a small scale, in Figs. 174 to 177.
Some are more club-like in character, as in Fig. 178, and are even occasionally wrought to a handle at one end, as was the case with one found in the heart of a burnt stone tumulus at Bressay (Fig. 179), so as to give them much of the appearance of the short batlet or
Fig. 174.—Shetland. 201 in.
Fig. 175.—Shetland. 19 in.
Fig. 178.—Shetland. 21 in.
batting-staff used in the primitive mode of washing linen, such as is still so commonly practised in many parts of the Continent. Nearly similar rough instruments have been found at Baldoon, Wigtownshire. Is it possible that these stone bats can have served a similar purpose? In the Northern counties a large smooth-faced stone, set in a sloping position by the side of a stream, on which washerwomen beat their linen, is still called a battling-stone, and the club is called a batter, batlet, battledore, or battling-staff. Such clubs may also have been used in the preparation of hemp and flax.
A stone club, from St. Isabel, Bahia, Brazil, is described as 133 inches long, 21 inches wide, and 11 inch thick. It may, however, be a celt, like the supposed clubs from Lancashire and Cumberland.
There can be no doubt of several of the pestles, though probably not all, belonging to the same period as stone implements of other forms. The mortars in which they were used, were probably merely depressions in blocks of stone, or even of wood. Some rude mortars have, as already mentioned, been found in Holyhead Island, and Anglesea, but it is uncertain to what age they belong. A portion of a mortar of granite, with a channelled lip, found with fragments of urns and calcined bones in a grave at Kerris Vaen, Cornwall, is engraved in the Archæologia Cambrensis.
They also employed a small form of mortar for pounding quartz, felspar, or shell, with which to temper the clay for pottery. Stone mortars and pestles were in use among the Toltecs and Aztecs in making tortillas, and are found in South Carolina, and elsewhere in the United States. Among the ancient Pennacooks of the Merrimac valley, the heavy stone pestle was suspended from the elastic bough of a tree, which relieved the operator in her work; and among the Tahitians the pestle of stone, used for pounding the bread fruit on a wooden block, is provided with a crutch-like handle.
Some large circular discs of stone, apparently used for grinding, and others with deep cup-shaped depressions in them, found on Dartmoor, and probably connected with some ancient metallurgical operations on the spot, have been engraved and described in the Transactions of the Devonshire Association.
The hand-mill formed with an upper rotatory stone is a mere modification of the pestle and mortar, and dates back to a very early period, though it has continued in use in some parts of the British Isles even unto our own day. The name quern, by which such mills are usually known, occurs in closely similar forms, in all the Teutonic dialects. In Anglo-Saxon it appears under the form Cweorn or Cwyrn, and in modern Danish as Qværn. An excellent example of this instrument, which had been, up to 1850, in use in the cabin of a Kilkenny peasant, was presented by the Rev. J. Graves to the Archæological Institute, and is described and engraved in their Journal. The upper stone is of granite, the lower of millstone grit. The lower stone is recessed to receive the upper, and has a central depression, in which a small block of oak is fixed, from which projects a small pin—also of oak—to carry the upper stone. This is about 2 feet in diameter, and is perforated at its centre with a hopper-like hole, across the bottom of which a small bar of oak is secured, having a recess in it to receive the pin, but only of such a depth as to keep the upper stone at a slight distance from the lower. Through the upper stone, and near its verge, a vertical hole is drilled to receive a peg, which forms the handle for turning it. When in use it is worked, as in ancient times among the Jews, by two women seated opposite each other, who alternately seize and propel the handle, so as to drive the stone at considerable speed. The corn, highly dried, is fed by handfuls into the hopper in the runner or upper stone, and the meal passes out by a notch in the rim of the nether stone. Pennant, in his "Tour in Scotland," describes querns as still in use in the Hebrides in 1772. They were said to cost about fourteen shillings, and to grind a bushel of corn in four hours, with two pair of hands. He gives a representation of a quern at work, with a long stick, hanging from the branch of a tree, inserted in the hole in the runner, so as to form the handle. A somewhat similar method of driving the hand-mill indoors, taken from a German MS. of the fourteenth century, has been reproduced from a work by Drs. Von Hefner and Wolf in the Archæological Journal.
A sketch of a hand-mill in use at the present day, at Abbeville, is given in C. Roach Smith's "Collectanea Antiqua."
Even in the neighbourhood of water-mills, when the charge for grinding was at all high, we find these hand-mills in use in mediæval times. Such use, by the townsmen of St. Albans, was, in the beginning of the fourteenth century, a fruitful source of litigation between them and the abbots, who claimed the monopoly of grinding for their tenants. Thirteen of these, however, maintained their right of using hand-mills, as having been enjoyed of old, and some claims were raised to the privilege of grinding oat-meal only, by means of a hand-mill.
It seems probable that these mediæval hand-mills were of large size, and with a comparatively flat upper stone, like the modern Irish form, which is sometimes 3 feet 6 inches in diameter. One, 3 feet in diameter, found near Hollingbourne, Kent, was probably of no great antiquity. The same may be said of a six-sided quern, with an iron pivot, found in Edinburgh. A quern, found at West Coker, Somerset, with a fleur-de-lis over the passage by which the meal escaped, has been assigned to the thirteenth century. The lower stone of a quern accompanied an apparently Saxon interment at Winster, Derbyshire. It was of the beehive shape, and made of millstone grit. Similar querns, with iron pins, have been found at Breedon, Leicestershire, as well as others with the upper stone more conical. One of this class was also found near Rugby. They frequently accompany Roman remains, but these are generally of smaller size, and of a more hemispherical form, the favourite material being the Lower Tertiary conglomerate, or Hertfordshire pudding-stone. Those of Andernach lava, from the Rhine, are usually flat.
Querns of various forms are of frequent occurrence in Wales, especially in Anglesea. An upper stone from Lampeter, Cardiganshire, has a semicircular projection at the margin round the hole for the handle. In some districts they have been in use until quite recent times.
In Scotland, querns are of frequent occurrence in the ancient brochs and hill forts. In one of the former, at Kettleburn, Caithness, a stone in preparation for a quern was found; in another, in Aberdeenshire, an upper stone, 18 inches in diameter, was discovered. Another stone of the same size, surrounded by four border stones to prevent the scattering of the grain in grinding, was discovered in a subterranean chamber in a hill fort at Dunsinane, Perth. A curious pot-quern, the lower stone decorated with a carved human face, was found in East Lothian, and is engraved by Wilson.
Some interesting notices of Scottish querns have been given by Sir Arthur Mitchell.
The upper stone, ornamented with raised lines, shown in Fig. 180, from a cut kindly lent me by the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, was found in trenching a moss in the parish of Balmaclellan, New Galloway, with some curious bronze objects of "late-Celtic" workmanship.
Some ornamentally carved upper stones of querns, one of them with spiral and leaf-shaped patterns upon it, much like those on the bronze ornaments of the "late-Celtic" Period, have been discovered in Anglesea.
Querns of green sandstone are stated, by Sir R. Colt Hoare, to be numerous in British villages and pit-dwellings in Wiltshire, as indeed they are in other counties, though formed of various kinds of grit. They rarely occur in barrows, though burnt granite querns have been found with burnt bones in cromlechs in Jersey.
Some observations on querns by the Rev. Dr. A. Hume, are published in the Archæologia Cambrensis. As these utensils belong, for the most part, to Roman and post-Roman times, I have thought it needless to enter into any more minute description of their forms, or of the circumstances under which they have been found.
- Proc. Soc. Ant., 2nd S., vol. ii. p. 274.
- Mem. Geol. Surv. Ind., vol. iv. pl. i. p. 203. Trans. Preh. Cong., 1868, p. 238.
- Journ. Ethnol. Soc., vol. ii. p. 263, pl. xxi. 7.
- Catlin's "Last Rambles," p. 188.
- Arch. Camb., 5th. S., vol. i. p. 307.
- Tr. Dev. Assoc., vol. xii. p. 71.
- Montg. Coll., vol. xiv. p. 273.
- Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot., vol. iv. p. 440; xiv. p. 127; xv. p. 108.
- P. S. A. S., vol. xi. p. 583, Munro "Lake-dw.," p. 448.
- P. S. A. S., vol. xiv. 127; xv. 267; xxiii. p. 211.
- Kindly lent by the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland.
- P. S. A. S., vol. xxii. p. 62.
- P. S. A. S., vol. xii. p. 688.
- Worsaae's "Nord. Oldsager," No. 32, 33. Nilsson's "Stone Age," pl. i. 14. A Lüneburg specimen, with deep conical depressions, is given by Lindenschmit. "Alt. u. h. V.," vol. i. Heft viii. Taf. i. 4.
- Wilde's "Cat. Mus. R. I. A.," fig. 75.
- "Ind. Tribes," vol. iv. p. 165.
- "Stone Age," p. 12, pl. i. 2, 3.
- "Prim. Industry," p. 425, et. seqq.
- Arch. f. Anth., vol. v. p. 263.
- Vol. ix. p. 118.
- Arch. Assoc. Journ., vol. xxix. p. 344. Cumming's "Churches and Ants. of Cury and Dunwalloe," 1873, p. 69.
- P. S. A. S., vol. x. p. 634. Mitchell, "Past in the Present," p. 126.
- Journ. Anth. Inst., vol. iv. p. 139.
- Anz. f. Schw. Alt., 1876, Taf. viii.
- "Cat. Arch. Inst. Mus., Edin.," p. 12.
- "Naukratis," 1886, pl. i. p. 42.
- "Brit. Barrows," p. 200.
- Pr. Lanc. and Ch. Arch. Soc., vol. xi. p. 172.
- "Naukratis," pl. i. 1886, p. 42.
- Journ. Anth. Inst., vol. vi. pp. 41, 195.
- Proc. Soc. Ant., 2nd S., vol. i. p. 71.
- Arch. Journ., vol. xvii. p. 171.
- Amer. Anthropologist, vol. iv., 1891, p. 301.
- "South Wilts," Tumuli, pl. vi. "Cat. Devizes Mus.," No. 3.
- See Arch., vol. xliii. p. 408.
- Arch. Journ., vol. xxvi. p. 320, figs. 14, 15. Arch. Camb., 4th S., vol. v. p. 181.
- Proc. Soc. Ant., 2nd S., vol. iii. p. 396.
- Arch. Journ., vol. x. pp. 64, 160.
- Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot., vol. vi. p. 208.
- Greenwell, "Brit. Bar.," pp. 200, 239, 242.
- Arch. Journ., vol. xxviii. p. 148.
- P. S. A. S., vol. xxviii. p. 341.
- "Etudes Paléoéthnol.," 1867, pl. iv. 1.
- Squier and Davis, "Anct. Mon. of Mississ. Valley," p. 222.
- P. S. A. S., vol. xiv. p. 314; xxi. p. 135.
- "Mus. préh.," fig. 592.
- See Sir J. Y. Simpson, Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot., vol. vi. App.
- "Brit. Barrows," 341, et seqq.
- See "Reliquiæ Aquit.," p. 60.
- "Rel. Aquit.," p. 108.
- Arch. Assoc. Journ., vol. vii. p. 84. See Eyre's "Central Australia," vol. ii. pl. iv. p. 14.
- Keller's "Lake-dwellings," p. 137. Lindenschmit, "Hohenz. Samml.," pl. xxvii. 8.
- "Hab. Lac. de la Savoie," 1st Mem. pl. xi. 2.
- Rev. Arch., 3rd S., vol. vii. p. 68.
- "Brit. Barrows," p. 193.
- Trans. Ethnol. Soc., N. S., vol. iv. p. 242.
- Journ. Ethnol. Soc., vol. ii. p. 413.
- Arch. Camb., 4th S., vol. v. p. 184.
- P. S. A. S., vol. xiii. p. 204, Munro, "Lake-dw.," p. 102.
- P. S. A. S., vol. xxiii. p. 214.
- Journ. Anth. Soc., 1869, p. cxvii.
- The burnishing stones in use among pewterers are, when dismounted from their setting, curiously like these blunt-ended celt-like instruments. They have no ridge, however, at the truncated end. Some of the stone burnishers used by bookbinders are also in form like celts, but have a flattened edge.
- Arch. Journ., vol. xxvii. p. 161.
- Trans. Ethn. Soc., N. S., vol. vii. p. 48.
- De Gongora, "Ant. Preh. de Andalusia," p. 108.
- Zeitsch. f. Ethn., vol. xx. p. (365).
- Vol. xxiv. p. 251.
- Vol. xxvi. p. 320; xxvii. 147.
- Arch., vol. xxxviii. p. 416.
- "Cran. Brit.," vol. ii. pl. 58, p. 2.
- Trans. Preh. Cong., 1868, p. 70.
- P. S. A. S., vol. xxv. p. 496.
- Vol. xxvii. pl. xi. 2, 3.
- Suss. Arch. Coll., vol. xxxii. p. 174.
- Arch., vol. xlvi. p. 492, pl. xxiv. 26.
- Miln's "Excav. at Carnac," 1881, pl. xv.
- Arch. Journ., vol. xxv. p. 47.
- Proc. Soc. Ant., 2nd S., vol. ii. p. 265.
- Arch. Assoc. Journ., vol. xviii. p. 393.
- Ibid., vol. xxiii. p. 391.
- Arch. vol. xxxviii. p. 416.
- Arch. Assoc. Journ., vol. xxiii. p. 391.
- "Ten Years' Diggings," p. 223.
- Trans. Ethn. Soc., N. S., vol. iii. p. 278.
- Sproat's "Scenes and Studies of Savage Life," p. 55.
- Wood, "Nat. Hist. of Man," vol. i. p. 152. Ratzel, "Völkerk.," vol. i., 1887, p. 216.
- "Nile Tributaries of Abyssinia," Baker, p. 78. See also "The Albert Nyanza," vol. i. p. 65. Klemm's "Cult.-Wiss.," p. 88.
- Rev. Dr. Hume, "Illust. of Brit. Ants. from Objects found in S. Amer.," p. 69.
- See Arch. Journ., vol. xxiv. p. 244, where much information is given concerning such stones.
- Arch. Journ., vol. xxvii, p. 160, &c. Arch. Camb., 2nd S., vol. iii, p. 210; 3rd S., vi. 376; vii. 40; viii. 157; 4th S., xii. p. 32.
- Arch., vol. xlvi. p. 285.
- Arch. Camb., 3rd S., vol. vii. p. 245.
- Wilde's "Cat. Mus. R. I. A." p. 104.
- "Itinerary," 1617, pt. iii. p. 161.
- "Flint Chips," p. 62.
- Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot., vol. ii. p. 377.
- P. S. A. S., vol. vii. p. 9.
- P. S. A. S., vol. xi. p. 176.
- Garrigou et Filhol, "Age de la Pierre polie," &c., p. 27. Arch. Camb., 4th S., vol. i. p. 292.
- "Mus. Préh.," No. 587.
- Trans. Preh. Cong., 1868, p. 155.
- "Alt. u. h. v.," vol. ii. Heft viil. Taf. i. 16.
- "Cult.-Wiss.," p. 88.
- Arch. Camb., 3rd S., vol. iii. p. 356.
- Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot., vol. iv. p. 117.
- Arch. Journ., vol. xxvii. p. 160, pl. ii. 1.
- A. J., vol. xxiv. p. 247.
- Atkinson's "Cleveland," p. 40.
- "Nænia Cornub.," p. 221.
- Wood-Martin "Lake-dw. of Ireland," 1886, p. 85.
- Kirchner, "Thor's Donnerkeil," 1853, p. 97.
- "Ten Years' Diggings," p. 172.
- Ibid., p. 177.
- Ibid., pp. 213, 224, 226.
- "Vestiges Ant. Derb.," p. 99.
- Arch. Journ., vol. vii. p. 190.
- Arch. Journ., vol. xxiv. p. 81.
- "Troy," 1875, pp. 151, 163.
- British Med. Journ., April 2nd, 1887, quoted in Essex Naturalist, vol. i. p. 92.
- Arch. Journ., vol. xxiv. p. 252.
- Arch. Journ., vol. xiv. p. 357; xvii. 170.
- Suss. Arch. Coll., vol. ix. p. 117. "Chich. Vol. Arch. Inst.," p. 63. This cut has been kindly lent me by the Sussex Arch. Society.
- Essex Naturalist, vol. ii. p. 4.
- Arch. vol. xliii. p. 408. A. C. Smith, "Ants, of N. Wilts," p. 14.
- See Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot., vol. vi. p. 179, where the measurements hardly agree with mine.
- Arch. Journ., vol. xxiv. p. 253.
- Sitzungsb. der K. Akad. der Wiss. in Wien, vol. lv. p. 528.
- Trans. Ethn. Soc., N. S., vol. vii. p. 49.
- See Laing's "Prehistoric Remains of Caithness," 1866. Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot., vol. vii. passim; viii. 64, pl. vi. Mem. Anthrop. Soc. Lond., vol. ii. p. 294; iii. 216. I am indebted to the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland for the loan of Figs. 174 to 179. See also P. S. A. S., vol. viii. pl. vi.; xi. p. 173; xii. p. 271; and Mitchell's "Past in the Present," p. 140.
- Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot., vol. vii. p. 136.
- P. S. A. S., vol. vii. pp. 358, 400.
- P. S. A. S., vol. vii. p. 125.
- P. S. A. S., vol. vii. p. 127.
- P. S. A. S., vol. xxiii. p. 219.
- See Whitaker's "Hist. of Craven.," 2nd ed., p. 468.
- Wright's "Prov. Dict.," s.v. Cotgrave translates the word Baton "a laundress's batting-staff."
- Arch. Assoc. Journ., vol. xxiv. p. 65.
- Op. cit., vol. xv. p. 232.
- 3rd S., vol. iii. p. 358.
- Schoolcraft, "Ind. Tribes," vol. i. p. 80.
- "Anct. Mon. of Mississ. Val.," p. 220.
- Schoolcraft, "Ind. Tribes," vol. i. p. 90.
- Op. cit., vol. ii. p. 89.
- Op. cit., vol. iv. p. 175.
- Cuming in Arch. Assoc. Journ., vol. vii. p. 83, where some interesting information relating to mortars will be found. Ratzel, "Völkerk.," vol. ii. p. 179.
- Vol. iv. p. 136. See also a paper by Mr. R. N. Worth, on the progress of mining skill in Devon and Cornwall, in the Trans. Cornw. Polyt. Soc.
- Arch. Journ., vol. vii. 393.
- Vol. ii. p. 323.
- "Die Burg Tannenberg," &c., Arch. Journ., vol. vii. p. 404.
- Vol. iii. p. 130.
- "Gesta, Abb. Mod. S. Alb.," vol. ii. p. 249.
- Arch. Assoc. Journ., vol. vii. p. 175.
- Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot., vol iii. p. 203.
- Arch. Assoc. Journ., vol. xv. p. 339.
- "Ten Years' Dig.," p. 99.
- Arch. Assoc. Journ., vol. xiii. 227.
- Ibid., vol. xv. p. 337.
- Arch. Journ., vol. v. p. 329.
- Smith's "Coll. Ant.," vol. i. p. 112. Arch., vol. xviii. p. 435; xix. 183; xxx. 128. Proc. Bury and W. Suff. Arch. I., vol. i. p. 230, &c. Proc. Soc. Ant., 2nd S., vol. iii. p. 259.
- Arch., vol. xliv. p. 285.
- Arch., vol. xlv. p. 366.
- Arch. Camb., 5th S., vol. viii. p. 320.
- Arch. Camb., 2nd S., vol. iii. p. 210.
- Lee's "Isca Silurum," p. 114.
- Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot., vol. i. p. 267.
- P. S. A. S., vol. ii. p. 97. See also vol. v. p. 30.
- Preh. Annals of Scot., vol. i. p. 214.
- P. S. A. S., vol. xii. p. 261. Mitchell's "The Past in the Present," p. 34.
- P. S. A. S., vol. iv. p. 417.
- P. S. A. S., vol. xiii. p. 178.
- P. S. A. S., vol. xxi. p. 162.
- Arch. Camb., 3rd S., vol. vii. p. 38.
- "South Wilts," p. 36.
- "Vest. Ant. Derb.,"
- Arch., vol. xxxv. p. 246.
- 2nd S., vol. ii. p. 89.