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KNEELAND, Samuel, American naturalist: b. Boston, Mass., 1 Aug. 1821; d. Hamburg, Germany. 27 Sept. 1888. He was graduated from Harvard in 1840, practised medicine in Boston 1845-50, and was an army surgeon during the Civil War. In 1866 he became professor of zoology and physiology in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He was a member of numerous scientific societies, and in addition to editing ‘The Annual of Scientific Discovery’ (1886-89), a translation of ‘Andry's Diseases of the Heart’ (1847), and Smith's ‘History of the Human Species,’ he wrote ‘Science and Mechanism’ (1854); ‘The Wonders of the Yosemite Valley and of California’ (1871); ‘An American in Iceland’ (1876); ‘Volcanoes and Earthquakes’ (1888).