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The Complete Confectioner (1800)/Pickles

PICKLES.


General Observations on Pickling.

The knowledge of pickling is very essential in a family, but it is to be lamented, that the health of individuals is often endangered, merely to gratify the age. Things known to be pernicious, are frequently made use of, in order to procure a brighter colour to the thing meant to be pickled. It is indeed a common practice to make use of brass utensils, that the verdigrease extracted from it may give an additional tint to all pickles intended to be green; not considering that they are communicating an absolute poison to that which they are preparing for their food. Such inconsiderate proceedings, it is hoped, will hereafter be avoided, especially as there is no necessity for having recourse to such pernicious means, when these articles will become equally green, by keeping them of a proper heat upon the hearth, without the help of brass or verdigrease of any kind. It is therefore highly proper to be very particular in keeping the pickles from such things, and to follow strictly the directions of your receipts, given with respects to all kinds of pickles, which are greened only by pouring vinegar hot upon them, and it will keep them a long time. Stone jars are the most proper for all sorts of pickles, for though they are expensive in the first purchase, yet they will, in the end, be found much cheaper than earthen vessels, through which, it has been found by experience, salt and vinegar will penetrate, especially when put in hot. Be careful never to put your fingers in to take the pickles out, as it will soon spoil them; but always make use of a spoon upon those occasions.


To pickle Cucumbers.

Let your cucumbers be as free from spots as possible, and take the smallest you can get; put them into strong salt water for nine or ten days or till they become yellow; and stir them at least twice a day, or they will grow soft; should they become perfectly yellow, pour the water from them, and cover them with plenty of vine leaves; set your water over the fire, and when it boils, pour it upon them, and set them upon the hearth to keep warm; when the water is almost cold, make it boiling hot again, and pour it upon them; proceed in this manner till you perceive they are of a fine green, which they will be in four or five times: be careful to keep them well covered with vine leaves, with a cloth and dish over the top, to keep in the steam, which will help to green them the sooner; when they are greened, put them in an hair sieve to drain, and then make the following pickle for them: to every two quarts of white vinegar, put half an ounce of mace, ten or twelve cloves, an ounce of ginger cut into slices, an ounce of black pepper and an handful of salt. Boil them all together for five minutes, pour it hot upon your pickles, and tie them down with a bladder for use. You may pickle them with ale, ale-vinegar, or distilled vinegar; and you may add three or four cloves or garlic or shallots.


To pickle Cucumbers in Slices.

Take some large cucumbers before they are too ripe, slice them of the thickness of crown pieces in a pewter dish; to every twelve cucumbers, slice two large onions thin, and so on till you have filled your dish, with a handful of salt between every row; then cover them with another pewter dish, and let them stand twenty-four hours; then put them into a cullender, and let them drain well; put them in a jar, cover them over with white wine vinegar, and let them stand four hours; pour the vinegar from them into a copper saucepan, and boil it with a little salt; put to the cucumbers a little mace and whole pepper, a large race of ginger sliced, and then pour the boiling vinegar on; cover them close, and when they are cold tie them down: they will be fit to eat in two or three days.

To pickle Mangoes.

Cucumbers used for this purpose must be of the largest sort, and taken from the vines before they are too ripe, or yellow at the ends; cut a piece out of the side, and take out the seeds with an apple-scraper or tea-spoon; then put them into strong salt and water for eight or nine days, or till they are very yellow; stir them well two or three times each day, and put them into a pan, with a large quantity of vine leaves both over and under them; beat a little roach-alum very fine, and put it into the salt and water they came out of; pour it on your cucumbers, and set it upon a very slow fire for four or five hours, till they are pretty green; then take them out, and drain them in a hair sieve, and when they are cold, put to them a little horse-radish, then mustard-seed, two or three heads of garlic, a few pepper-corns, a few green cucumbers sliced in small pieces, then horse-radish, and the same as before-mentioned, till you have filled them; then take the piece you cut out, and sew it with a large needle and thread, and do all the rest in the same manner. Have ready the following pickle:—to every gallon of allegar put an ounce of mace, the same of cloves, two ounces of sliced ginger, the same of long pepper, Jamaica pepper, and black pepper, three ounces of mustard-seed tied up in a bag, four ounces of garlic, and a stick of horse-radish cut in slices; boil them five minutes in the allegar, then pour it upon your pickles, tie them down, and keep them for use.

To pickle Onions.

Take some small onions, peel them, and put them into salt and water; shift them once a day for three days, then set them over the fire in milk and water till ready to boil; dry them, pour over them the following pickle when boiled, and cold:—double distilled vinegar, salt, mace, and one or two bay leaves; they will not look white with any other vinegar.


Another Way.

Take a sufficient number of the smallest onions you can get, and put them into salt and water for nine days, observing to change the water every day; then put them into jars, and pour fresh boiling salt and water over them; let them stand close covered till they are cold, then make some more salt and water, and pour it boiling hot upon them; when it is cold, put them into wide-mouthed bottles, and fill them up with distilled vinegar; put into every bottle a slice or two of ginger, a blade of mace, and a large tea-spoonful of eating oil, which will keep the onions white. If you like the taste of bay-leaf, you may put one or two into every bottle, and as much bay-salt as will lie on a sixpence: cork them well up.


To pickle Walnuts black.

Your walnuts should be gathered when the sun is hot upon them, and always before the shell is hard, which may be easily known by running a pin into them; then put them into a strong salt and water for nine days; stir them twice a day, and change the salt and water every three days; put them in a hair sieve, and let them stand in the air till they turn black; then put them into strong stone jars, and pour boiling allegar over them; cover them up, and let them stand till they are cold, then boil the allegar three times more, and let it stand till it is cold between every time; tie them down with paper, and a bladder over them, and let them stand two months; then take them out of the allegar, and make a pickle for them; to every two quarts of allegar, put half an ounce of mace, half an ounce of cloves, one ounce of black pepper, the same of Jamaica pepper, ginger, and long pepper, and two ounces of common salt; boil it ten minutes, and pour it hot upon your walnuts, and tie them down with a bladder, and paper over it.


Another Way.

Take large full-grown nuts, but before they are hard, and lay then in salt and water; let them lie two days, then shift them into fresh water; let them lie two days longer, then shift them again, and let them lie three in your pickling jar; when the jar is half full, put in a large onion stuck with cloves; to a hundred walnuts put in half a pint of mustard-seed, a quarter of an ounce of all-spice, six bay leaves, and a stick of horese-radish; then fill your jar, and pour boiling vinegar over them; cover them with a plate, and when they are cold, tie them down with a bladder and leather, and they will be fit to eat in two or three months. The next year, if any remains, boil up your liquor again, and skim it; when cold, pour it over your walnuts. This is by much the best pickle for use, therefore you may add to it what quantity of vinegar you please. If you pickle a great many walnuts, and eat them fast, make pickle for a hundred or two, the rest keep in strong brime of salt and water, boiled till it will bear an egg; and as you pot empties, fill them up with those in the salt and water. Take care that they are covered with pickle. In the same manner you may do a smaller quantity; but if you can get rape vinegar, use that instead of salt and water. Do them thus:—put your nuts into the jar you intend to pickle them in, throw in a handful of salt, and fill the pot with rape vinegar; cover it close, and let them stand a fortnight; then pour them out of the pot, wipe it clean, and just rub the nuts with a coarse cloth, and then put them in the jar with the pickle as above.


To pickle Walnuts green.

Take the largest double, or French walnuts, before the shells are hard, pare them very thin, and put them into a tub of spring water as they are pared; put to them, if there are two or three hundred nuts, a pound of bay-salt; leave them in the water twenty-four hours, then put them into a stone jar, a layer of vine leaves, and a layer of walnuts; fill it up with cold vinegar, and when they have stood all night, pour the vinegar from them into a copper, with a good quantity of bay-salt; set it upon the fire, and let it boil, then pour it hot on the nuts; tie them over with a woollen cloth, and let them stand a week; then pour that pickle from them, rub the nuts clean with a piece of flannel, and put them again into a jar, with vine leaves as before-mentioned; boil fresh vinegar, and to every gallon of vinegar, four or five pieces of ginger, a quarter of an ounce of mace, and the same quantity of whole black pepper; pour the vinegar boiling hot upon the walnuts, and cover them with a woollen cloth; let it stand four or five days, and repeat the same four or five times; when the vinegar is cold, put in half a pint of mustard-seed, a stick of horse-radish sliced; tie them down with a bladder, and then with leather; they will be fit to eat in three weeks. If they are intended to be kept, the vinegar must not be boiled, but then they will not be ready under six months.


To pickle French Beans.

Pour a boiling-hot wine over your French beans, and cover them close; the next day drain and dry them; then pour over them a boiling-hot pickle of white wine vinegar, Jamaica pepper, black pepper, a little mace and ginger; repeat this for two or three days or till the beans look green.


To pickle Red Cabbage.

Slice your cabbage cross-ways, put it on an earthen dish, and sprinkle an handful of salt over it; cover it with another dish, and let it stand twenty-four hours; then put it into a cullender to drain, and lay it in your jar; take white wine vinegar enough to cover it, a little cloves, mace, and all-spice; put them in whole, with a little cochineal boiled fine; then boil it up, and pour it either hot or cold on your cabbage; if you pour on the pickle hot, cover it close with a cloth till it is cold, and then tie it up close, as you do other pickles.


Another Way.

Take a fine close red cabbage, and cut it thin, then take some cold ale allegar, and put to it two or three blades of mace, and a few white pepper corns; make it pretty strong with salt, and put your cabbage into the allegar as you cut it; tie it close down with a bladder, and a paper over this; in a day or two it will be fit for use.


To pickle Mushrooms.

Take the smallest mushrooms you can get and put them into spring water, rub them with a piece of new flannel dipped in salt, and put them into cold spring water as you do them, to keep their colour; then put them into a saucepan, throw a handful of salt over them, cover them close, and set them over the fire four or five minutes, or till you see they are thoroughly hot, and the liquor is drawn out of them; then lay between two clean cloths till they are cold, put them into glass bottles, and fill them up with distilled vinegar; put a blade or two of mace and a tea-spoonful of good oil in every bottle; cork them up close, and set them in a cool place. If you have not any distilled vinegar, you may use white wine vinegar, or even allegar, but it must be boiled with a little mace, salt, and a few slices of ginger; it must be cold before you pour it on your mushrooms. If your vinegar or allegar is too sharp, it will make your mushrooms soft; neither will they keep so long, or appear so white.


To pickle Cauliflowers.

Take the largest and closest you can get; pull them into sprigs, put them in an earthen dish, and sprinkle salt over them; let the stand twenty-four hours to draw out all the water, then put them in a jar, and pour salt and water boiling over them; cover them close, and let them stand till the next day; then take them out, and lay them on a coarse cloth to drain; put them into glass jars, and put in a nutmeg sliced, and two or three blades of mace in each jar: cover them with distilled vinegar, and tie them down with a bladder, and over that a leather: they will be fit for use in a month.


To pickle Capers.

These are the flower-buds of a small shrub, preserved in pickle. The three which bears capers is called the caper-shrub, or bush, and is common in the western part of Europe. We have them in some gardens, but Toulon is the principal place for capers. We have some from Lyons, but they are flatter, and less firm; and some come from Majorca, but they are salt and disagreeable. The finest flavoured are from Toulon. They gather the buds from the blossoms before they are open, then spread them upon a floor in the room, where no sun enters, and then let them lie till they begin to wither; they then throw them into a tub of sharp vinegar, and, after three days, they add a quantity of bay-salt. When this is dissolved, they are fit for packing for sale, and are sent to all parts of Europe. The finest capers are those of a moderate size, firm, and close, and such as have the pickle highly flavoured; those which are soft, flabby, and half open, are of little value.


To pickle Samphire.

Take the samphire that is green, put it into a clean pan, and throw over it two or three handfuls of salt; then cover it with spring water; let it lie twenty-four hours, after which put it into a clean saucepan, throw in a handful of salt, and cover it with good vinegar; cover the pan close, and set it over a slow fire; let it stand till it is just green and crisp, and take it out at that moment, for should it remain till it is soft, it will be spoiled; put it in your pickling-pot, and cover it close; as soon as it is cold, tie it down with a bladder and leather, and keep it for use; or you may keep it all the year in a very strong brine of salt and water, and throw it into vinegar just before you use it.


To pickle Beet Roots.

Beet roots, which are a pretty garnish for made dishes, are thus pickled:—Boil them tender, peel them, and, if agreeable, cut them into shapes; pour over them a hot pickle of white wine vinegar, a little pepper, ginger, and horse-radish sliced.


To pickle Barberries.

Let your barberries be gathered before they are too ripe; take care to pick out the leaves and dead stalks, and then put them into jars, with a large quantity of strong salt and water, and tie them down with a bladder.

Note.—When you see a scum over your barberries, put them into fresh salt and water; they require no vinegar, their own sharpness being sufficient to keep them.


To pickle Codlings.

Gather your codlings when they are about the size of a large French walnut, put a quantity of vine leaves in the bottom of a brass pan, and put in your codlings; cover them well with vine leaves, and set them over a very slow fire till you can peel the skins off; then take them carefully up in a hair sieve, peel them with a pen-knife, and put them into the saucepan again, with the vine leaves and water as before; cover them close, and set them over a slow fire till they are of a fine green; then drain them through a hair sieve, and when they are cold, put them into distilled vinegar; pour a little meat oil on the top, and tie them down with a bladder.


Indian Pickle, or Peccadillo.

Quarter a white cabbage and cauliflower; take also cucumbers, melons, apples, French beans, plumbs, all or any of these; lay them on a hair sieve, strew over a large handful of salt, set them in the sun for three or four days, or till very dry; and put them into a stone jar with the following pickle:—Put a pound of race ginger into salt and water, the next day scrape and slice it, salt it, and dry it in the sun; slice, salt, and dry a pound of garlic; put these into a gallon of vinegar, with two ounces of long pepper, half an ounce of turmeric, and four ounces of mustard seed bruised; stop the pickle close, then prepare the cabbage, &c. If the fruit is put in, it must be green.


To pickle Artichoke-bottoms.

Take some artichokes, and boil them till you can pull the leaves off, then take off the chokes, and cut them from the stalk; take great care that you do not let the knife touch the top; throw them into salt and water for an hour, then take them out, and lay them on a cloth to drain; then put them into large wide-mouthed glasses, put a little mace and sliced nutmeg between; fill them either with distilled vinegar, or sugar-vinegar, and spring water; cover them with mutton fat fried, and tie them down with a bladder and leather.


To pickle Nasturtium Buds.

After the blossoms are gone off, gather the little knobs, and put them into cold water; shift them once a day for three successive days, then make a cold pickle of white wine vinegar, a little white wine, shallot, pepper, cloves, mace, nutmeg quartered, and horse-radish; put in the buds.

To pickle Gerkins.

Take five hundred gerkins, and have ready a large earthen pan of spring water and salt; to every gallon of water put two pounds of salt, mix it well together, and throw in your gerkins; wash them out in two hours, put them to drain, let them be drained very dry, and put them in a jar; in the mean time get a bell-metal pot, with a gallon of the best white wine vinegar, half an ounce of cloves and mace, one ounce of all-spice, one ounce of mustard-seed, a stick of horse-radish cut in slices, six bay-leaves, a little dill, two or three races of ginger cut in pieces, a nutmeg cut in pieces, and a handful of salt, boil it up in the pot all together, and put it over the gerkins; cover them close down, and let them stand twenty-four hours; then put them in your pot, and simmer them over the stove till they are green; (be careful not to let them boil, if you do you will spoil them) then put them in your jar, and cover them close down till they are cool; then tie them over with a bladder, and leather over that, and put them in a cold dry place; mind always to keep your pickles tied down close, Or this way: after they have been twenty-four hours in the vinegar, pour the vinegar off from them, and make it boil; then pour it over the gerkins, cover them close, and repeat it every day till they are green; then tie them down with a bladder and leather, and keep them in a cool dry place: by this method they will keep good for three or four years.

To pickle Asparagus.

Take the largest asparagus you can get, cut off the white ends, and wash the green ends in spring water; then put them in another clean water, and let them lay two or three hours in it; have a large broad stew-pan full of spring water, with a handful of salt, set it on the fire, and when it boils put in the grass, not tied up, but loose, and not too many at a time, for fear you should break the heads; just scald them, and no more; take them out with a broad skimmer, and lay them on a cloth to cool. For your pickle take a gallon or more, according to your quantity of asparagus, of white wine vinegar, and one ounce of bay-salt, boil it, and put the asparagus in your jar; to a gallon of pickle put two nutmegs, a quarter of an ounce of mace, the same of whole white pepper, and pour the pickle hot over them; cover them with a linen cloth, doubled three or four times, let them stand a week, and boil the pickle; after standing a week longer, boil the pickle again, and pour it on hot, as before; when they are cold, cover them close with a bladder and leather.


To Pickle Peaches.

Take your peaches when they are at their full growth, just before they begin to ripen; be sure they are not bruised; then take spring water, as much as you think will cover them, make it salt enough to bear an egg, with bay and common salt, an equal quantity of each; put in your peaces, and lay a thin board over them, to keep them under the water; let them stand three days then take them out, wipe them very carefully with a fine soft cloth, and lay them in your glass or jar; then take as much white wine vinegar as will fill your glass or jar; to every gallon put one pint of the best well-made mustard, two or three heads of garlic, a good deal of ginger sliced, half an ounce of cloves, mace, and nutmeg; mix your pickle well together, and pour it over your peaches; tie them close with a bladder and leather; they will be fit to eat in two months. You may, with a fine penknife, cut them across, take out the stones, fill them with mustard-seed, garlic, horse-radish, and ginger, and tie them together. You may pickle nectarines and apricots the same way.


To pickle White Plumbs.

Take the large white plumbs, and if they have stalks, let them remain on, and pickle them as you do peaches.


To pickle Radish Pods.

Make a strong pickle with cold spring water and bay-salt, strong enough to bear an egg; put the pods in, lay a thin board over them, to keep them under water, and let them stand ten days; drain them in a sieve, and lay them on a cloth to dry; then take white wine vinegar, as much as you think will cover them, boil it, and put your pods in a jar, with ginger, mace, cloves, and Jamaica pepper; pour your vinegar boiling hot on them, cover them with a coarse cloth, three or four times double, that the steam may come through a little, and let them stand two days; repeat this two or three times; when it is cold, put in a pint of mustard-seed, some horse-radish, and cover them close.


To pickle Lemons.

Take twelve lemons, and scrape them with a piece of broken glass; then cut them across in several parts, but not quite through so that they will hang together; put in as much salt as they will hold, rub them well, and strew them over with salt; let them lay in an earthen dish three days, and turn them every day; slit an ounce of ginger very thin, and salted for three days, a small handful of mustard-seeds bruised and searced through a hair sieve, and some red India pepper; take your lemons out of the salt, squeeze them very gently, put them into a jar with the spice and ingredients, and cover them with the best white vine vinegar; stop them up very close, and in a month's time they will be fit to eat.


To pickle Grapes.

Get grapes at the full growth, but not ripe, cut them in small bunches fit for garnishing, put them in a stone jar, with vine leaves between every layer of grapes; then take as much spring water as you think will cover them, put in a pound of bay-salt, and as much white salt as will make it bear an egg; dry your bay-salt, and pound it, it will melt the sooner, put it into a bell-metal or cooper pot,boil and skim it well, and as it boils take the black scum off, but not the white; when it has boiled a quarter of an hour, let it stand to cool and settle; when it is cold, pour the clear liquor on the grapes, lay vine leaves on the top, tie them down close with a linen cloth, cover them with a dish, and let them stand twenty-four hours; then take them out lay them on a cloth, cover them out with another, and dry them between the cloths; then take two quarts of vinegar, one quart of spring water, and one pound of coarse sugar; let it boil a little while, skim it clean as it boils, and let it stand till it is quite cold; dry your jar with a cloth, put fresh vine leaves at the bottom and between every bunch of grapes, and on the top; then pour the clear off the pickle on the grapes; tie a thin piece of board on a flannel, lay it on the top of the jar to keep the grapes under the pickle, and tie them down with a bladder and leather; take them out with a wooden spoon; but be sure to make pickle enough to cover them.


To Pickle Fennel.

Set spring water on the fire with a handful of salt; when it boils tie your fennel in bunches, put them into the water; just give them a scald, and lay them on a cloth to dry; when cold, put them in a glass, with a little mace or nutmeg, fill it with cold vinegar, lay a bit of green fennel on the top, and tie over it a bladder and leather.


To pickle Golden Pippins.

Take the finest pippins you can get, free from spots and bruises, put them into a preserving-pan of cold spring water, set them on a charcoal fire, and keep them turning with a wooden spoon till they will peel, but do not let them boil; when they are enough, peel them, and put them into the water again, with a quarter of a pint of the best vinegar, and a quarter of an ounce of alum; cover them close with a pewter dish, and set them on the charcoal fire again, (a slow fire not to boil) let them stand, turning them now and then till they look green; then take them out, and lay them on a cloth to cool; when cold, make your pickle as for the peaches, only instead of made mustard, it must be mustard-seed whole, cover them close, and keep them for use.


To pickle young Suckers, or young Artichokes, before the Leaves are hard.

Take young suckers, pare them very nicely, (all the hard ends of the leaves and stalks) and just scald them in salt and water; when they are cold, put them into glass bottles, with two or three large blades of mace, and a nutmeg sliced thin; fill them either with distilled vinegar, or the sugar vinegar of your own making, with half spring water.


To pickle Mock Ginger.

Take the largest cauliflowers you can get, cut off all the flower from the stalks, peel them, and throw into strong spring water and salt for three days; then drain them in a sieve pretty dry, and put them in a jar; boil white wine vinegar with cloves, mace, long pepper, and all-spice, each half an ounce, forty blades of garlic, a stick of horse-radish cut in slices, a quarter of an ounce of Cayenne pepper, a quarter of a pound of yellow turmeric, and two ounces of bay-salt; pour it boiling over the stalks, and cover it down close till the next day; then boil it again, and repeat it twice more; and when it is cold, tie it down close.


Melon Mangoes.

Take as many green melons as your want, slit them two thirds up the middle, and with a spoon take all the seeds out; put them in strong spring water and salt for twenty-four hours, and then drain them in a sieve; mix half a pound of white mustard, two ounces of long pepper, the same of all-spice, half an ounce of cloves and mace, a good quantity of garlic and horse-radish cut in slices, and a quarter of an ounce of Cayenne pepper; fill the seed-holes full of this mixture, put a small skewer through the end, tie it round with packthread close to the skewer, and put them in a jar; boil up the vinegar with some of the mixture in it, and pour it over the melons; cover them down close, and let them stand till next day; then green them in the same manner as you do gerkins; when cold, tie down close, and keep them for use.


To pickle Elder Shoots in imitation of Bamboo.

Take the largest and oldest shoots of elder which put out in the middle of May; the middle stalks are the most tender and biggest, the small ones are not worth pickling; take off the outward peel or skin, and lay them in a strong brine of salt and water for one night; then dry them in a cloth, piece by piece. In the mean time make your pickle of half white wine and half beer vinegar; to each quart of pickle you must put an ounce of white or red pepper, an ounce of ginger sliced, a little mace, and a few corns of Jamaica pepper; when the spice has boiled in the pickle, pour it hot on the shoots, stop them close immediately, and set the jar two hours before the fire, turning it often; it is as good a way of greening pickles as frequent boiling; you may boil the pickle two or three times, and pour it on boiling hot just as you please. If you make the pickle of the sugar vinegar, there must be one half spring water.


To pickle Red Currants.

To every quart of white wine vinegar put half a pound of Lisbon sugar, and a quarter of a pound of white salt; then pick put the worst of your currants and put into this liquor, and put the best in bunches into glasses; then boil the pickle with the worst currants in it, skim it very clean, and let it boil till it looks of a fine colour, and let it stand till it is cold; then strain it through a coarse cloth, wring it through to get out all the colour of the currants, and let it stand to settle; then pour the clear off the settlings, and fill up your glasses with it, tie them over with a bladder and leather, and keep them in a cold dry place.


To pickle Ox Palates.

Take as many ox palates as you want, and wash them clean with salt and water; put them in a pot, cover them with water, put in some salt, and as the scum rises skim it off clean; then put in half an ounce of cloves and mace, a little all-spice and whole pepper, stew them gently till they are tender, which will be in four or five hours, take them out, and take the two skins clean off; cut them of what size and shape you please, and let them stand till they are cold; in the mean time make a pickle of half white wine and half vinegar boiled together, with some fresh spices in it it; when both the pickles and palates are cold, lay a layer of palates in a jar, and put in some bay-leaves with a little fresh spice between every layer, and pour the pickle over them; tie them down close, and keep them for use. These are very useful to put into made dishes of all sorts, only wash them out of the pickle in warm water. You may make a little side-dish with white or brown sauce, or butter and mustard, with a spoonful of white wine in it.


To pickle Cocks' Combs.

Put your combs into scalding water, and take the skins off; then put them into a stew-pan, cover them with white wine vinegar, put in some cloves and mace, a little all-spice and whole pepper, a few bay-leaves, a little bay-salt, and stew them for half an hour; then put them in a jar; and when they are cold, melt a little mutton suet and put over them, to keep out the air, and tie them down with a bladder and leather. When you want to use them, lay them in warm water for an hour before; and you may put them in made dishes, or make a little dish of them, with white or brown cullis.


To pickle Purple Cabbage.

Take two cauliflowers, two red cabbages, half a peck of kidney-beans, six sticks, with six cloves of garlic on each stick, wash them all well, and give them a boil up; then drain them on a sieve, lay them leaf by leaf on a large table, and salt them with a bay-salt; then lay them to dry in the sun, or in a slow oven, until they are as dry as a cork; and make the following pickle: take a gallon of the best vinegar, with one quart of water, a handful of salt, one ounce of whole pepper, and boil it all together for a quarter of an hour, and let it stand till it is cold; then take a quarter of a pound of ginger cut in pieces, salt it, and let it stand a week; take half a pound of mustard-seed, wash it, and lay it to dry; when very dry, bruise half of it, mix the whole and bruise it with some all-spice, whole pepper, the prepared ginger, and an ounce of powder of turmeric; then have a jar, and lay a row of cabbage, then cauliflowers, and then beans, put the garlic in the middle, and sprinkle between every layer your mixture; then pour your pickle over all, and tie it down with a bladder and leather.


To pickle Salmon.

Take your salmon, scale and gut it, and wash it very clean; have a kettle of spring water boiling, with a handful of salt, a little all-spice, cloves and mace; put in the fish, and boil it three quarters of an hour, if small; if large, one hour; then take the salmon out, and let it stand till it is cold; strain the liquor through a sieve; when it is cold put your salmon very close in a tub or pan, and pour the liquor over it; when you want to use it, put it into dish, with a little of the pickle, and garnish it with green fennel.


To pickle Sturgeon.

Take your sturgeon and cut it in handsome pieces, wash it well, and tie it up with bass; make a pickle of half spring water and half vinegar, make it pretty salt, with some cloves, mace, and all-spice in it; let it boil, then put in your sturgeon, and boil it till it is tender; then take it up, and let it stand till it is cold; strain the liquor through a sieve; then put the sturgeon into a pan or tub as close as you can, pour the liquor over it, and cover it close; when you use it, put it in a dish, with a little of the liquor, and garnish it with green fennel or parsley.


To pickle Mackerel, called Caveach.

Cut your mackerel into round pieces, and divide one into five or six pieces; to six large mackerel you may take one ounce of beaten pepper, three large nutmegs, a large mace, and a handful of salt; mix your salt and beaten spice together; then make two or three holes in each piece, and thrust the seasoning into the holes with your finger; rub each piece all over with the seasoning, fry them brown in sweet oil, and let them stand till they are cold; put them into a jar, cover them with vinegar, and pour sweet oil over them. They will keep, well covered, a long time, and are delicious.


To pickle Mock Anchovies.

To a peck of sprats take two pounds of common salt, a quarter of a pound of bay-salt, one pound of saltpetre, two ounces of sal-prunella, and a little bole armoniac; pound all in a mortar; put them into a stone pot, a row of sprats, a layer of your compound, and so on to the top alternately; press them hard down, and cover them close; let them stand six months, and they will be fit for use. Observe that your sprats are very fresh, and do not wash or wipe them, but take them as they first come out of the water.


To pickle Smelts.

Take a hundred of fine smelts, half an ounce of pepper, the same of nutmeg, a quarter of an ounce of mace, half an ounce of saltpetre, and a quarter of a pound of common salt; beat all very fine; wash and clean the smelts, gut them, then lay them in rows in a jar, and between every layer of smelts strew the seasoning, with four or five bay-leaves; then boil red wine and pour over them, cover them with a plate, and when they are cold, tie them down close. They exceed anchovies.


To pickle Oysters.

Open one hundred of the finest and largest rock oysters you can get into a pan, with all their liquor in them, but mind you do not cut them in opening, as that will spoil their beauty; wash them clean out of the liquor one by one, put the liquor into a stew-pan, and give it a boil; then strain it through a sieve, and let it stand half an hour to settle; then pour it from the settlings into a stew-pan, and put in half a pint of white wine, half a pint of vinegar, a little salt, half an ounce of cloves and mace, a little all-spice and whole pepper, a nutmeg cut in thin slices, and a dozen bay-leaves; boil it up five minutes; then put in your oysters, and give them a boil for a minute or two; put them into small jars, and when they are cold, put a little sweet oil at the top, and tie them down with a bladder and leather; keep them in a cool dry place, and when you use them, untie them, skim off the oil, put them in a dish with a little of the liquor, and garnish them with green parsley. If you want oyster sauce, take them out, and put them into good anchovy sauce, with a spoonful of the pickle: for fish or poultry, wash them in warm water, and put them into a white sauce.


To pickle Cockles or Muscles.

Take half a peck of cockles or muscles, and wash them well; then put them into a saucepan, cover them close, and set them over a slow fire till they are all opened; strain the liquor from them, pick them all out of the shells, (mind and take the sponge or crab out of the muscles) and wash them clean in warm vinegar; strain about half the liquor from the settlings, and treat them in the same manner as oysters.

To make White Wine Vinegar.

As this vinegar, by the name, is thought to be made from white wine only, it is proper to give directions for making it. When you brew in the month of March or April, take as much sweet wort of the first running as will serve you the year, boil it without hops for half an hour, and then put it in a cooler; put some good yeast upon it, and work it well; when it has done working, break the yeast into it, and put it into a cask, but mind to fill the cask, and set it in a place where the sun has full power on it; put no bung in the bung-hole, but put a tile over it at night, and when it rains, but when it is fine take the tile off; let it stand till it is quiet sour, which will be in the beginning of September; then draw it off from the settlings into another cask,let it stand till it is fine, and draw it off for use. If you have any white wine that is tart, put it in a cask, and treat it in the same way: or cydes may be done the same way: a cask of ale turned sour, makes ale vinegar in the same manner: but none of these are fit for pickles to keep long, except the white wine vinegar.


To make Sugar Vinegar.

In the month of March or April make this vinegar as follows:—To every gallon of spring water you use, add a pound of coarse Lisbon sugar, boil it, and keep skimming it as long as the skum will rise; then pour it into a cooler, and when it is as cold as beer to work, toast a large piece of bread, rub it over with good yeast, and let it work as long as it will; then beat the yeast into it, put it in a cask, and set it in a place where the rays of the sun have full power on it; put a tile over the bung-hole when it rains, and every night, but in the day-time, when it is fine weather, take it off; and when you find it is sour enough, which will be in the month of August, (but if it is not sour enough, let it stand till it is) then draw it off, put it into a clean cask, and throw in a handful of isinglass; let it stand till it is fine, then draw it off for use.


To make Elder Vinegar.

Take two pounds of the pips of elder-flowers, and put them in a stone jar, with two gallons of white vinegar; let them steep, and stir them every day for a fortnight; then strain the vinegar from the flowers, press them close, and let it stand to settle; then pour it from the settlings, and put a piece of filtering paper in a funnel, and filter it through; then put it in pint bottles, cork it close, and keep it for use.


To make Tarragon Vinegar.

Pick the leaves off the stalks of green tarragon, just before it goes into bloom, and put a pound weight to every gallon of white wine vinegar, and treat it in the same manner as elder vinegar.


To make Walnut Ketchup.

Take half a bushel of green walnuts, before the shell is informed, and grind them in a crabmill, or beat them in a marble mortar; then squeeze out the juice through a coarse cloth, and wring the cloth well to get all the juice out; to every gallon of juice put a quart of red wine, a quarter of a pound of anchovies, the same of bay-salt, one ounce of cloves and mace, a little ginger, and horse-radish cut in slices; oil altogether till it is reduced to half the quantity; pour it into a pan; when it is cold, bottle it, cork it tight, and it will be fit for use in three months. If you have any pickle left in the jar after your walnuts are used, to every gallon of pickle put in two heads of garlic, a quart of red wine, and an ounce each of cloves, mace, long, black, and Jamaica pepper, and boil them all together till it is reduced to half the quantity; pour it into a pan, and the next day bottle if for use, and cork it tight.


To make Mushroom Ketchup.

Take a bushel of the large flaps of mushrooms, gathered dry, and bruise them with your hands; put some at the bottom of an earthen pan, strew some salt over them, then mushrooms, then salt, till your have done; put in half an ounce of beaten cloves and mace, the same of all-spice, and let them stand five or six days; stir them up every day; then tie a paper over them, and bake them for four hours in a slow oven; when so done, strain them through a cloth to get all the liquor out, and let it stand to settle; then pour it clear from the settlings; to every gallon of liquor add a quart of red wine, and if not salt enough, a little salt, a race of ginger cut small, half an ounce of cloves and mace, and boil it till about one third is reduced; then strain it through a sieve into a pan; the next day pour it from the settlings, and bottle it for use; but mind to cork it tight.


To make Mushroom Powder.

Take the largest and thickest button mushrooms you can get, cut off the root-end, and peel them; do not wash them, but wipe them clean with a cloth; spread them on pewter dishes, and put them in a slow oven to dry; let the liquor dry up in the mushrooms, as it will make the powder much stronger; when they are dry enough to powder, beat them in a mortar, sift them through a sieve, with a little Cayenne pepper and pounded mace; put the powder in small bottles, cork them tight, and keep it for use.