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JACKSON, Mich., city and county-seat of Jackson County; situated on both banks of the Grand River; 37 miles south of Lansing, 74 miles west of Detroit, 209 miles east of Chicago, 71 miles northwest of Toledo, 100 miles north of Fort Wayne, and on the main line of the Michigan Central Railroad. It is the termini of the Grand Rapids Division, Saginaw Division, and Air Line Division of the Michigan Central; of the Toledo Division, and the Fort Wayne Division of the New York Central Railroad; of the Cincinnati Northern, a part of the Big Four system; of the Michigan Air Line, a branch of the Grand Trunk Railroad. It is connected with Detroit, also, by an electric road known as the Detroit United Railway, and is connected with Battle Creek, Kalamazoo, Grand Rapids, Lansing, Owosso and Saint Johns by an electric system known as the Michigan Railway Company, the main offices of which are in Jackson. Jackson is situated in a rich, agricultural region and carries on an extensive trade in fruits, grains and vegetables. Among its chief manufactures are sewer pipe, automobiles, automobile accessories, oil stoves, corsets and underwear, waists and skirts, engines and motors, locomotives, wire fence, agricultural implements, oils and greases, chemicals and medicines and foundry products. Among the important industries are iron and steel, cigar making, Portland cement and mining. All the above employ about 14,000 hands, with a yearly output of more than $100,000,000. Coal and clay, the latter useful for pottery, are found nearby. There are five banks with a combined capital and surplus of $1,768,000, with total resources of $15,888,252; bank clearings for 1918 $53,568,324.53. There are six building and loan associations having combined assets of $5,576,538.21. Jackson is the home of the first association in Michigan. There are 34 church edifices of the various denominations. The school system is exceptionally fine, there being one city high school, two city intermediate high schools, 18 city grade schools, two parochial high schools and three parochial grade schools. There are two music conservatories and two business colleges. Among the prominent buildings are Carnegie library, the United States Government building, Elks temple, Masonic temple, City Club and the Arbeiter Verein Club buildings. The city also has a hospital and two sanitariums and there are located here also Mercy hospital, Young Men's and Young Women's Christian Association and the Odd Fellows State Home. There are two daily newspapers, one a morning paper and the other an evening paper with an aggregate circulation of 30,000. There are also three weeklies. In 1914 the city adopted the commission form of government and is operated under the city manager plan. The city is lighted by gas and electric light and owns and operates its waterworks. The first permanent settlement was made by Horace Blackman in 1829 and was first called Jacksonburg in 1830. In the same year a post office was established and named Jacksonapolis. In 1831 the township of Jacksonburg was formed and remained such until 1838 when the name was changed to Jackson. When the Michigan Central Railroad was constructed through the southern part of the State in 1841 Jackson grew rapidly, became a village in 1843, and an incorporated city in 1857. The inhabitants are mainly native born, though about one-third are of foreign descent, Irish, German, Polish and Italian predominating. Pop. about 55,000.