The Constitutions and Other Select Documents Illustrative of the History of France, 1789–1907

The Constitutions and Other Select Documents Illustrative of the History of France, 1789–1907  (1908) 
by Frank Maloy Anderson

THE CONSTITUTIONS

AND OTHER

SELECT DOCUMENTS

ILLUSTRATIVE OF THE

HISTORY OF FRANCE

1789–1907

BY

FRANK MALOY ANDERSON

PROFESSOR OF HISTORY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA

SECOND EDITION,

REVISED AND ENLARGED

MINNEAPOLIS

The H. W. Wilson Company

1908

Copyright, 1908, by

Frank Maloy Anderson

PREFACE

The practice of studying documents in connection with the history courses given in American universities, colleges, and high schools has now become so general, and the results attained so satisfactory, that the method no longer requires any defence. With the introduction of the system has come a new kind of manual, the document book. So many excellent books of this description have already appeared that the editor of still another may be reasonably expected to offer an adequate explanation for its publication.

Three considerations have induced me to prepare this volume. The first of these is personal and local. For several years past I have made a practice of dividing my class in modern European history into small sections which I could meet once each week around the seminary table. At these meetings we have studied together a considerable part of the documents here included, but the work has been hampered by the lack of a convenient collection of the documents. Fidelity to the interest of my pupils seemed to impose upon me the obligation to remove this difficulty. The second consideration lies in the attractiveness of the documents. After considerable experience in the use of various classes of documents upon European history I have reached the conclusion that students find the modern French documents more attractive than any others. Doubtless the chief reasons for this preference are that modern documents are more easily comprehended than those of more remote periods and that the style of the French is superior to that of English and German documents. Since documentary study must usually be confined to a small part of the field traversed by a class, I believe that for classes in modern European history the preference of the students may well be allowed to control the selection of the period to be studied. The third consideration is the importance of the field covered. The history of France since the beginning of the revolution surely deserves a volume in English presenting as large a proportion as possible of the important documents.

The task of selecting the documents for a book of this description is a difficult one. It may be safely asserted that no two persons would make the same selections, however well agreed they might be upon the general principles of choice. My first and foremost aim has been to pick out those documents likely to be serviceable to teachers. I have especially striven to avoid the error of a too rigid application of some definition of the term document or of some classification. The special reason for the inclusion of most of the documents will be found at least hinted at in the introductions. The more general principles which I have applied require some explanation. There appear to be at least five important ways in which a document-book may be profitably used in the teaching of history. (1) Much historical data can be acquired through such study. It must be admitted, however, that the same amount of time spent upon a good text-book will in this particular usually produce better results, for the reason that the documents studied are so few in number and so disconnected that no adequate idea of any considerable period is obtained. The defect can be remedied in large measure by using a single class of documents running through a considerable period. In modern French history the constitutions serve the purpose admirably. For this reason all of these are included and no elisions have been made, excepting two or three tabular lists of territorial divisions. (2) Documents may be used as the basis for oral or written reports; usually the work should be done in connection with secondary accounts, but the proofs for the principal statements should be drawn from the documents. Many of the groups, with their accompanying references, are inserted for this purpose. It should be observed that these groups usually contain the materials out of which the student should be able to deduce some quite definite result, such as the evolution of a policy or of an institution or the manner in which an institution operated. (3) In the opinion of many teachers the greatest value to be derived from the study of documents is a certain familiarity with the methods of historical investigation. I believe that a large number of the documents here given present unusually good opportunities for exercises designed with that intent. (4) The meaning of technical terms and the significance of constantly recurring allusions can often be more satisfactorily explained in connection with a document than by any other method. None of the selections have been made principally for this reason, but with quite a number it has been an important factor. (5) With many instructors the use of original sources in the teaching of history is valued chiefly for its vitalizing effect. For this purpose documents are perhaps less effective than contemporary narratives. Yet there are many exceptions. Several of the documents not otherwise of the highest worth have been included for their value in this particular.

Most of the documents in this collection will serve several of these purposes, but the superior value of a document for but one of these is often the decisive reason for its inclusion.

The brevity of the introductions has made it necessary that I should confine myself to pointing out only a very few of the ways in which the documents are of interest. In some cases I regret that the plan has not made possible more extended comment, but in general I believe that as much has been furnished the student as he can profitably receive. He needs to be started, but he should not be told all of the things to be obtained from the document. In the furnishing of data I have tried to supply such information as is indispensable for the understanding of the document, provided it is not to be found in the document itself. The references have been purposely confined to a limited number of well known works, all of which are in English or in French. By this method I believe that all students who use the book may be induced to become quite familiar with nearly all of the works in English and, if they read any French, with the few French works cited. To have given more, I fear, would have defeated this purpose.

I am greatly indebted to Mrs. Helen Dresser Fling, to the editors of the Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, and to the editors of that admirable series issued by the history department of the University of Pennsylvania, Translation and Reprints from the Original Sources of European History, for permission to employ their excellent translation wherever I have had occasion to use a document that has already appeared in their publications. In using these translations, as well as a number of others from non-copyrighted sources, I have made separate acknowledgment in every instance and have reproduced them exactly as printed, excepting some slight typographical errors and a few changes kindly supplied by Mrs. Fling. In my own translations I have striven to be as literal as possible, having a decent regard for the idioms of the English language. Probably I have been more literal than was absolutely requisite, but have believed that the translator of documents should err upon the side of literary form rather than meaning. In the matter of paragraphing I have invariably followed the form of the document as originally printed in French, even when a single sentence is made to run into a dozen paragraphs. As to other features of form, such as punctuation and capitals, I have been guided by two canons—to treat each document separately so as to produce the best result for that particular document, and to follow the originals as closely as English usage would allow.

It is a pleasure to acknowledge help received from several friends in addition to those already mentioned. Professor Willis Mason West, my colleague and chief, has generously responded to my frequent appeals for advice. Professor Fred Morrow Fling of the University of Nebraska kindly looked over the list of materials and made several helpful suggestions. I am under great obligation to my publishers for permission to make the volume considerably larger than stipulated in our agreement. Most of all I am indebted to my wife, Mary Steele Anderson. To her constant encouragement, literary criticisms, and assistance with the manuscript and proofs, I owe a large part of whatever value the volume may possess.

Frank Maloy Anderson.

University of Minnesota.

April 30, 1904.

Both the material and the arrangement of this edition correspond closely to the original publication. Several documents of a later date than 1902 have been added and a few changes have been made in a number of the groups of documents relating to some single topic. The principal difference between this and the original edition is in details. All of the translations have been gone over carefully and numerous changes made, especially in the second half of the book. Quite a number of additional references have been inserted. As several widely-used text-books have inserted references to documents contained in the collection I have endeavored to preserve the original pagination as far as possible. Almost invariably a reference to the first edition will be found on the corresponding or the next page of this edition.

September 2, 1908.

F. M. A.

CONTENTS
Number Page
1. Decree Creating the National Assembly. June 17, 1789. 1
2. The Tennis Court Oath. 2
3. Documents upon the Royal Session of June 23, 1789. 3
A. Declaration of the King upon the States-General. 3
B. Declaration of the Intentions of the King. 5
C. Decree of the Assembly. 10
4. The Fourth of August Decrees. August 4–11, 1789. 11
5. Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen. August 27, 1789. 15
6. Documents upon the Constituent Assembly and the Church. 15
A. Decree upon the Church Lands. November 2, 1789. 15
B. Decree upon Monastic Vows. February 13, 1790. 16
C. The Civil Constitution of the Clergy. July 12, 1790. 16
D. Decree upon the Clerical Oath. November 27, 1790. 22
E. Decree upon the Publication of Papal Documents. June 9, 1791. 23
7. Decrees for Reorganizing the Local Government System. 24
A. Decree upon the Municipalities. December 14, 1789. 24
B. Decree upon the Departments and Districts. December 22, 1789. 29
8. Decree for Abolishing the Nobility. June 19, 1790. 33
9. Decree for Reorganizing the Judicial System. August 16, 1790. 34
10. Circular Letter of Louis XVI to Foreign Court. April 23, 1791. 39
11. Decree upon the Orgnization of Trades and Professions. June 14, 1791. 43
12. Documents upon the King's Flight. 45
A. The King's Declaration. June 20, 1791. 45
B. Decree for the Arrest of the King. June 2, 1791. 50
C. Decree for the Maintenance of Public Order. June 21, 1791. 50
D. Decree for Giving Effect to the Measures of the Assembly. June 21, 1791. 51
E. Decree in regard to Foreign Affairs. June 21, 1791. 52
F. Decree for Calling out the National Guards. June 21, 1791. 52
G. Decree upon the Oath of Allegiance. June 22, 1791. 52
H. Decree upon the Commissioners from the Assembly. June 24, 1791. 53
I. Decree concerning the King. June 24, 1791. 53
J. The Protest of the Right. June 29, 1791. 54
K. Decree concerning the King. July 16, 1791. 54
13. The Padua Circular. July 5 or 6, 1791. 55
14. The Declaration of Pilnitz. August 27, 1791. 57
15. The Constitution of 1791. September 3, 1791. 58
16. The King's Acceptance of the Constitution. September 13, 1791. 96
17. The Rejected Decrees. 97
A. Decree upon the Émigrés. November 9, 1791. 97
B. Decree upon the Non-Juring Clergy. November 29, 1791. 99
18. Letter of Louis XVI to the King of Prussia. December 3, 1791. 102
19. Declaration of War against Austria. April 20, 1792. 103
20. The Three Revolutionary Decrees. 104
A. Decree for the Deportation of Non-Juring Priests. May 27, 1792. 104
B. Decree for Disbanding the King's Body Guard. May 29, 1792. 106
C. Decree for Establishing a Camp des Fédérés. June 8, 1792 106
21. The Petition of the 20th of June. June 20, 1792. 107
22. Addresses to the Legislative Assembly. 110
A. Address of the Commune of Marseilles. June 27, 1792. 111
B. Address of the Fédérés at Paris. July 23, 1792. 113
C. Address of the Paris Sections. August 3, 1792. 114
23. The Duke of Brunswick's Manifesto. July 25, 1792. 118
24. Decree for Suspending the King. August 11, 1792. 123
25. Decree for Electing the Convention. August 11, 1792. 125
26. The Jacobin Club Address. September 12, 1792. 127
27. Documents upon the Transition to the Republic. 128
A. Decleration upon the Constitution. September 21, 1792. 128
B. Decree for Provisional Enforcement of the Laws. September 21, 1792. 129
C. Decree for Abolishing the Monarchy. September 21, 1792. 129
D. Decree upon the Dating of Public Documents. September 22, 1792. 129
E. Decree upon the Unity and Indivisibility of the Republic. September 25, 1792. 129
28. Documents upon the Convention and Foreign Policy. 129
A. Declaration for Assistance and Fraternity to Foreign Peoples. November 19, 1792. 130
B. Declaration for Proclaiming the Liberty and Sovereignty of all Peoples. December 15, 1792. 130
C. Decree upon Non-Intervention. April 13, 1793. 133
29. Documents upon the Convention and Religion. 134
A. Decree upon Religious Policy. January 11, 1793. 134
B. Decree upon the Non-Juring Priests. April 23, 1793. 135
C. Decree upon Dangerous Priests. October 20–21, 1793. 135
D. Decree upon Religious Freedom. December 8, 1793. 137
E. Decree for Establishing the Worship of the Supreme Being. May 7, 1794. 137
F. Decree upon Expenditures for Religion. September 18, 1794. 139
G. Decree upon Religion. February 21, 1795. 139
H. Decree for Restoring Church Buildings. May 30, 1795. 140
I. Organic Act upon Religion. September 29, 1795. 140
30. Documents upon the Émigrés 145
A. Declaration of the Regent of France. January 28, 1793. 145
B. Decree against the Émigrés. March 28, 1793. 147
31. Declaration of War against Great Britain. February 1, 1793. 148
32. Documents upon the Revolutionary Tribunal of Paris 152
A. Decree for Crreating an Extraordinary Criminal Tribunal. March 10, 1793. 152
B. Law of 22 Prairial. June 10, 1794. 154
33. Decree for Establishing the Revolutionary Committees. March 21, 1793. 158
34. Decree upon the Press. March 29, 1793. 158
35. Decree for Establishing the Committee of Public Safety. April 6, 1793. 159
36. Robespierre's Proposed Declaration of Rights. April 24, 1793. 160
37. Decree upon the Deputies on Mission. April 30, 1793. 164
38. Documents upon the Convention and Education. 167
A. Decree upon Primary Education. May 30, 1793. 168
B. Decree upon Secondary Education. February 25, 1795. 168
C. Organic Act upon Education. October 25, 1795. 170
39. Constitution of the Year I. June 24, 1793. 171
40. Decree for the Levy en Masse. August 23, 1793. 184
41. The Law of Suspects. September 17, 1793. 185
42. Law of the Maximum. September 29, 1793. 187
43. Decree upon the Revolutionary Government. October 10, 1793. 189
44. Decree for the Republican Calendar. November 24, 1793. 191
45. Organic Decree upon the Government of the Terror. December 4, 1793. 194
46. Decree upon Slavery. February 4, 1794. 204
47. Decree upon Assignats. May 10, 1794. 205
48. Treaties with Prussia. 206
A. Treaty of Basle. April 5, 1795. 206
B. Secret Convention. August 5, 1796. 208
49. Treaty of the Hague. May 16, 1795. 209
50. Constitution of the Year III. August 22, 1795. 212
51. Law against Public Enemies. April 16, 1796. 254
52. Treaties with the Pope. 255
A. Suspension of Hostilities. June 23, 1796. 255
B. Treaty of Tolentino. February 19, 1797. 256
53. Law upon British Products. October 31, 1796. 258
54. Secret Convention with Genoa. June 5–6, 1797. 259
55. Treaty of Campo Formio. October 17, 1797. 261
56. Law of Hostages. July 12, 1799. 267
57. The Brumaire Decree. November 10, 1799. 268
58. Constitution of the Year VIII. December 13, 1799. 270
59. Order for Suppressing the Newspapers. January 17, 1800. 281
60. Law for Reorganizing the Administrative System. February 17, 1800. 283
61. Law for Reorganizing the Judicial System. March 18, 1800. 288
62. Treaty of Lunéville. February 9, 1801. 290
63. Treaty of Amiens. March 27, 1802. 294
64. Documents upon Napoleon and the Reorganization of Religion. 296
A. The Concordat. July 15, 1801—April 8, 1802. 296
B. Organic Articles for the Catholic Church. April 8, 1802. 299
C. The Declaration of 1682. 304
D. Organic Articles for the Protestant Sects. April 8, 1802. 306
65. Documents upon Napoleon and Education. 308
A. Law upon Public Instruction. May 1, 1802. 308
B. Imperial Catechism. April 4, 1807. 312
C. Decree for Organizing the Imperial University. March 17, 1808. 314
66. Documents upon the Consulate for Life. 323
A. Declaration of the Tribunate. May 6, 1802. 323
B. Re-election by the Senate. May 8, 1802. 324
C. Message of the First Consul to the Senate. May 9, 1802. 325
D. Order of the Consults. May 10, 1802. 326
E. Senatus-Consultum. (Constitution of the Year X.) August 4, 1802. 326
67. Law for Organizing the Legion of Honor. May 19, 1802. 336
68. Law for Re-establishing Slavery in the French Colonies. May 20, 1802. 338
69. Declaration of France upon the Reorganization of Germany. August 18, 1802. 339
70. Treaty with Spain. October 19, 1803. 341
71. Constitution of the Year XII. May 18, 1804. 342
72. Documents upon the Kingdom of Italy. 368
A. Constitutional Statute. March 17, 1805. 368
B. Proclamation of the Kingdom. March 19, 1805. 369
73. Treaty of Alliance between Great Britain and Russia. April 11, 1805. 371
74. Treaty of Pressburg. December 26, 1805. 374
75. Documents upon Napoleon and the Kingdom of Naples. 378
A. Proclamation to the Army. December 30, 1805. 378
B. Imperial Decree making Joseph Bonaparte King of Naples. March 30, 1806. 379
76. Treaty between France and Hollan. May 24, 1806. 381
77. Documents upon the Continental System. 383
A. British Note to the Neutral Powers. May 16, 1806. 384
B. The Berlin Decree. November 21, 1806. 385
C. British Order in Council. January 10, 1807. 387
D. British Order in Council. November 11, 1807. 388
E. The Milan Decree. December 17, 1807. 392
F. British Order in Council. April 26, 1809. 394
G. The Rambouillet Decree. March 23, 1810. 396
78. Documents upon the Dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire. 397
A. Treaty for Establishing the Confedration of the Rhine. July 12, 1806. 398
B. Note of Napoleon to the Diet. August 1, 1806. 399
C. Declaration of the Confederated States. August 1, 1806. 401
D. Abdication of Francis II. August 7, 1806. 403
79. Documents upon the Peace of Tilsit. 404
A. Treaty of Peace between France and Russia. July 7, 1807. 405
B. Secret Treaty of Alliance between France and Russia. July 7, 1807. 408
C. Treaty of Peace between France and Prussia. July 9, 1807. 410
D. Treaty between France and Prussia. September 8, 1808. 414
80. Senatus-Consultum for Suppressing the Tribunate. August 19, 1807. 416
81. Documents upon the Overthrow of the Spanish Monarchy. 418
A. Convention of Fontainebleau. October 27, 1807. 418
B. Convention with Charles IV. May 5, 1808. 419
C. Imperial Decree Proclaiming Joseph Bonaparte King of Spain. June 6, 1808. 420
82. The Erfurt Convention. October 12, 1808. 421
83. Decree upon the Term, French Republic. October 22, 1808. 424
84. Documents upon the Annexations of 1809–1810. 424
A. Imperial Decree for the Annexation of the Papal States. May 17, 1809. 425
B. Organic Senatus-Consultum for the Annexation of the Papal States. February 17, 1810. 426
C. Treaty with Holland. March 16, 1810. 427
D. Organic Senatus-Consultum for the Annexation of Holland and North Germany. December 13, 1810. 429
85. Treaty of Vienna. October 14, 1809. 430
86. Decree upon Printing and Bookselling. February 5, 1810. 433
87. The Frankfort Declaration. December 1, 1813. 435
88. Address of the Legislative Body to Napoleon. December 28, 1813. 437
89. Treaty of Chaumont. March 1, 1814. 439
90. Documents upon the Transition to the Restoration Monarchy. 443
A. Proclamation of the Allies. March 31, 1814. 443
B. Act of the Senate. April 1, 1814. 444
C. Decree for Deposing Napoleon. April 3–4, 1814. 444
D. First Abdication of Napoleon. April 4, 1814. 446
E. The Senate's Proposed Constitution. April 6, 1814. 446
F. Second Abdication of Napoleon. April 11, 1814. 450
G. Treaty of Fontainebleau. April 11, 1814. 450
91. Treaty of Paris. May 30, 1814. 451
92. Declaration of St. Ouen. May 2, 1814. 455
93. Constitutional Charter of 1814. June 4, 1814. 457
94. Proclamation of Napoleon. March 1, 1815. 465
95. Decree for Convoking an Extraordinary Assembly. March 13, 1815. 467
96. Declaration of the Powers against Napoleon. March 13, 1815. 468
97. Treaty of Alliance against Napoleon. March 25, 1815. 469
98. The Act Additional. April 22, 1815. 472
99. Treaty of Paris. November 20, 1815. 480
100. Treaty of Alliance against France. November 20, 1815. 482
101. Press Laws and Ordinances of the Restoration. 485
A. Law upon the Press. June 9, 1819. 485
B. Law upon the Press. March 31, 1820. 486
C. Law upon the Press. March 17, 1822. 488
D. Royal Ordinance upon the Press. June 24, 1827. 489
102. Circular of the Keeper of the Seals. About February 1, 1824. 489
103. Documents upon the Dissolution of 1830. 491
A. The King's Speech. March 2, 1830. 491
B. Reply of the Chamber of Deputies. March 18, 1830. 492
C. Response of the King. March 18, 1830. 493
D. Proclamation of the King. June 13, 1830. 494
104. Documents upon the July Revolution. 495
A. The July Ordinances. July 25, 1830. 495
B. Protest of the Paris Journalists. July 26, 1830. 501
C. Protest of the Paris Deputies. July 26, 1830. 501
D. Thiers' Orleanist Manifesto. July 3, 1830. 502
E. Proclamation of the Deputies. July 31, 1830. 502
F. Proclamation by Louis Philippe. August 1, 1830. 503
G. Abdication of Charles X. August 2, 1830. 504
H. Declaration of the Chamber of Deputies. August 7, 1830. 505
105. Constitution of 1830. August 14, 1830. 507
106. Law upon Elections. April 19, 1831. 513
107. Proclamations and Decrees of the Provisional Government of 1848. 514
A. Proclamation of the Overthrow of the July Monarchy. February 24, 1848. 514
B. Declaration Relative to Workingmen. February 25, 1848. 515
C. Proclamation of the Republic. February 26, 1848. 516
D. Decree for Establishing National Workshops. February 26, 1848. 517
E. Proclamation and Order for the Luxembourg Commission. February 28, 1848. 517
F. Decree for Abolishing Titles of Nobility. February 29, 1848. 518
G. Decree upon Labor. March 2, 1848. 518
H. Decree for the National Assembly. March 5, 1848. 519
I. Decree upon Slavery. April 27, 1848. 520
108. Petition of the 16th of April. April 16, 1848. 521
109. Declaration upon the Republic. May 4, 1848. 522
110. Constitution of 1848. November 4, 1848. 522
111. Documents upon the Coup d'Etat of December 2, 1851. 538
A. Decree for Dissolving the National Assembly. December 2, 1851. 538
B. Proclamation to the People. December 2, 1851. 538
C. Proclamation to the Army. December 2, 1851. 540
D. First Decree for the Plebiscite. December 2, 1851. 541
E. Second Decree for the Plebiscite. December 4, 1851. 542
F. Election Appeal. December 8, 1851. 542
112. Constitution of 1852. January 14, 1852. 543
113. Documents upon Louis Napoleon and the Press. 549
A. Decree upon the Press. February 17, 1852. 549
B. Law upon the Press. May 11, 1868. 552
114. Documents upon the Evolution of the Second Empire. 554
A. Speech of the Prince-President to the Chambers. March 29, 1852. 554
B. Address of the Municipality of Vedennes to Louis-Napoleon. October, 1852. 557
C. The Bordeaux Address. October 9, 1852. 558
D. Senatus-consultum upon the Empire. November 7, 1852. 560
115. Documents upon the Congress of Paris. 562
A. Treaty of Paris. March 30, 1856. 562
B. The Dardanelles Convention. March 26, 1856. 565
C. Declaration Respecting Maritime Power. April 16, 1856. 566
116. Documents upon the Italian War of 1859. 567
A. The Austrian Ultimatum. April 19, 1859. 567
B. Reply of Sardinia. April 26, 1859. 569
C. Proclamation of Napoleon III. May 3, 1859. 569
D. Proclamation to the Italians. June 8, 1859. 571
E. Peace Preliminaries of Villafranca. July 11, 1859. 572
F. Treaty of Zurich. November 10, 1859. 573
G. Treaty of Turin. March 24, 1860. 574
117. Documents upon the Evolution of the Liberal Empire. 575
A. Decree of the 24th of November. November 24, 1860. 575
B. Senatus-Consultum upon the Publication of Debates. February 2, 1861. 577
C. Senatus-Consultum upon the Budget. December 31, 1861. 577
D. Imperial Decree upon Interpellation. January 19, 1867. 578
E. Senatus-Consultum. September 8, 1869. 579
F. Senatus-Consultum. May 31, 1870. 580
118. The Persigny Circular. May 8, 1863. 586
119. Law upon Public Meetings. June 6, 1868. 589
120. The Proposed Benedetti Treaty. August 20, 1866. 591
121. The Ems Despatch. July 13, 1870. 592
122. Documents upon the Fourth of September. 594
A. Proclamation to the French People. September 4, 1870. 594
B. Proclamation to the Inhabitants of Paris. September 4, 1870. 595
C. Proclamation to the National Guard. September 4, 1870. 595
D. Decree upon the Legislative Body and the Senate. September 4, 1870. 596
E. Decree upon Political and Press Offenders. September 4, 1870. 596
123. Diplomatic Circulars upon the Franco-Prussian War. 596
A. Circular to French Ministers. September 6, 1870. 596
B. Circular to Prussian Ministers. September 13, 1870 599
C. Circular to Prussian Ministers. September 16, 1870. 601
124. Decrees and Laws upon the Executive Power, 1871–1873. 604
A. Decree Appointing Thiers. February 17, 1871. 604
B. The Rivet Law. August 31, 1871. 604
C. Law upon the Presidency. March 13, 1873. 606
125. Preliminary Treaty of Versailles. February 26, 1871. 607
126. Declaration of the Paris Commune. April 19, 1871. 608
127. Laws for Reorganizing Local Government. 612
A. Communal Law. April 14, 1871. 612
B. Departmental Law. August 10, 1871. 613
128. Law for Reorganizing the Army. July 27, 1872. 618
129. Documents upon the Overthrow of Thiers. 622
A. The De Broglie Interpellation. May 19, 1873. 622
B. The Government Proposals. May 19, 1873. 622
C. The Ernonul Order of the Day. May 24, 1873. 626
D. The Target Declaration. May 24, 1873. 627
E. Manifesto of the Extreme Left. May 24, 1873. 627
130. The White Flag Letter. October 27, 1873. 627
131. Law of the Septenate. November 20, 1873. 630
132. Documents upon the Establishment of the Republic. 631
A. The Casimir-Perier Proposal. June 15, 1874. 631
B. The Ventavon Proposal. July 15, 1874. 632
C. The Proposed Laboulaye Amendment. January 28, 1875. 633
D. The Wallon Amendment. January 30, 1875. 633
133 The Constitution of 1875 and Amendments. 633
A. Law upon the Organization of the Senate. February 24, 1875. 633
B. Law upon the Organization of the Public Powers. February 25, 1875. 635
C. Law upon the Relation of the Public Powers. July 16, 1875. 637
D. Amendment upon the Seat of Government. June 21, 1879. 639
E. The Amendments of 1884. August 14, 1884. 639
134. Documents upon the 16th of May Crisis. 640
A. Letter of MacMahon to Simon. May 16, 1877. 641
B. Letter of Simon to MacMahon. May 16, 1877. 641
C. Order of the Day. May 17, 1877. 642
D. Manifesto of the Left. About May 20, 1877. 643
E. MacMahon's Manifesto to the French People. September 19, 1877. 644
F. Gambetta's Circular. October 7, 1877. 646
G. MacMahon's Second Manifesto. October 11, 1877. 648
H. MacMahon's Message. December 14, 1877. 649
135. Documents upon Socialism and the Third Republic. 650
A. General Program of the Socialist Regional Congress of the Centre. July 18–23, 1880. 650
B. Common Declaration of the Socialist Organizations. January 13, 1905. 653
136. Documents upon Leo XIII and the Third Republic. 654
A. Papal Encyclical. February 16, 1892. 655
B. Papal Brief to the French Cardinals. May 5, 1892. 656
137. The Law of Associations. July 1, 1901. 659
138. Documents upon the Separation of Church and State. 662
A. The Law of Separation. December 9, 1905. 663
B. Papal Encyclical. February 21, 1906. 670
C. Petition of the Twenty-Three. March, 1906. 676
D. Law for the Public Exercise of Religious Worship. January 2, 1907. 678
E. Papal Encyclical. January 6, 1907. 680

TITLES AND EDITIONS CITED

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Adams, Henry. History of the United States during the administrations of Jefferson and Madison. Nine vols. New York, 1889–1891. from the Congress of Vienna to the present time. Two vols. New York, 1896–1898.

American catholic quarterly review. Vol. 1—. Philadelphia, 1876.

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