The Ancient Stone Implements, Weapons, and Ornaments of Great Britain/Chapter 19
BRACERS, AND ARTICLES OF BONE.
Another object in stone, not unfrequently found in graves, and of which the use is now comparatively certain, is a rectangular plate usually round on one face, and hollow on the other, with perforations at either end. These plates are commonly formed of a close-grained green chlorite slate, are very neatly finished, and vary considerably in length and proportions.
Fig. 353.—Isle of Skye. 1
The specimen shown in Fig. 353 is in the National Museum at Edinburgh, and has already been engraved by Sir D. Wilson, and roughly figured in the Wiltshire Archæological Magazine. It was found alongside of a human skeleton, in a rudely-vaulted chamber in a large tumulus on the shore of Broadford Bay, Isle of Skye. It is formed of pale-green stone polished, and has at one end an ornamented border of slightly indented ovals. In the same Museum is another of longer proportions, being 41 inches by 11 inches, formed of fine-grained greenish-coloured stone, and having at each corner a small perforation. It was found, together with an urn and the remains of a skeleton, in a short cist on the farm of Fyrish, Evantown, Ross-shire. It is shown in Fig. 354. There is also, in the same Museum, a fragment of a flatter specimen formed of indurated clay-slate of a lightish green colour, perforated at one end with three small holes. It was found in a stone circle called "The Standing Stones of Rayne." Another example was found in a grave at Dalmore, Ross-shire. It is, however, imperfect. In the Arbuthnot Museum, Peterhead, is another object of this class, 41 inches long, with a hole at each corner, and slightly rounded on one face and hollow on the other. It was found at Cruden, Aberdeenshire, in a cist surmounted by a small tumulus. In the cist, were the skeletons of an adult and a youth, as well as portions of that of a dog. They were accompanied by two rude urns, several flint arrow-heads, and two flint knives.
The earliest recorded discovery of these objects in England is that which has already been mentioned as having taken place at Tring Grove, Herts, about 1763. In this case, a skeleton was found in sinking a ditch in level ground; between the legs were some flint arrow-heads, and at the feet "some small slender stones, polished, and of a greenish cast; convex on one side, and concave on the other; the larger were four inches long and one broad; the smaller not quite four inches long nor one inch broad, somewhat narrower in the middle, with two holes at both The interment was accompanied by two urns, and a ring of jet, perforated for suspension at the edge. To judge from the plate and description, the longer of the "slender stones" had not been bored with holes at either end.
|Fig. 354.—Evantown. 1||Fig. 355.—Devizes. 1|
An oblong piece of chlorite slate, 53 inches long. 13 inches broad, and 1 inch thick, rounded on one face and hollowed on the other, was found in a gravel-pit at Aldington, Worcestershire. It has four holes through it, one at each corner, just large enough on the rounded face to allow a fine ligament to pass through, and countersunk on the other face. The plate of chlorite slate shown in Fig. 355 is flat, instead of hollowed, and the holes at the corners are countersunk on both faces. It was found in a barrow on Roundway Hill, near Devizes, in front of the breast of a skeleton, between the bones of the left forearm, and had, when found, a small fragment of bronze, possibly the tang of a knife, much corroded, adhering to it. In the same barrow was a stemmed and barbed flint arrow-head like Fig. 327, and a tanged bronze dagger. This bracer has been kindly lent to me by Mr. Cunnington, of Devizes, who discovered it. Another flat wrist-guard from a barrow at Aldbourne, Wilts, has only two out of the four holes finished. A third is incomplete. Dr. Thurnam regards these flat examples as breast-plates or gorgets. One, found with an interment at Calne, Wilts, is in the British Museum. It resembles Fig. 354.
A bracer, formed of a green-coloured stone, was found in a gravel-pit at Lindridge, Worcestershire. It is about 43 inches by 1 inch, and 1 inch thick; but it has been perforated at one end only, with a countersunk hole in each of the two corners, a third hole between them being only partly drilled. The other end is somewhat sharper and undrilled.
In the Christy Collection, is a plate of pale-green stone 41 inches long, with both faces somewhat rounded, one of them polished, and the other, which is rather flatter, in places striated transversely by coarse grinding. At each end are three small countersunk perforations in a line with each other. It was found with two small ornamented urns near Brandon, Suffolk. This bracer has been figured in illustration of some remarks by Sir A. Wollaston Franks.
In a barrow near Sutton, Sir R. Colt Hoare found, under the right hand and close to the breast of a contracted skeleton, a plate of blue-slate, 41 inches long and 23 inches wide, with three small countersunk holes arranged in a triangle at either end. Near it were two boar's tusks and a drinking-cup. It has been thought to be too wide for a wrist-guard. A narrower specimen with six holes at each end is also in the Stourhead Collection.
Another variety has but one hole at each end, and is flat and broadest in the middle. In a cist in a barrow on Mere Down, Wiltshire, were two skeletons, near the left side of the larger of which was a small bronze dagger, with a tang for insertion in the hilt, and a piece of grey slaty stone about 4 inches long, and 11 inches broad in the middle, perforated at the ends. There were also present a drinking-cup, and an instrument of bone, as well as two circular ornaments of gold. A similar thin stone, with a hole at either end, was found with part of a bronze spear and other objects, associated with burnt human remains in a barrow at Bulford, Wilts. One of grey slaty stone with a countersunk hole at each end accompanied an interment at Sittingbourne, Kent, and is now in the British Museum. Another was found at Lancaster. I have another from Sandy, Beds, but cannot say whether it accompanied any interment. Another, 31 inches long, nearly an inch broad in the middle, and only the fifth part of an inch in thickness, was found near the tumulus at Broadford Bay, Isle of Skye, already mentioned, and is shown in Fig. 356. One (31 inches) was found in Mull, two (33 and 3 inches) came from Fyvie and Ballogie, Aberdeenshire, and one (21 inches) from Glenluce. Another (31 inches) in the Museum at Edinburgh came from the North of Ireland.
A few specimens of the same character as Figs. 353 and 356 have been found in Ireland. In that Country, also, the same slaty material was used, sometimes green, and sometimes red in colour.
The curious plate of fine soft sandstone, 4 inches long and perforated at each end, found in the Genista Cave, at Gibraltar, may possibly belong to this class, but it is by no means certain. Some objects of the same kind, with a hole at each end, have been found in the Côtes du Nord, France. Some early Spanish whetstones have one and even two perforations at each end.
The material of which this class of objects is formed is not exclusively stone. A plate of bone, now in the Devizes Museum, about 31 inches by 3 inch, bored through at each end from the sides and back, so as not to interfere with the face, was found with a small bronze celt mounted as a chisel in stag's horn, and with bone pins and two whetstones, in a barrow near Everley. A fragment of another bracer made of bone was found at Scratchbury Camp, Wilts. It is doubtful whether the richly-ornamented flat plate of gold, with a hole at each corner, found with a bronze dagger in a barrow at Upton Level, was destined for the same purpose. It led Sir R. C. Hoare, however, to regard the slate plate from the barrow near Sutton as a mere ornament, "an humble imitation of the golden plate found at Upton Level." Others have regarded these stone plates as amulets or charms; as destined to be affixed to the middle of a bow; or as personal decorations. Wilson has called attention to their similarity to the perforated plates of stone, of which such numerous varieties are found in North America. The holes in these, however, are very rarely more than two in number, and sometimes only one, and these almost always near the middle of the stone; their purpose possibly being to serve as draw-holes for equalizing the size of cords, in the same manner as twine is polished and rendered uniform in size, by being drawn through a circular hole by European manufacturers at the present day. They may, however, have served as ornaments, or even in some cases as wrist-guards. One engraved by Squier is much like Fig. 356, but thinner, and with the holes rather farther from the ends. Schoolcraft, suggests their employment to hold the strands or plies apart, in the process of twine or rope making.
The Rev. Canon Ingram, F.G.S., was the first to suggest that these British plates were bracers or guards, to protect the arm of the wearer against the blow of the string in shooting with the bow, like those in use by archers at the present day. In corroboration of this view, he cites the position of the plate in the Roundway barrow, between the bones of the left forearm, and the fact of so many of them being hollowed in such a manner as to fit the arm; while he argues that the similarity in the character and position of the perforations, in the hollowed and flat varieties, affords presumptive evidence that the use of both kinds of tablets was the same. I am inclined to adopt Canon Ingram's view, though, unless there was some error in observation, plates of this kind have been occasionally found on the right arm. In a barrow at Kelleythorpe, near Driffield, examined by the late Lord Londesborough in 1851, was a chamber containing a contracted skeleton, the bones of the right arm of which "were laid in a very singular and beautiful armlet, made of some large animal's bone" (actually of stone), "about 6 inches long, and the extremities, which were a little broader than the middle, neatly squared; in this were two perforations about half an inch from each end, through which were bronze pins or rivets, with gold heads, most probably to attach it to a piece of leather which had passed round the arm and been fastened by a small bronze buckle, which was found underneath the bones." These objects are now in the British Museum. In the cist was also a bronze dagger, with a wooden sheath and handle, some large amber beads, a drinking-cup, and the upper part of the skull of a hawk. Possibly this ancient warrior was left-handed, like the seven hundred chosen men of Benjamin, every one of whom could yet "sling stones at an hair breadth, and not miss."
It may be observed that left-handedness is thought to have been very prevalent in early times, both in the Old World and the New. Certainly this plate strapped upon the arm is curiously similar in character to the bracer in use in England in later times, which, though sometimes of other materials, consisted, according to Paulus Jovius, of a bone tablet. A bracer of carved ivory, of the sixteenth century, is in the Meyrick Collection, and Mr. C. J. Longman has a collection of them, many artistically engraved, dating from the 16th and 17th centuries. Among the archers of ancient Egypt, we find that similar guards were in use for the left arm. These were not only fastened round the wrist, but secured by a thong tied above the elbow. The material of which they were formed appears to be unknown. On a Roman monument found in the North of England, a soldier is represented with a bow in his hand, and a bracer on his left arm. The Eskimos of the present day also make use of a guard to save the wrist from the recoil of the bow-string. It is usually composed of three pieces of bone, about 4 inches in length, but sometimes of one only, and is fastened to the wrist by a bone button and loop. An ivory guard, attached by a strap and buckle to the arm, is still worn in India. Whatever was the purpose of those in stone they seem to belong to the latter part of the Stone Period, and to have continued in use in that of Bronze.
These bracers have occasionally been found in Denmark. One of red stone, 4 inches long, and with four holes, was found in a dolmen near Assens. It is ornamented with parallel lines along the ends, and part of the way along the sides. Another, 3 inches long, from a dolmen in Langeland, is of bone, with but two holes, and is ornamented with cross bands of zigzag lines. Both are engraved in the "Guide illustré du Musée des Antiquités du Nord." What appears to be one of bone, found in a barrow in Denmark, with two skeletons, but with no other objects, has also been engraved. A second was found under similar circumstances.
One of fine-grained sandstone (41 inches) with four holes was found near Prenzlow in North Germany, and another of chocolate-coloured material, probably slaty stone, accompanied an interment at Ochsenfurt, Lower Franconia.
Although, possibly, not strictly within the scope of the present work, it may be well here to make a few observations relating to the various articles formed of bone which are occasionally found in association with those of stone.
More than three dozen bone instruments were found in the Upton Lovel Barrow, already frequently mentioned. Most of them were pointed, varying in length from about 3 to 9 inches, and formed apparently from the leg-bones of different mammals. They, for the most part, show a portion of the articular surface at the end which has not been sharpened, at which also they are perforated. Mr. Cunnington, their discoverer, was of opinion that they had been used as arrow- or lance-heads; and possibly some of the larger specimens served as javelin-points, even if the smaller were merely pins to aid in fastening the dress, to which they were secured by a string passed through the hole, so as to prevent their being lost. Numerous other bone instruments from barrows are described and figured by Dr. Thurnam and Canon Greenwell. I have two that are decidedly lance-heads, about 6 inches long, made from leg-bones, probably of roe-deer, which have been pointed by cutting the bone obliquely through, so as to show a long elliptical section, while the articular end has been excavated into the cavity of the bone, so as to form a socket for the shaft, which was secured in its place by a pin, passing through two small holes drilled through the bone. One was found in Swaffham Fen, and the other at Girton, near Cambridge. Other spear-heads of much the same character, from the same district, from Lincolnshire, and from the River Thames, are in the British Museum, and some of them have been described and figured by Sir Wollaston Franks.
I have also a bone dagger with the blade about 4 inches long, with a rivet hole through the broad tang. It was found in the Thames near Windsor, and was given to me by Mr. F. Tress Barry, M.P., in 1895. I have also bones worked to a dagger-like form, but without any tang, from the Cambridge Fens.
A pin or awl of bone, 41 inches long, made from the fibula of some small animal, probably a roe-deer, split, and then rubbed to a point, was among the objects found by the Canon Greenwell, at Grimes's Graves, Norfolk, as well as the rounded piece of bone already mentioned at p. 34.
Bone pins or skewers, closely resembling those from British barrows, are of frequent occurrence on the sites of Roman occupation. In the name of fibula, as applied to the small bone of the leg, we have an acknowledgment of its adaptability for making such pins; in the same way as its concomitant tibia was the bone best adapted for making into flutes.
Bone pins, perforated at one end, were found in several of the barrows explored by the late Mr. Bateman, both with burnt and unburnt bodies. Canon Greenwell has also found them in the Yorkshire tumuli; in three instances with burnt bodies. I found one also in a disturbed barrow at Sutton Cheney, Leicestershire, which I opened in 1851. Others without the hole, some of which are termed spear-heads by Mr. Bateman, were found in Derbyshire and Staifordshire barrows, with burnt and unburnt bodies, associated with instruments and arrow-heads of flint. Another was found with burnt bones in a barrow at Hacpen Hill, Wilts; and part of one in the Long Barrow at West Kennet.
It seems probable that many of these pointed instruments may have been used as awls, for making holes in leather and soft materials. Others, as Mr. Bateman and Canon Greenwell suggest, may, with the unburnt bodies, have fastened some kind of shroud; and with the burnt, have served to pin a cloth in which the ashes were placed, after being collected from the funeral pile.
In the Heathery Burn Cave, where so many interesting bronze relics were found, there also occurred a large number of bone pins or awls, a cylindrical bone bead 7 inch long, a bone tube 11 inches long with a small perforation at the side, a pierced disc of bone 15 inches in diameter and 1 inch thick, and a flat bone blade, somewhat resembling in form a modern paper-cutter, 73 inches long and 11 inches broad. This same flat form of instrument, about 61 inches long and 3 inch broad, occurred in the Green Low Barrow, Derbyshire, but then, in company with a fine flint dagger and stemmed and barbed arrow-heads, and with a bone pin. Mr. Bateman thought that these instruments might have served as modelling tools for making pottery, or as mesh rules for netting. One, 12 inches long, with a drinking-cup and various instruments of flint, accompanied a contracted interment in a rock-grave on Smerrill Moor, Derbyshire. With a similar interment in a barrow on Haddon Field was one 61 inches long, cut from the horn of a red-deer, a flint arrow-head, and a small bronze awl. Two others, cut from the ribs of a large animal, and two barbed flint arrow-heads, were found inside a "drinking-cup" at the head of a contracted skeleton in Mouse Low; and others, again, with barbed flint arrow-heads, occurred with calcined bones at Ribden Low. They have also been found in Dorsetshire, perforated. Whether these instruments really served the purposes suggested by Mr. Bateman it is impossible to determine; but they seem well adapted either for finishing off the surface of clay vessels, or for netting, an art with which the Swiss Lake-dwellers of Robenhausen were acquainted, though in that settlement but slight traces of a knowledge of metal are exhibited.
Although needles of bone, carefully smoothed all over, and having a neatly-drilled eye, have been found in the cave-deposits both of Britain and France, but few such implements have, as yet, been discovered in these countries associated with objects of the Neolithic and Bronze Periods.
A bodkin or needle of wood, 6 inches long, and of the ordinary form, was, however, found in company with a small bronze dagger-blade, in an urn containing burnt bones near Tomen-y-mur, Carnarvonshire.
Needles of bone, both with the central hole (like some of those of the Bronze Age) and with the eye at the end (like those of the present day), have also been found in the Swiss Lakes. One of the latter class was discovered in the Genista Cave at Gibraltar. It is hard to say to what period it belongs. Needles of both forms have been found with arrow-heads and other articles of flint, in Danish grave-chambers.
The pins or awls, already described, are so rude and clumsy, and so large at the perforated end, that they could never have been intended for use as needles; and when we consider that the principal material to be sewn must have been the skins of animals, and that, even at the present day, needles are hardly ever employed for sewing leather, but bristles are attached to the end of the thread, and passed through holes prepared by an awl, it seems possible that needles, if ever they were used for this particular purpose, may have been superseded at a very remote period. The small bronze awl, so frequently found in barrows, is singularly like the "cobbler's awl" of the present day, though straight and not curved.
Among the Danish antiquities of bronze, we find a remarkable form of needle or bodkin, about 21 or 3 inches long, bluntly pointed at each end, and provided with an oval eye in the centre, so that it could be passed through a hole in either direction. This, with a bronze awl for boring the holes, and a pair of tweezers to assist in drawing the needle through, appears to have constituted the sewing apparatus of that day. I mention this form of needle because in Ribden Low, Staffordshire, together with a burnt interment, and some barbed arrow-heads of flint, were bone implements "pointed at each end" and "perforated through the middle," which may possibly have served such a purpose. No dimensions are given by Mr. Bateman, but a bodkin of the same kind from a barrow at Stourpaine, Dorset, is 4 inches long. It is in the Durden collection in the British Museum. In a barrow, at Bailey Hill, some calcined bones were accompanied by a pair of bone tweezers, neatly made and perforated for suspension.
Some of the needles of horn or bone in use among the Indians of North America were in shape much like miniature elephants' tusks.
Another bone implement appears to have been a chisel, of which a good specimen was found by the Rev. W. C. Lukis, F.S.A., in a chambered barrow at Temple Bottom, Wilts. It is formed of a portion split from a leg-bone of some mammal, about 31 inches long, and 5 inch wide, sharpened from both faces to a segmental edge at one end. A broader instrument of the same character was found with some long bone pins or awls near Cawdor Castle; and "a celt-shaped instrument, 5 inches long, with a cutting edge, made from part of the lower jaw of a large quadruped, rubbed down," was found with calcined bones in a barrow near Monsal Dale.
As has already been mentioned, bone instruments in the shape of a chisel occur in considerable numbers in the Swiss Lake-dwellings and elsewhere, and have been regarded as tools used in making and ornamenting earthen vessels. That bone chisels are, however, susceptible of more extensive use, is proved by the practice of the Klah-o-quat Indians of Nootka Sound, who, without the aid of fire, cut down the large cedars for their "dug-out" canoes with chisels formed from the horn of the Wapiti, struck by mallets of stone hafted in withes, or like dumb-bells in shape.
The only other forms of implement I need mention are those of a hammer and a hoe, formed of the lower end of a stag's horn, cut off and perforated. A hammer, or possibly a celt-socket, was found with a skeleton in Cop Head Hill barrow, near Warminster, together with fragments of flint "polished by use;" another in a barrow at Collingbourn, Wilts, and a third in a barrow near Biggin, with a contracted interment, and in company with flint celts, arrow-heads, and knives. Canon Greenwell has likewise found one in a barrow at Cowlam, Yorkshire, with an unburnt body, and together with a stone axe-hammer among burnt bones in a barrow at Lambourn, Berks. They have also been found in some numbers in the Thames, near Kew.
I have already spoken of the use of stag's horn for pick-axes, and for sockets for stone-hatchets; occasionally, also, the horn itself was sharpened and used as an axe or hoe. One from the Thames near Wandsworth, with its wooden handle still preserved, has been recorded by Mr. G. F. Lawrence. Stag's-horn axes occur in various countries on the Continent. They are by no means rare in Scandinavia, except in the case of those having ring and other ornaments engraved upon them. On an adze of this kind, in the Stockholm Museum, is engraved the spirited representation of a deer. In one instance, an axe has been made from the ulna of a whale. Lindenschmit has engraved several of stag's horn, principally from Hanover. They occur also in France. Beads and buttons of bone have been found with early interments; but the curious bone objects discovered in a pit at Leicester, and in the caves at Settle, Yorkshire, belong apparently to too recent a period to be here discussed. A kind of bone chisel has remained in use until recent times for the purpose of removing the bark from oak-trees for the supply of tanners. Some beads and ornaments formed of bone will be mentioned in a subsequent chapter.
- "Preh. Ann. of Scot.," vol. i. p. 223.
- Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot., vol. vi. p. 233. The Evantown bracer is shown on a larger scale in P. S. A. S., vol. xvii. p. 454; and Anderson's "Scotl. in Pagan Times," p. 15.
- Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot., vol. ii. p. 429. "Cat. Mus. Arch. Inst. Ed.," p. 20.
- P. S. A. S., vol. xiii. p. 255.
- Wilson, "P. A. of S.," vol. i. p. 76. "Cat. Mus. A. I. Ed.," p. 11
- Arch., vol. viii. p. 429, pl. xxx.
- Wiltshire Arch. Mag., vol. x. (1867), pl. vi.
- Wiltsh. Arch. Mag., vol. iii. p. 186. "Cran. Brit.," vol. ii. pl. 42, p. 3. Arch., vol. xliii. p. 429, fig. 120.
- Arch., vol. lii. p. 56.
- Arch., vol. xliii. p. 428.
- Arch. Journ., vol. vi. p. 409. Allies' "Worcestersh.," p. 142. Arch. Journ., vol. xviii. p. 160.
- Proc. Soc. Ant., 2nd S., vol. v. p. 272. Arch., vol. xliii. p. 429, fig. 122.
- "South Wilts," p. 103. Arch., vol. xliii. p. 429, fig. 121. "Cat. Devizes Mus.," No. 63.
- "Cat. Devizes Mus.," No. 232.
- Hoare's "South Wilts," p. 44.
- Arch. Journ., vol. vi. p. 319.
- Proc. Soc. Ant., 2nd S., vol. x. p. 29. Payne's "Coll. Cant.," p. 12.
- Arch. Assoc. Journ., vol. xxxiii. p. 126.
- Wilson, "P. A. of S.," vol. i. p. 223. I am indebted to Messrs. Macmillan & Co. for the use of this cut.
- P. S. A. S., vol. ix. p. 537. Anderson, "Scotl. in Pagan Times," p. 15.
- P. S. A. S., vol. xxvii. p. 11.
- P. S. A. S., vol. xi. p. 586.
- P. S. A. S., vol. xiii. p. 73.
- Trans. Preh. Cong., 1868, pl. viii. 2.
- P. Salmon, "L'homme," 1886, p. 279.
- Siret's "Album." passim.
- Hoare's "South Wilts," p. 182. "Cat. Devizes Mus.," No. 96, 19a.
- Hoare's "South Wilts," p. 99. "Cat. Devizes Mus.," No. 53.
- Arch. Journ., vol. vi. p. 319. "Cran. Brit.," vol. i. p. 80.
- "Cat. Mus. Arch. Inst. Ed.," p. 11.
- Wilson, "P. A. of S.," vol. i. p. 224.
- "Anc. Mon. Mississ. Valley," p. 237.
- "Abor. Mon. of New York," p. 79.
- "Ind. Tribes," vol. i. p. 89.
- Wilts Arch. Mag., vol. x. (1867), p. 109.
- Arch., vol. xxxiv. p. 254. Since this was written I have had an opportunity of examining this bracer, and find that it is of the same green kind of stone as the others. It is figured by Greenwell, "British Barrows," fig. 32, p. 36.
- Proc. Soc. Ant., 2nd S., vol. v. p. 289. Arch., vol. xliii. p. 427.
- Judges, ch. xx. 16.
- Mortillet, Bull. Soc. Anth. de Paris, 3 July, 1890.
- Dr. D. G. Brinton, Amer. Anthrop., vol. ix. (1896), p. 175. Sir Daniel Wilson, "Lefthandedness," 1891. Mr. O. T. Mason reduces the proportion to 3 per cent. only. Amer. Anthrop., vol. ix. (1896) p. 226.
- "Desc. Angl.," ap. Bale, Ed. Oporin, vol. ii. p. 21.
- Skelton's "Meyrick's Armour," pl. xxxiv.
- Wilkinson's "Anc. Eg.," vol. i. p. 306.
- Bruce, "Roman Wall," 3rd ed., p. 97.
- Wood, "Nat. Hist. of Man," vol. ii. p. 710.
- 2nd ed., 1870, p. 7. Aarbög. for Nord. Oldk., 1868, p. 100.
- Ann. for Nord. Oldk., 1840-1, p. 166. Madsen, "Afbild.," pl. xxv. 16.
- Zeitsch. f. Ethn., vol. xi. p. 24.
- Arch. f. Anth., vol. xxiv., 1896, corr. Blatt., p. 59.
- Arch., xv. p. 122. Hoare's "South Wilts," p. 75.
- Arch., vol. xliii. p. 431; lii. p. 6. "British Barrows," passim.
- Proc. Soc. Ant., 2nd S., i. p. 162.
- Journ. Ethn. Soc., ii. p. 429.
- "Ten Years' Diggings," pp. 75, 114. "Cran. Brit.," vol. ii. pl. 60, p. 2.
- "Ten Years' Dig.," pp. 44, 77, 83, 112.
- "Salisb. Vol. Arch. Inst.," p. 91.
- Arch., xxxviii. p. 413.
- "Cran. Brit.," vol. ii. pl. 41, p. 3. "Vest. Ant. Derb.," p. 60.
- Catalogue, p. 5.
- "Ten Years' Dig.," p. 103.
- Op. cit., p. 107.
- Op. cit., p. 116. Arch. Assoc. Journ., vii. p. 215.
- Op. cit., p. 127.
- Arch. Journ., v. p. 352.
- Keller, "Lake-dwellings," p. 328.
- Arch. Journ., vol. xxiv. p. 17.
- Le Hon, "L'homme foss.," 2nd ed., p. 186.
- Trans. Preh. Cong., 1868, pl. ix. p. 126
- Madsen, "Afbild.," pl. xvii.
- Worsaae, "Nord. Olds.," No. 275.
- "Ten Years' Dig.," p. 127.
- Ib., p. 169.
- Schoolcraft, "Ind. Tribes," vol. i. pl. xxxvii. "Anc. Mon. of Miss. Vall.," p. 220.
- Proc. Soc. Ant., 2nd S., vol. iii. p. 215.
- Proc. Soc. Ant., 2nd S., vol. i. p. 395.
- "Ten Years' Dig.," p. 77.
- Keller, "Lake-dw.," 2nd S., p. 26.
- Catlin's "Last Rambles," p. 101.
- Hoare's "South Wilts," p. 68. "Cat. Devizes Mus.," No. 224a.
- Arch., vol. xliii. p. 438.
- "Vest. Ant. Derb.," p. 42.
- Arch., vol. lii. p. 60, fig. 27.
- Sproat, "Scenes and Studies of Savage Life, 1868," p. 86. Trans. Ethn. Soc., N. S., vol. v. p. 250.
- Daily Graphic, Dec. 28, 1896.
- Ant. Tidsk., 1852-64, p. 9. Mem. de la Soc. des Ant. du Nord, 1850-60, p. 29. Madsen, "Afb.," pl. xxv.
- Mém. de la Soc. des Ant. du N., 1845-49, p. 168.
- "Alterth. u. held. Vorz.," vol. i. Heft v. Taf. 1. See also "Horæ Ferales," pl. i.
- Boucher de Perthes, "Ant. Celt, et Antéd.," vol. i. pl. ii. 5, 7.
- Arch., vol. xxx. p. 330. Hoare's "South Wilts," p. 103. "Cat. Devizes Mus.," No. 10, 49b, 224, 302.
- Proc. Soc. Ant., 2nd S., vol. i. p. 246.
- Smith's "Coll. Ant.," vol. i. p. 69.