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MASSACHUSETTS, one of the 13 original States of the Union, and the most populous of the New England States; between lat. 41° 14' and 42° 53' N., and between long. 69° 55' and 73° 32' W. from Greenwich. Its greatest length is 184 miles and greatest breadth 113¾ miles, the average breadth being 47¾ miles. Capital, Boston. Population State census, 1915, 3,693,310, as compared with 3,666,416 shown in the National census of 1910, Its familiar name “The Old Bay State” is due to its location upon Massachusetts Bay, an inlet of the Atlantic Ocean which forms the eastern boundary of the State, it is bounded on the north by the States of New Hampshire and Vermont; on the west by the State of New York; on the south by the States of Rhode Island and Connecticut, together with the Atlantic which, skirting the southeastern coast, forms between the outlying islands of Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket, belonging to the State, a broad waterway known as Nantucket Sound and an inlet called Buzzard's Bay, beyond the eastern extremity of Long Island Sound. The name “Massachusetts” is compounded from Indian words meaning “Great Hills Place,” alluding probably to heights of land near the coast in the vicinity of Boston. The present State seal, adapted in 1780 in place of other devices previously in use, shows an Indian holding in his right hand a bow and in his left an arrow pointing downward, all of gold, displayed upon a blue shield, and in the upper corner, above the right arm of the Indian, a silver star having five points. The motto, adopted for Massachusetts by the Provincial Congress in 1775, is, in Latin, “Ense petit placidam sub liberate quietem,” or in English, “With the sword she seeks quiet peace under liberty.”

Topography. — The area of the State comprises 8,315 square miles, 8,040 square miles being land surface, and 275 water. A portion of the Appalachian Mountain system forms two distinct ranges crossing the western part of the State from north to south. Of these, the Taconic range on the extreme western border has as its highest elevation Mount Greylock (3,535 feet) in the northwestern comer of the State, which is also the highest elevation found within Massachusetts. Thence the range falls to an elevation of 2,624 feet near the southwestern corner. The other or Hoosac range farther east has, as its highest peak, Spruce Hill (2,588 feet), its general height ranging, however, from 1,200 to 1,600 feet. Mount Tom (1,214 feet) and Mount Holyoke (955 feet) are conspicuous elevations rising above the valley of the Connecticut River. Mount Wachusett (2,108 feet) and Mount Watatic (1,847 feet) in the north central part of the State are also noteworthy. An elevated plateau, 1,100 feet high at its greatest elevation, forms the central portion of the State and slopes gradually toward the east, the highest point near the coast being the Great Blue Hill of Milton (620 feet). The sandy peninsula or arm of land known as Cape Cod is a distinguishing feature of the topography of the State, enclosing between the bend and the main coast the considerable body of water known as Cape Cod Bay, The arm of the cape is now penetrated by a ship canal shortening the route between the port of Boston and southern waters. The main coast line of the State, some 300 miles in extent, affords excellent harbors, especially at Boston, New Bedford, Gloucester and Salem. See Boundaries of the United States.

Rivers and Lakes. — The principal rivers are the Connecticut, crossing the State from north to south, approximately 40 miles east from the western boundary; the Housatonic, flowing south, and the Hoosac, north, between the Taconic and Hoosac ranges; and the Merrimac, in the northeastern part of the State, having its source in New Hampshire and flowing into the Atlantic on the eastern coast. These rivers, except the Merrimac for some 15 miles from its mouth, are not navigable for shipping; but together with the Deerfield, Westfield, Chicopee and Miller's River, branches of the Connecticut, the Nashua and Concord, branches of the Merrimac, the Blackstone flowing from the centre of the State southerly across the Rhode Island boundary, and numerous other small streams, afford water power of the highest efficiency which has been fully utilized in the industrial development of the State and contributed largely to tie extension and growth of manufacturing, the chief source of the wealth of its people. The Mystic and Charles rivers, flowing into Boston Harbor, and the Taunton, entering the bay at Fall River, are tidal streams each navigable for a short distance inland. There are numerous small lakes or ponds throughout the State, adding much to the beauty of the landscape, and, in many cases, utilized as sources of water supply for the inhabitants.

Geology. — The rocks are principally metamorphic of the Archæan and Palæozoic systems. In the river valleys and elsewhere there are masses of glacial drift, including sand and boulders, some of the latter being of large size. No mineral deposits of great value exist, except stone for building purposes, limestone and sandstone of the highest quality being quarried in the Connecticut Valley and west of the Connecticut, and granite of several varieties and superior character at Cape Ann, Quincy, and to a lesser extent in other eastern sections. The elevations of the lower Connecticut Valley are composed of bolerites, feldspathic and calcareous gneiss. There are extensive Mesozoic sandstone beds and shales in the Connecticat Valley, with small areas of syenite on each side, and an area of gneiss extending easterly from the Connecticut to the central part of the State. Syenite and porphyry are found in the east; feldspathic gneiss and granite in Plymouth and Bristol counties; gneiss and hornblende schist in Middlesex County; syenite in Essex and Norfolk counties; carboniferous deposits in Bristol and Plymouth counties, and Cambrian, Silurian and Devonian limestones, quartzites, schists and slates west of the Connecticut.

Climate and Scenery. — The temperature is variable and, especially in the eastern parts of the State, subject to frequent and wide fluctuations. In the early spring easterly winds prevail upon the coast, which are peculiarly trying to persons of delicate constitution. The winters are moderately severe, although near the sea there is much milder weather, during the winter months, and the fall of snow is not excessive. The summers are frequently marked by periods of excessive heat and sometimes by prolonged drought. The mean average rainfall for the State is about 48 inches. The normal temperature rises above the freezing point at Boston about 7 March and the normal temperature of 60° for the day reaches Boston about 24 May. It falls to 60° about 25 September. Observations extending over 25 years show that upon the average experience the warmest week at Boston follows 13 July. On the other hand, the coldest week follows 24 February.

The scenery in the western counties is exceedingly picturesque, notably in the valleys of the Connecticut, Hoosac, Deerfield and Housatonic rivers. Here are found the noted Berkshire Hills. The northeastern coast line extending southerly from Cape Ann is bold and rocky, while the southern and southeastern shores of Cape Cod and Buzzard's Bay are low and sandy. The islands of Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket and the group known as the Elizabeth Islands partake of the characteristics of the neighboring mainland.

History. — The native inhabitants of Massachusetts were Algonquins of various tribes, each having its distinguishing name. The Indian nomenclature of hills, rivers, lakes and local districts is still preserved in many cases. The first fully authenticated visit of a European explorer is that of Bartholomew Gosnold in 1602, although there are traditional accounts of the visits of others, particularly of Northmen under Lief Erikson, some 600 years earlier, with subsequent settlements maintained during three centuries, of which, however, no undisputed traces exist, although a commemorative tower erected on the Charles near Boston is claimed to mark the site of a Norwegian settlement named Norembega. Gosnold skirted the coast from Salem southward, named Cape Cod and discovered the neighboring islands, A settlement made upon one of these was soon abandoned. Subsequent attempts at settlement by Prynne (1603) and Waymouth (1605) also failed. The Pilgrim Fathers, so-called, a company of English separatists who, seeking religious freedom, had, under the guidance of their pastor, John Robinson, left England for Leyden in Holland in 1607-08, sailed from Delfthaven in 1620, and soon afterward, 102 in number, from Plymouth, England, in the Mayflower (q.v.), with the intention of forming a settlement south of the Hudson River. Under stress of weather, however, they were forced to land in Provincetown Harbor 11 Nov. 1620, and finally upon the mainland at Plymouth 11 December (old style), where a settlement was established under a constitution or compact signed by all before leaving the ship, John Carver being chosen governor for one year. Despite much hardship this settlement was never abandoned and formed the basis of the Plymouth Colony.

A settlement made at Cape Ann in 1623 by English fishermen was in 1626 abandoned in favor of a location at Salem. A company of English Puritans under John Endicott, having obtained a grant of land on Massachusetts Bay, joined them in 1628. Under a charter granted the following year the colony of Massachusetts Bay was firmly established. In 1630 the colony received large accessions under John Winthrop, and the seat of administration was soon transferred, first to Charlestown and finally to Boston. These two colonies, Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay, advanced side by side, the last named growing in importance by constant accessions, although less tolerant than the former in religious matters. The original government was indeed theocratic, based upon the Congregational form of church government, which was established by law in 1651. A confederacy including the two colonies and that of Connecticut was formed in 1643, followed by one upon a somewhat broader basis in 1663.

In the Massachusetts Bay Colony religious intolerance was frequently exhibited during the early years. Roger Williams and others whose opinions were thought to be dangerous to the community were banished.

Troubles with the Indians, the original inhabitants of the country, involved both colonies, the more important being the Pequot War (1636-37), and the war with King Philip (1675-76). Gradually relations with the mother country became strained. After the restoration of Charles II a royal commission was appointed to administer the government, but was prevented from exercising its powers by the colonial authorities. The English High Court of Chancery in 1684 declared the charier of Massachusetts forfeited; and a succession of governors appointed by the Crown administered the colonial government, generally with much friction engendered by an adverse public opinion. Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay colonies were consolidated under a new charter in 1692. The territory of Maine, New Hampshire and Vermont formed part of the original province, separation being progressively accomplished and finally completed by the creation of the independent State of Maine in 1820.

In the colonial wars between France and England, and in difficulties with the Indians prompted by French influence adverse to the English colonies, Massachusetts was largely involved. Especially in the French and English wars (1744-48 and 1758), the colony took an important part, contributing in great measure to the success of the expedition against Louisburg and other Canadian campaigns. In these military operations, the colonists learned to estimate their strength justly and acquired experience which was of great value in the final struggle which resulted in independence.

Measures of taxation devised by the home government and restrictions upon the growing commerce of the colony led to a constantly increasing spirit of resistance and, finally, to riots in Boston (1765-68) against the enforcement of the Stamp Act (q.v.). In 1770 three citizens of Boston were shot by British soldiers, part of a garrison quartered upon the town without consent of the people. In December 1773 a cargo of tea, subject to a duty disliked by the colonists, was destroyed by being thrown into the harbor of Boston by a company of townspeople disguised as Indians. This episode is now widely known as “The Boston Tea Party” (q.v.). The port of Boston was closed in retaliation. The meeting of the General Court at Boston being postponed indefinitely, its members assembled at Salem. On 19 April 1775 the first blood of the Revolution was shed at Lexington not far from Boston, followed by the fight at Concord Bridge. On 17 June occurred the battle of Bunker Hill at Charlestown, which, although counted as a British victory, exhibited the effective strength and stubborn power of resistance of the colonial forces, who, about 1,200 in number, resisted more than 3,000 British regulars, only giving way when after the third assault their ammunition failed. Throughout the war Massachusetts took a prominent part, notwithstanding the emigration of a considerable number of loyalists to the eastern British provinces. She provided 67,907 troops and $820,000 in revenue. At the close of the war, Massachusetts entered the Union, its State constitution being adopted in 1780 and the Constitution of the United States ratified January 1788. In the naval operations incident to the war with England in 1812, the seamen from Massachusetts won especial credit.

The State was closely identified with the anti-slavery movement by the growth within her borders of a strong popular sentiment in favor of abolition. William Lloyd Garrison (q.v.), Wendell Phillips and many other prominent men were influential in this movement.

In the War of the Rebellion the State furnished 159,165 men to the Union army and navy, paying in bounties and interest on bounty loans more than $26,000,000, besides large sums in State and military aid. At the close of the war, the war debt of the State approximated $15,000,000. In the late war with Spain also, the quota from Massachusetts was promptly furnished, the men being among those first in the field. And in the great European conflict the State acted in conformity with its honorable traditions.

Population. — The yearly rate of increase in the population of the State is about 2 per cent. The industrial development of the last 40 years has stimulated the growth of factory towns and the population is now more than three-fourths urban, that is, concentrated in cities and towns having 6,000 population or more. Since there were, in 1910, upon the average, 418.8 persons per square mile of land surface the population is more dense than in any other State except Rhode Island. Although many persons born in Massachusetts have emigrated to other States, 356,337 such persons having been found in other parts of the country in 1910, nevertheless the loss has been more than compensated by accessions from abroad, from Canada and indeed from adjacent States of the Union. By the State census of 1915, the native born in the population numbered 2,541,265, and of foreign born, 1,152,045. The increase in the native born in 1915 as compared with 1905 amounted to 21.4 per cent as against 26.4 per cent increase in the foreign born.

The number of foreign born does not of itself fully indicate the effect of immigration upon the population. This is more clearly shown by the number of persons of foreign parentage, which in 1910 aggregated 2,221,497, white persons only being considered. Less than a half of the inhabitants therefore are now of wholly native parentage.

The following table (derived from the United States census of 1910, the latest date for which such a comparison is possible) shows the place of nativity of the more numerous classes among the foreign born, and also the number of persons in the population having one or both parents born in the countries named:

PLACE OF BIRTH U. S. Census — 1910

having one
or both

All countries  1,050,050   2,221,497
Ireland 222,862  633,022
Canada (French) 134,659  295,282
Canada (other than French)  160,972  308,487
England 92,465  184,347
Sweden 39,560  68,468
Germany 30,554  77,728
Italy 85,056  130,577
Russia 117,260  176,499
Scotland 28,411  55,482
Portugal 25,445  41,431

Of the entire population 98.8 per cent was white in 1910, the remainder being persons of negro descent, Chinese, Japanese and Indians. The growth of population and its concentration have led to the incorporation of numerous cities, of which there are now 37 as against 317 towns. Although the towns numerically preponderate, nevertheless more than 70 per cent of the entire population is now under city government. Dense as the population is when considered in the aggregate this density is confined to the cities and towns engaged in manufacturing, or which share in the residential growth promoted by the metropolitan city of Boston, which of itself has extensive miscellaneous industries. The area of the cities and towns having a population in excess of 2,500 is, approximately, 3,395 square miles, and the population within such places shows a density of about 756.14 persons per square mile. Outside of these places there is in the Commonwealth an aggregate area of approximately 4,645 square miles of land surface, more than a half of the entire area of the State, containing a population of but 238,248, or an average of about 51.29 persons per square mile. Every census since 1875 has shown a considerable increase in population upon the territory occupied by towns above the 2,500 limit in 1900, and, conversely, an almost constant decline in the towns outside this area. The towns which have lost are the smaller agricultural towns of the State, and while the increase in the percentage of foreign born, proportionately to the total population, has been greater in these places than in the other cities and towns, nevertheless the population in them remains to-day as in 1875 largely native born. The persons of foreign birth rapidly become assimilated and take their place in the social and political as well as in the industrial life of the State. The presence of this element has been due very largely to the industrial development of the Commonwealth, but that part of it which appears in the smaller towns is due to the taking up of agricultural land by persons of foreign birth.

Incorporated Cities. — The table (page 403) shows the cities of the State, arranged in order of size, with the population, from the censuses of 1900 and 1910, and the State census of 1915. Boston, the capital, is the chief city of the Commonwealth and in the census of 1910 ranked fifth among the great cities of the Union. Identified with the growth of the State from its beginning its historical landmarks are of profound interest to the visitor, and the traditions of the city, its development in modern times, its unrivaled suburbs distinguished by large numbers of tasteful and well-kept residences, its beautiful parks, public buildings and points of literary and artistic interest, give it an important and in many respects a unique place among American cities. Other cities closely connected with the early history of the Commonwealth are Salem and Newburyport, located on the eastern coast in Essex County. Cambridge, near Boston, with which it is connected by several bridges spanning the Charles River, is the seat of Harvard University, and the former home of Longfellow and Lowell. Lowell and Lawrence upon the Merrimac, Fall River and New Bedford in Bristol County, and Holyoke in Hampden County, are all extensively engaged in textile manufacturing. Holyoke also, with Springfield, is especially interested in the production of paper of all grades. New Bedford was formerly the seat of the whaling industry now almost entirely abandoned. Lynn and Haverhill in Essex County and Brockton, in Plymouth, are the centres of the boot and shoe industry. Worcester, the second city in point of size, well located near the centre of the State, is an educational centre as well, the seat of Clarke University and Holy Cross College, and is largely interested in high-class metal industries and the manufacture of machinery. Waltham, in Middlesex County, is the site of a large watchmaking establishment and has extensive textile factories. Northampton, in Hampshire, is the seat of Smith College for women. Woburn, in Middlesex, has large establishments for the production of leather. Gloucester, a seaport upon Cape Ann, is largely engaged in the fisheries. Quincy, in Norfolk County near Boston, has noted granite quarries. Fitchburg in Worcester County, Taunton in Bristol, North Adams and Pittsfield in Berkshire, Chicopee in Hampden, Beverly in Essex, and Marlborough in Middlesex, are all thriving cities with important industries; and Chelsea and Revere in Suffolk County, Everett, Somerville, Newton, Melrose, Medford and Malden in Middlesex, are rapidly growing municipalities, largely residential and closely connected with Boston within the metropolitan district.

 NAMES OF CITIES  Population

1915 1910 1900

Boston  745,439   670,585   560,892
Worcester 162,697  145,986  118,421
Fall River 124,791  119,295  104,863
New Bedford    109,568  96,652  62,442
Cambridge 108,822  104,839  91,886
Lowell 107,978  106,294  94,969
Springfield 102,971  88,926  62,059
Lynn 95,803  89,336  68,513
Lawrence 90,259  85,892  62,559
Somerville 86,854  77,236  61,643
Brockton 62,288  56,878  40,063
Holyoke 60,816  57,730  45,712
Haverhill 49,450  44,115  37,175
Malden 48,907  44,404  33,664
Chelsea 43,426  32,452  34,072
Newton 43,113  39,806  33,587
Quincy 40,674  32,642  23,899
Fitchburg 39,656  37,826  31,531
Pittsfield 39,607  32,121  21,766
Everett 37,718  33,484  24,336
Salem 37,200  43,697  35,956
Taunton 36,161  34,259  31,036
Medford 30,509  23,150  18,244
Waltham 30,154  27,834  23,481
Chicopee 30,138  25,401  19,167
Revere 25,178  18,219  10,395
Gloucester 24,478  24,398  26,121
Beverly 22,959  18,650  13,884
North Adams 22,035  22,019  24,200
Northampton 21,654  19,431  18,643
Peabody 18,625  15,721  11,523
Attleborough 18,480  16,215  11,335
Leominster 17,646  17,580  12,392
Melrose 16,880  15,715  12,962
Woburn 16,410  15,308  14,254
Newburyport 15,311  14,949  14,478
Marlborough 15,250  14,579  13,609
Methuen 14,007  11,448  7,512

Religion. — Originally, as elsewhere stated, Orthodox Congregationalism was the form of Church polity recognized by law. To-day all the principal denominations are represented. In respect to population, the Roman Catholics lead all others, more than 900,000 persons in the Commonwealth being of that faith. In church membership, the Orthodox Congregationalists rank next to the Roman Catholics, with approximately 115,000 members; followed by the Baptists (of whom there are several different bodies), with about 70,000; the Methodists (of different bodies), with about 60,000; the Unitarians, about 35,000; the Protestant Episcopalians, 30,000; and many other lesser bodies, of whom few, if any, exceed the limit of 10,000 in membership. These figures must all be regarded as below the actual, although relatively the bodies stand as stated. In the value of church property, although recent exact statistics are not available, and conclusions must therefore be based upon estimates, the rank of the several denominations is the same except that possibly the Roman Catholics change place with the Orthodox Congregationalists.

Government. — Originally based upon church membership, the conditions surrounding the suffrage have been subject to successive modifications. Dissenters from the Established Church were released from paying taxes for church purposes in 1815, and in 1833 all denominations were given equal standing before the law. Since the adoption of the original State constitution (1780) it has been three times revised by constitutional conventions held in 1820, 1353 and 1917-19. Numerous amendments to the original articles have been made and new articles adopted from time to time. All male persons, 21 years of age and upward, able to read and write in the English language, and neither paupers, imbeciles or convicts are entitled to vote. The State legislature, called the General Court, consists of the senate, 40 members, and the house of representatives, 240 members, elected in senatorial and representative districts respectively. Annual sessions are held beginning on the first Wednesday of January and continuing until prorogation after the completion of the business of the session. One of the most important articles in the recently revised Constitution provides for legislation subject to popular initiative and referendum, so that a specified number of voters by petition may initiate constitutional amendments and laws, or may require laws enacted by the General Court to be referred to the people for ratification or rejection.

The executive branch of the State government consists of a governor, lieutenant-governor, eight councillors who are the governor's constitutional advisers in the matter of appointments and other minor executive duties, and who are chosen in councillor districts, a secretary of the Commonwealth, treasurer and receiver-general, auditor of accounts and attorney-general. Beginning with the election to be held November 1920 these state officers and the members of the legislature, all of whom have heretofore been elected annually, will be chosen biennially; but annual sessions of the legislature will be continued as in the past. The governor is by virtue of his office commander-in-chief of the military forces of the State. He has a constitutional power of veto over the acts passed by the legislature, but, notwithstanding this, vetoed bills may be passed over the veto by a two-thirds vote of both branches. Important executive function are exercised by commissions of from one to three or more members, appointed by the governor, including among others the boards of agriculture; education; charity; conciliation and arbitration (dealing with labor disputes}; the industrial accident board; the board of labor and industry; the commissioners of insurance; banks; waterways and public lands; the public service commissioners; the commission on mental diseases (lunacy); the bureau of prisons; the department of health; and the director of the bureau of statistics (controlling the census, social and industrial statistics), etc. The recently revised Constitution requires that on or before 1 Jan. 1921, these commissions and boards, and all other executive and administrative work of the Commonwealth shall be organized in not more than 20 departments in which every executive and administrative office shall be placed, except those directly controlled by the governor and council. All judges are appointed by the governor and hold offices during good behavior. The judicial system comprises police, district and municipal courts, having original jurisdiction in minor civil and criminal cases, sometimes exclusive of the Superior Court and sometimes concurrent therewith; a Superior Court with original jurisdiction in higher cases, and original and concurrent jurisdiction with the Supreme Judicial Court; and a Supreme Judicial Court, which has general supervision over all courts of inferior jurisdiction, hears appeals, decides questions of law, etc. This court has also original jurisdiction in certain cases, and original and concurrent jurisdiction with the Superior Court in others. The Superior and Supreme Judicial Courts hold regular term sittings in the several counties. The judicial system also includes courts of probate and insolvency in each county, and there are trial justices and justices of the peace, with limited jurisdiction.

Cities are incorporated by special legislative charter, the minimum population required being 12,000. City governments are administered by a mayor and city council. Towns are independent municipal bodies other than cities, the chief executive officers being the board of selectmen, elected in town meeting by those entitled to vote. The town meetings also make appropriations and decide, by vote, other important matters relating to the affairs of the towns.

The cities and towns are grouped into counties, 14 in number, namely, Barnstable, Berkshire, Bristol, Dukes, Essex, Franklin, Hampden, Hampshire, Middlesex, Nantucket, Norfolk, Plymouth, Suffolk and Worcester. The chief executive officers in the counties are county commissioners, elected annually.

Militia. — All able-bodied male citizens between the ages of 18 and 45 are in emergency liable to perform military duty. The ordinary State militia force consisted in 1916 (including officers) of land forces numbering 9,649 men, and a naval force of 842 men. These were organized in five regiments of infantry (in two brigades), one squadron of cavalry, one regiment of field artillery, one corps of coast artillery, one field battalion of signal troops, one corps of cadets, one naval brigade and a department of sanitary troops comprising one ambulance company, one field hospital company and sanitary detachments for the various regiments. During the late war, by special legislation, the land forces were much enlarged by a so-called home guard, recruited by voluntary enlistment.

Wealth, Debt and Taxation. — Massachusetts is one of the wealthiest States of the Union. Much of the capital of its citizens is invested in enterprises out of the State. The value of real estate as fixed by the assessors of the various cities and towns for purposes of taxation was for the year 1918, $3,884,193,442. The total personal estate returned from the same sources was $850,260,497, bringing the aggregate to $4,734,453,939, and even this is probably an underestimate.

The aggregated tax levy for State, county and municipal purposes, for the year covered by the latest report, amounts to $95,138,742. Of this $2,087,046 is a poll tax assessed under a provision of law requiring the payment of such a tax, limited to $2 per capita, by every male inhabitant of the Commonwealth above the age of 20 years, whether a citizen of the United States or an alien. The rate of local taxation in the different cities and towns, per $1,000 of valuation, real and personal, varies from $2.50 to $42; rates from $2.50 to $9.80 being assessed in 11 towns; $10 to $14.60 in 52 towns; $15 to $19.80 in 6 cities and 122 towns; $20 to $24.70 in 26 cities and 107 towns; and S25 to $42 in 6 cities and 24 towns.

Under the tax system of the State real estate is taxed to the owner wherever residing, the tax being payable in the city or town where the estate is located. Taxes on tangible personal property are payable in the city or town where the holder resides, but a new statute in operation since 1917 taxes the income only of intangible personalty, and also income in excess of $2,000 from business, trade or profession, through the office of the State commissioner of taxation, the proceeds being distributed to the municipalities wherein the person taxed resides. Sworn returns are required under penalty.

Corporations are subject to a tax upon their capital stock, assessed and payable through the office of the State commissioner of taxation, the proceeds being distributed to the municipalities wherein the stockholders reside, in proportion to the amount of shares held by them respectively. Shares in such corporations are therefore exempted from local taxation. Real estate and tangible personal property in general is, on the other hand, subject entirely to local assessment, and, theoretically, at its full value. Property held solely for religious, charitable or educational purposes is exempt from taxation.

The State's bonded debt, less the amount of sinking fund applicable to its reduction, contracted for State purposes only, namely, loans for the construction of hospitals and other public buildings, the abolition of railway grade crossings, unpaid remainders of war debt, etc., amounted to $32,058,102 as reported 30 Nov. 1918. The Commonwealth carries temporarily an indirect indebtedness which, less sinking fund accumulation, amounted at the same date to $53,001,804, this representing loans contracted for the benefit of certain municipalities and metropolitan districts, within which the credit of the State was pledged to aid the development of parks, water systems, sewerage construction and armory construction, the communities benefited being assessed annually for the payment of interest, and finally for the payment of the principal. The net debt of the State, direct and contingent, was then $85,059,906, although, as will be seen, the larger part of this was contingent municipal indebtedness supported by the State credit.

Banks. — The report of the Comptroller of the Currency to September 1916 reports the number of national banks in the State as 155; 12 being in Boston. The total capital of the national banks in the State was $52,143,000, with $40,361,000 surplus, $707,823,000 total assets and $432,333,000 deposits. The total capital of the Boston national banks was $25,300,000, the surplus $23,950,000 and the deposits $199,095,000. This is a leading "reserve city." Trust companies doing a banking business in the State numbered 91, with $30,575,000 aggregate capital and $436,031,581 in deposits.

The banks for savings are governed by a carefully guarded statute, and these institutions as well as co-operative banks (co-operative savings and loan associations) and trust companies are under the supervision of the State commissioner of savings banks. The savings banks, at the close of the year covered by the latest published return (1917), numbered 196, the number of deposit accounts being 2,491,646; the amount of deposits, $1,022,342,583; the increase over the previous year being $24,647,765. The average amount to each account was $410.31, the deposits amounting on the average to about $263 to each person of the population. The savings banks throughout the State have been managed conservatively and very few losses have occurred; but the expense of management is remarkably low, the percentage of expense to total assets being but .287. The co-operative savings banks, which are really building associations, receiving deposits from their members in regular monthly payments, accumulating interest thereon, and loaning the amounts received to members only, principally upon first mortgages on real estate, have been uniformly successful and numbered (in 1917) 184, the shareholders numbering 247,725 and the assets amounting to $126,695,037.

The Massachusetts statute governing these institutions is a model in legislation of this kind, carefully protecting the interests of the members, who, by the method of regular savings inherent in the system, are gradually accumulating considerable sums in cash, or acquiring home ownership.

In their relation to commerce the financial interests of the State are largely centred in Boston. The first bank in this city, one of the earliest institutions of the kind in the country, was established in 1784 and still continues. Banking operations here have generally been conducted with conservatism and prudence. Since 1898 the aggregate banking capital invested in the city has been much reduced, and weak banks eliminated or strengthened by consolidation.

Education. — From the earliest years the education of the people has been a vital subject of public concern. Harvard College at Cambridge was founded in 1636, and as early as 1647 It was provided in the colonial laws “to the end that learning may not be buried in the graves of our forefathers” . . . “that every township after the Lord hath increased them to the number of fifty households, shall appoint one to teach all children to write and read; and when any town shall increase to the number of one hundred families they shall set up a grammar school, the master thereof to be able to instruct youth so far as they may be fitted for the University; provided that if any town neglect the performance hereof above one year, that every such town shall pay five pounds to the next school, till they shall perform the order.” The spirit of this early law still continues. It has always been the policy of the Commonwealth to preserve the principle of local control of the schools, thus promoting the direct interest of the taxpayers in the several municipalities. Hence while the State law provides under penalty that schools shall be maintained in every city and town, these are administered by local boards termed school committees, elected by the people and clothed with broad general authority. Women, as well as male voters, may vote for the election of these officers. The State Board of Education, appointed by the governor, has advisory powers, intended to foster and promote the highest efficiency of the public schools, but no direct control of local schools, except in certain matters of general concern, such as the distribution of the income of the State school fund in aid of the schools in the poorer towns. This board through its agents exercises limited supervisory authority wherever aid is thus furnished. The board also directly administers the State normal schools established for training teachers. Such schools exist at Framingham, Westfield, Bridgewater, Salem, Worcester, Fitchburg, North Adams, Hyannis and Lowell, besides a State Normal Art School at Boston, expressly devoted to the training of teachers in drawing and the arts of design. The buildings provided by the State for normal instruction are of the highest character, of modern construction and all fully equipped. The number of pupils in attendance approximates 2,900.

School attendance is compulsory between the ages of 7 and 14, or if under 16 if certain educational standards have not been reached and specified requirements concerning education complied with. Public schools must be maintained at least 30 weeks in each year, providing instruction in specified subjects, except that in towns in which the taxable valuation of property is under $200,000, the time may be reduced to 28 weeks. Cities and towns containing 500 families must maintain high schools for at least 40 weeks annually, unless exempted by the State Board of Education for valid reasons, and under conditions fixed by the board. Towns not subject to this must pay for tuition of their children in the high school of some other municipality, but sums so paid are reimbursed by the State to towns wherein the valuation does not exceed $1,000,000, or if the valuation exceeds this amount but if the town contains less than 500 families, 50 per cent is reimbursed. If a town containing less than 500 families, nevertheless, maintains a high school of its own, the State grants to it $500 annually under certain conditions. Cities having 20,000 inhabitants must provide manual training. Cities and towns may establish industrial schools, and any city or town may, or under certain industrial conditions affecting illiteracy, must maintain evening schools for instruction of persons over 14 years of age, and cities of 50,000 inhabitants must maintain evening high schools. Cities and towns may provide free lecture courses of educational value, and vacation schools are authorized, also nautical schools on shore or shipboard, and provision is made for State-aid vocational instruction, including agriculture, trades, crafts and manufacturing industries. A system of continuation schools provides for the education of illiterate minors between the ages of 14 and 16 who are at work. Municipalities must employ superintendents of schools, and provision is made for the joint employment of such superintendents by the smaller towns grouped in superintendentcy unions, aided by the State under certain conditions.

Children under 14 are not to be employed for wages while the public schools are in session, and unless certain educational requirements are complied with employment under 16 is prohibited in factories, workshops or mercantile establishments. There are also stringent provisions as to the employment of minors between 16 and 21, intended to prevent illiteracy. Indeed the educational requirements are so correlated with provisions as to employment and such effective means are provided for enforcement of the laws that the intellectual, moral and physical status of minors of either sex is carefully guarded. In every respect the legislation of Massachusetts of this character is upon a high plane.

There is a provision for the certification of the qualifications of high school teachers by the board of education, and a State-wide retirement system for teachers in the public schools, with annuities and pensions.

A department of university extension, under direction of the State Board of Education, organizes and maintains a comprehensive system of extension teaching designed to supplement, or to fill gaps in, other established educational agencies, by means of vocational and cultural classes conducted by part-time teachers or by correspondence courses. Many such courses are offered for classes when they do not duplicate educational opportunities given at nominal fees by other institutions. There are no fees for instruction in such classes. Twenty students must enroll in order to form a class.

The number of children attending the public schools during the year ending 30 June 1918, covered by the latest published returns, was 604,023; the average membership, 547,288. and the average attendance, 506,474, or 93 per cent of the average membership. At the same time there were 464,621 children in the State between the ages of 7 and 14. The law requiring school attendance is well enforced.

The total annual expenditure for public school support and outlay for the same year was $30,600,088, of which $3,929,213 was for new buildings, alterations and permanent repairs. Of the whole amount required for annual support about 97 per cent was derived from local taxation. The average cost to the towns in taxation was $48.73 for the school support of each child in the average membership, (not including outlay for new buildings) requiring an expenditure of $5.45 for each $1,000 of the State's valaation, or about 27 per cent of the average tax for all purposes.

The effective ventilation of school buildings is required under definite provisions of law enforced by the State inspector of factories and public buildings, and in the larger towns and cities these buildings are generally of the highest types of such edifices in this and in all other respects, large numbers having been erected within recent years.

The higher educational institutions within the State include the following: Harvard College (q.v.) at Cambridge, founded 1636; Williams College (q.v.) at Williamstown, 1793; Amherst College (q.v.) at Amherst, 1825; Mount Holyoke College (q.v.), for women, at South Hadley, 1837; College of the Holy Cross at Worcester, 1843; Tufts College (q.v.) at Medford, 1850; Massachusetts Institute of Technology at Boston, 1861; Boston College at Boston, 1863; Massachusetts Agricultural College at Amherst, 1863; Worcester Polytechnic Institute at Worcester, 1865; Boston University at Boston, 1869; Wellesley College (q.v.), for women, at Wellesley, 1870; Smith College (q.v.), for women, at Northampton, 1871; Clark University and Clark College at Worcester, 1887-1902; Simmons College at Boston, 1899; Massachusett College of Pharmacy at Boston, founded 1823, incorporated 1852; Middlesex College of Medicine and Surgery at Cambridge, founded 1846, incorporated 1850; Massachusetts College of Osteopathy at Cambridge, established 1897, incorporated 1898; Wheaton College at Norton, founded 1834, incorporated 1912, and Northeastern College at Boston, 1916. Radcliffe College at Cambridge and Jackson College at Medford having certain affiliations with Harvard and Tufts, respectively, but no legal connection with them, are devoted to the collegiate education of women, and there are also many seminaries and private schools of various grades in the State.

Libraries. — Free public libraries form an important element in the educational equipment of the State. These institutions, free to all the citizens in the various cities and towns, are practically universal, only a fractional percentage of the population being without such privileges. The establishment of such libraries has in recent years been fostered by grants of money from the State treasury, and by the creation of a Free Public Library commission, appointed by the governor, established to promote public library usefulness and to aid in founding such institutions where not then existing. This commission makes annual reports to the legislature upon matters within its jurisdiction. There are also numerous circulating and association libraries, not free to the public. The latest returns from the public libraries within the State show more than 400 such libraries, containing about 6,700,000 bound volumes and having a circulation for home use of more than 14,033,000 volumes. The annual appropriation from taxes for such libraries by the various cities and towns totaled about $1,355,600. The Boston Public Library, housed in a building which is one of the most noteworthy architectural monuments in the United States, is (except New York) the largest free public circulating library in the country, and contains about 1,175,000 volumes; the Harvard University Library has more than 1,230,000; the Boston Athenæum, 265,000; and the public libraries at Springfield and Worcester; the State Library in the State House at Boston, and that of the American Antiquarian Society at Worcester, each exceed 200,000 volumes. (See Libraries).

Charitable and Penal Institutions. — The State institutions dealing with the defective classes include hospitals for the insane at Worcester, Taunton, Northampton, Danvers, Westborough, Medfield, Monson, Boston, Foxborough and Grafton; a State colony at Gardner, the Massachusetts School for Feeble-Minded at Waltham and the State school at Wrentham. These institutions are under the general supervision of the State Board of Insanity and directly controlled in each case by a board of seven trustees, of whom five must be men and two women, one to be appointed annually by the governor and council, the place of the senior member being vacated each year.

General remedial institutions include a State hospital at Pondville for inebriates and victims of drug habits, seven trustees; the hospital cottages for children at Baldwinsville, with five trustees; the Massachusetts Charitable Eye and Ear Infirmary at Boston, two trustees on behalf of the State; the Massachusetts General Hospital, four trustees on behalf of the State; the Massachusetts Homœopathic Hospital at Boston, five trustees on behalf of the State; the Peter Bent Brigham Hospital at Boston, two trustees on behalf of the State. There are several sanitariums for consumptives under a State board of seven trustees. All the State trustees are appointed for fixed terms by the governor. The Perkins Institution and Massachusetts School for the Blind at Watertown has four trustees on behalf of the State, similarly appointed; and the Soldiers' Home at Chelsea, three. There are special educational institutions for the deaf in which the State is interested and to which educable children of this class may be sent, in accordance with the policy of the Commonwealth which makes schooling free for all its children even when physical defects of this nature forbid their attendance upon the public day school. These comprise the American School for the Deaf at Hartford, Conn.; the Clarke School for the Deaf, Northampton; the Horace Mann School for the Deaf, Boston; the Sarah Fuller Home for Little Deaf Children, Medford; the New England Industrial School for Deaf Mutes, Beverly, and the Boston School for the Deaf. The Massachusetts Hospital School at Canton provides for the care and education of crippled and deformed children. The penal and reformatory institutions include the Lyman School for Boys at Westborough; the State Industrial School for Girls at Lancaster, and an Industrial School for Boys at Shirley, all controlled by the trustees of training schools, appointed by the governor; the State Prison at Boston (Charlestown district); the Massachusetts Reformatory at Concord; the Reformatory Prison for Women at Sherborn, and a prison camp and hospital at Rutland, all under the general supervision of the State director of prisons.

The State institutions for paupers include the State Infirmary at Tewksbury and the State Farm at Bridgewater.

The local poor, having settlements under the law in the cities and towns, are cared for in local almshouses maintained by the municipalities. There are jails, houses of correction and truant schools in the counties. The charitable institutions established and maintained by religious bodies or other private agencies are widely distributed; and, especially, hospitals for the treatment of accidents and disease, and homes for the aged have, in recent years, been numerously established throughout the Commonwealth.

By the latest returns covering the year ending April 1918, the total number of persons receiving public charity relief, of all grades (i.e., supported or relieved in institutions, in families or in their own homes, but not including vagrants and wayfarers), was 83,562. The paupers in State institutions numbered 10,626, and the city and town poor in local almshouses, 7,451. The total net cost of pauper relief for the year was $5,168,294, or about $1.34 to each inhabitant of the State. For the year ending 1 Feb. 1919 the whole number of insane persons in the State in care of the State Commission on Mental Diseases was 15,231, besides 3,953 other mental defectives, chiefly feeble-minded. (See Pauperism).

The total prison population 1 March 1919 aggregated 4,031; of whom about one-half were confined in county jails and houses of correction and the rest in the State prisons.

Vital Statistics. — Upon the estimated population of the State, the birth rate per 1,000 of persons living, for the year 1916 the latest for which complete figures are available, was 24.8; the marriage rate 18.2, and the death rate 14.9, the excess of births over deaths per 1,000 of persons living being 9.9. The death rate is slightly higher in the cities than in the towns. The total number of deaths for the year was 56,366, the number under each of the principal classified causes being as follows: From general diseases, 14,111; diseases of the nervous system and organs of special sense, 5,774; of the respiratory system, 7,859, and of the digestive system, 5,071.

Manufactures. — The State is largely devoted to manufacturing, the energies of its people having been early turned in this direction, and developed by more than a century of industrial training. No special advantages exist based upon the possession of raw material, or due to natural resources, except water power, which, although changes in the methods of developing power render this less essential than formerly, is still an important factor. The climate of the southeastern part of the State is especially favorable to cotton spinning. In colonial days much was done to foster manufactures, invention has been promoted and improved craftsmanship stimulated, and the effect has been significant throughout the industrial history of the State. The power loom, first constructed by Francis C. Lowell of Boston and Paul Moody of Amesbury, and put in operation at Waltham in 1814, revolutionized the cotton industry in the United States. The first cotton mill in the country was built at Beverly in 1788. As early as 1815 there were 57 cotton mills in the State with 46,650 spindles. The first attempt at woolen goods manufacture was at Rowley, in Essex County, in 1643, followed by more or less successful efforts in the same direction elsewhere in the State in the 17th and 18th centuries. The industrial history of Lowell, Lawrence and Fall River is, in effect, the history of the growth of the factory system as applied to textiles in America. The boot and shoe industry, developing from crude hand process of early times to the perfected factory operations of to-day, is interwoven with the story of the growth of Lynn, Haverhill, Brockton and many smaller municipalities. The first printing done in the American colonies was at Cambridge in 1639; and from this small beginning onward the printing and publishing business has been important in the State. Much of the history of paper-making in the United States is the history of the industry of Massachusetts. The manufacture of india rubber goods in this country originated at Roxbury, now part of Boston, in 1833. Manufactures of metal, machinery of all kinds, wooden goods, jewelry, clothing, cordage, rattan and other furniture have always been important.

The following table shows the returns, according to the census of 1915, covering the returns of the previous year, of all industries in the aggregate and of the principal industries in detail:

Capital Wage earners Value of

 Total wages 

All industries 12,013   $1,548,960,733   606,698   $341,309,517   $1,641,373,047
Boots and shoes, including cut stock and findings  884  116,037,821  85,114  51,006,829  255,188,013
Boots and shoes (rubber) 23,027,061  8,087  4,468,411  23,788,788
Carriages and wagons 149  2,866,562  1,245  709,379  2,627,575
Clothing 418  12,141,437  11,840  16,697,908  30,206,346
Confectionery (and ice cream) 276  11,640,834  7,262  3,041,509  22,934,748
Cordage and twine (and jute goods) 13  18,780,156  6,073  2,455,637  20,229,992
Electrical apparatus and supplies 91  45,067,320  17,125  10,651,133  43,869,294
Foundry and machine shop products 724  99,707,910  34,398  23,497,652  70,974,440
Furniture 134  18,970,795  6,813  3,960,588  13,826,765
Iron and steel 57  20,095,865  6,097  3,888,253  18,565,912
Jewelry 202  14,521,053  6,505  3,888,999  14,175,857
Leather 126  47,418,119  10,164  5,918,205  45,265,434
Liquors, malt 26  22,373,787  2,106  1,992,312  15,608,044
Lumber, including planing mill products 475  12,433,568  5,048  3,367,568  15,029,841
Paper and pulp 86  47,979,966  13,401  7,548,620  43,352,545
Printing and publishing 1,206  37,264,950  13,214  10,278,542  47,574,600
Rubber goods, not otherwise specified 42  17,345,185  4,743  2,845,043  23,011,349
Slaughtering and meat packing 46  18,470,685  3,233  1,893,645  51,724,520
Textiles[1] 537  487,043,677  201,939  94,225,033  394,525,236

In textiles, the most important industrial group shown in this table, the cotton industry leads with a product value of $195,481,636. The spindles employed in this industry numbered, in 1900, 7,784,687, increasing 1,960,169, or 33.7 per cent since 1890, being 40.6 per cent of the total increase in the country. In 1910 Massachusetts had 9,375,004 cotton spindles, and its spindles and looms in the industry approximated one-half of those in the country, and the State is first in rank among the States in the manufacture of cotton goods. The State led all others in the manufacture of woolen and worsted goods, the annual product in 1915 reaching $127,351,434. It also holds first place in the boot and shoe industry, the figures being shown in the table. It has long been first in the manufacture of fine writing papers, the value of this product approximating three-fourths of the total produced in the United States. The paper used by the national government for currency and bonds is produced within the borders of Pittsfield, but near the Dalton line, in a mill especially devoted to its manufacture. In the production of rubber boots and shoes the State ranks first, and in the manufacture of jewelry is preceded only by Rhode Island and New York. The labor employed in the factories of the State is highly skilled, its operations well organized and its productive capacity correspondingly high. Labor difficulties have not been numerous nor protracted. The factory legislation, as a whole, is in advance of other States, and is well enforced, being supported by an effective public opinion. The laws against the employment of children (referred to under Education) are especially stringent, and such employment is reduced to small proportions. There is provision for efficient factory inspection under the State Board of Labor and Industries, with a corps of inspectors covering all parts of the Commonwealth.

Agriculture. — The agriculture of the State, as compared with that of the great farming States of the West, is not important. The industry has always been secondary to manufacturing. Following the lines of least resistance, it has turned chiefly to the production of milk, eggs, poultry and such vegetables as find a ready market in the growing factory towns and cities almost at the farmer's door. Considered from this standpoint and measured by the value of the product annually sold, no decline is shown in recent as compared with earlier years. For example, the total value of product for the year covered by the United States census of 1910 was $42,298,274 as against $28,072,900 returned 10 years previously. The returns in the State census are more favorable than those secured in the national enumeration, since taken in the autumn and possibly with greater care; but inasmuch as comparisons with other States can only be made by using the national figures, they will be relied on here. The total number of farms (1910) was 36,917; and the total acreage, 2,875,941, of which 1,164,501 was improved. The farm property was valued as follows: Land and improvements, except buildings, $105,532,216; buildings, $88,636,149; implements and machinery, $11,563,894; live-stock, $20,741,366. The animals upon the farms in the State, 15 April 1910, included 252,416 neat cattle; 64,283 horses; 10,009 lambs (under one year); 32,708 sheep (one year and over}; 103,018 Swine, and poultry valued at $1,492,961. The total value of domestic animals on farms was $19,208,712. The persons, 10 years of age and over, engaged in agriculture, forestry and animal husbandry numbered 74,666, and the agricultural laborers (working out) 4,515. The farms operated by owners, part owners or managers constituted 91.9 per cent of the whole number, only 8.1 per cent being carried on by tenant farmers. The State ranked twelfth among the States with respect to the number of farms which derive their principal income from dairy produce, and the total dairy product for the year amounted to $15,187,774, the amount sold being $14,840,927, the remainder being consumed on the farms. The value of milk sold was $13,297,634; cream, $475,824; butter and butter fat, $1,063,859; and of cheese, $3,610. The total value of poultry raised and sold during the year was $1,287,829; and the egg product aggregated 13,305,540 dozen. About 55,000 acres were devoted to cereals, the product in 1910 being valued at but $1,617,131, only a small per cent of the total crop value. Of the principal cereals the acreage and bushels produced in 1910 are corn, 41,755 acres, 2,029,381 bushels; oats, 7,927 acres, 268,500 bushels; rye, 3,474 acres, 59,183 bushels; barley, 349 acres, 9,021 bushels; buckwheat, 1,630 acres, 32,926 bushels; wheat, 109 acres, 2,404 bushels. The acreage devoted to hay and forage crops, exclusive of cornstalks, was 519,503, and the value of the crop, $11,280,989. Certain sections of the State are devoted to special products of considerable importance. Among these are tobacco raised in the Connecticut Valley, cranberries in Barnstable County and general market produce in parts of Middlesex County near Boston.

The Fisheries. — The fishing industry has, from the earliest years, been an important element in the prosperity of the coast towns and the hardy seamen of Gloucester and Marblehead, engaged in this industry in times of peace, have won renown in the naval operations of the country in times of war. The latest complete returns relating to the fisheries of the State show 8,780 vessels engaged valued at $3,680,163, with apparatus valued at $891,213, and the following annual product: Food fish, $7,580,789; mollusks, $1,509,200; crustaceans, $447,167; aggregating $9,537,156, The total number of persons engaged in the fisheries was 11,814. Of the value of the vessels, 39.51 per cent; of apparatus, 27.21 per cent; and of food fish product, 44.69 per cent are credited to the city of Gloucester; New Bedford having 8.42 per cent of the value of vessels, 7.06 per cent of the value of apparatus and 2.35 per cent of the food fish product, besides $217,987 product of the whale fishery. Provincetown had 5.41 per cent of the value of vessels, 13.07 per cent of apparatus and 8.96 per cent of food fish, besides $4,500 product of the whale fishery. Boston had 24.11 per cent of the value of vessels, 13.67 per cent of apparatus and 33.88 per cent of the food fish product.

Commerce. — By the statistics of 1916, fairly reflecting normal conditions preceding the late war, the total imports of the Massachusetts Customs District amounted to $210,900,943, or 9.60 per cent of all imports to the country. The exports amounted to $131,221,946, or 3.03 per cent of all exports. There were entered during the year 146 sailing and 240 steam vessels (American), having 439,484 total tonnage; and 269 sailing and 839 steam vessels (foreign), having 1,981,163 total tonnage. The vessels cleared numbered 129 sailing, 175 steam (American), total tonnage 322,085; and 272 sailing, 561 steam (foreign), total tonnage, 1,267,436.

Boston, of course, is the chief port of entry, and in the aggregate value of investments and earnings derived from ocean commerce exceeds all others. The city is extensively engaged in European commerce, much of which is conducted under foreign flags. Lines of passenger and freight steamers regularly ply between Boston and European ports, and the coastwise passenger and freight traffic to the east and south is important.

Railroads.— Transportation facilities have kept pace with the industrial development of the State. Boston, the metropolis, is connected with the West by two railway systems, and these communicate either directly or by branches with all the leading industrial centres. One general system, with its various divisions, communicates with the South by way of New York, uniting important manufacturing cities and towns, while a network of main and branch lines connects the northern and eastern factory centres of the State with each other, with the seaboard and with the railway systems leading south and west. There are in the State 2,141 miles of main and branch railroad line, besides 1,072 miles of second, third and fourth main track, and 1,755 miles of side track, making the total length of railroad track within the State 4,968.

Various companies as originally chartered are now operated (under leases) in three general systems, the Boston and Albany, Boston and Maine and the New York, New Haven and Hartford. The Boston and Maine system, after receivership, has recently (1919) undergone reorganization. The gross assets of the companies, 31 Dec. 1916, aggregated $863,525,164, and the gross liabilities $833,908,990. The total gross revenue from operation for the year was $163,463,010; and the total expense of operation, $110,802,255; yielding $52,660,755 net. Electrical street railways have multiplied until they now connect all of the principal cities and towns. In the city of Boston subway and elevated railway construction of the highest class, completed and in process, has already transformed the methods of street transit, and will finally solve the problem of rapid communication between different parts of the city and its suburbs. The Massachusetts street railway companies now own, according to the returns, year ending 31 Dec. 1916, 2,357 miles of main track, 529 miles of second main track and 196 miles of side track, these aggregating 3,082 miles. The gross assets of these companies aggregate $229,308,549. The total operating revenue for the year amounted to $43,150,201, and the total expense of operation to $30,753,333. In recent years the prosperity of both steam and street railroads has been curtailed by causes which it is hoped are temporary. The street railways have especially felt the increase in operating expenses due to advancing wages and cost of supplies, without proportionate increase in revenue, since to a large extent they have been confined to fixed rates of fare. And the principal systems are now (1919) operating under remedial legislation, involving the principal of service at cost, with State control and, to a certain extent, guaranteed returns upon invested capital.

Governors of Massachusetts.


Chosen annually by the People

1620 Nov. 11, John Carver.
1621 April —, William Bradford.
1633 Jan. 1, Edward Winslow.
1634 Mar. 27, Thomas Prence.
1635 Mar. 3, William Bradford.
1636 Mar. 1, Edward Winslow.
1637 Mar. 7, William Bradford.
1638 June 5, Thomas Prence.
1639 June 3, William Bradford.
1644 June 5, Edward Winslow.
1645 June 4, William Bradford.
1657 June 3, Thomas Prence.
1673 June 3, Josiah Winslow.
1680 Dec. 18, Thomas Hinckley.[2]


Chosen annually under the First Charter

1629 Mar. 4, Matthew Cradock.[3]
1629 April 30, John Endicott.[3]
1629 Oct. 20, John Winthrop.[3]
1634 May 14, Thomas Dudley.
1635 May 6, John Haynes.
1636 May 25, Henry Vane.
1637 May 17, John Winthrop.
1640 May 13, Thomas Dudley.
1641 June 2, Richard Bellingham.
1642 May 18, John Winthrop.
1644 May 29, John Endicott.
1645 May 14, Thomas Dudley.
1646 May 6, John Winthrop.
1649 May 2, John Endicott.
1650 May 22, Thomas Dudley.
1651 May 7, John Endicott.
1654 May 3, Richard Bellingham.
1655 May 23, John Endicott.
1665 May 3, Richard Bellingham.
1672 Dec. 12, John Leverett (acting).
1673 May 7, John Leverett.
1679 May 28, Simon Bradstreet (to May 20, 1686).

The Inter-Charter Period.

May 25, 1686, Joseph Dudley became president of New England under royal commission, holding the office until 20 December, the same year, when Sir Edmund Andros became governor of New England, appointed by King James II. On 18 April 1689, Governor Andros was deposed by a revolution of the people. After the dissolution of the first charter, Simon Bradstreet was governor from 7 June 1689 to 16 May 1692.


Appointed by the King under the Second Charter

1692 May 16, Sir William Phips.
1694 Dec. 4, William Stoughton (acting).
1699 May 26, RichardCoote (Earl of Bellomont).
1700 July 17, William Stoughton (acting).
1701 July 7, The Council.
1702 June 11, Joseph Dudley.
1715 Feb. 4, The Council.
1715 Mar. 21, Joseph Dudley.
1715 Nov. 9, William Tailer (acting[4]).
1716 Oct. 5, Samuel Shute.
1723 Jan. 1, William Dummer (acting).
1728 July 19, William Burnett.
1729 Sept. 7, William Dummer (acting).
1730 June 11, William Tailer (acting)
1730 Aug. 10, Jonathan Belcher.
1741 Aug. 14, William Shirley.
1749 Sept. 11, Spencer Phips (acting).
1753 Aug. 7, William Shirley.
1756 Sept. 25, Spencer Phips (acting).
1757 April 4, The Council.
1757 Aug. 3, Thomas Pownal.
1760 June 3, Thomas Hutchinson (acting).
1760 Aug. 2, Francis Bernard.
1769 Aug. 2, Thomas Hutchinson (acting).
1771 Mar. 14, Thomas Hutchinson.
1774 May 17, Thomas Gage.


1774 Oct., A Provincial Congress
1775 July, The Council


Governors elected annually

1780-85, John Hancock.
1785-87, James Bowdoin.
1787 (to Oct. 8, 1793), John Hancock.[5]
1793 (from Oct. 8), Samuel Adams (acting)[6].
1794-97, Samuel Adams.
1797 (to June 7, 1799), Increase Sumner[5] (Federalist).
1799 (from June 7 to May 20, 1800), Moses Gill (acting),[6] (Federalist).
1800-07, Caleb Strong (Federalist).
1807 (to Dec. 10, 1808), James Sullivan,[5] (Dem.-Rep.).
1808 (from Dec. 10), Levi Lincoln (acting),[6] (Dem.-Rep.).
1809-10, Christopher Gore (Federalist).
1810-12, Elbridge Gerry (Democratic-Republican).
1812-16, Caleb Strong (Federalist).
1816-23, John Brooks (Federalist).
1823 (to Feb. 6, 1825), William Eustis,[5] (Dem.-Repub.).
1825 (from Feb. 6), Marcus Morton (acting)[6] (Dem.-Repub.).
1825-34, Levi Lincoln (Democrat-Federalist).
1834 (to Mar. 1, 1835), John Davis, (Whig).
1835 (from Mar. 1), Samuel T. Armstrong (acting),[6] (Whig).
1836-40, Edward Everett (Whig).
1840-41, Marcus Morton (Democrat).
1841-43, John Davis (Whig).
1843-44, Marcus Morton (Democrat).
1844-51, George N. Briggs (Whig).
1851-53, George S. Boutwell (Democrat and Free-Soil).
1853-54, John H. Clifford (Whig).
1854-55, Emory Washburn (Whig).
1855-58, Henry J. Gardner (American).
1858-61, Nathaniel P. Banks (Republican).
1861-66, John A. Andrew (Republican).
1866-69, Alex. H. Bullock (Republican).
1869-72, William Claflin (Republican).
1872 (to May 1, 1874), Wm. B. Washburn,[7] (Republican).
1874 (from May 1), Thomas Talbot (acting),[6] (Republican).
1875-76, William Gaston (Democrat).
1876-79, Alex. H. Rice (Republican).
1879-80, Thomas Talbot (Republican).
1880-83, John D. Long (Republican).
1883-84, Benjamin F. Butler (Democrat and Independent).
1884-87, George D. Robinson (Republican).
1887-90, Oliver Ames (Republican).
1890-91, John Q. A. Brackett (Republican).
1891-94, William E. Russell (Democrat).
1894 (to Mar. 5, 1896), Frederic T. Greenhalge[5] (Republican).
1896 (from Mar. 5), Roger Wolcott (acting),[6] (Republican).
1897-1900, Roger Wolcott (Republican).
1900-03, W. Murray Crane (Republican).
1903-05, John L. Bates (Republican).
1905-06, William L. Douglas (Democrat).
1906-09, Curtis Guild, Jr. (Republican).
1909-11, Eben S. Draper (Republican).
1911-14, Eugene N. Foss (Progressive-Democrat).
1914-16, David I. Walsh (Democrat).
1916-18, Samuel W. McCall (Republican).
1919- Calvin Coolidge Republican.

Bibliography. — Historical: Hutchinson, ‘History of Massachusetts’ (1764-67); Barry, ‘History of Massachusetts’ (1855-57); Savage, ‘Winthrop's History of New England’ (1825-26); Young, ‘Chronicles of the Pilgrim Fathers’ (1841), and ‘Chronicles of Massachusetts,’ (1846); Schouler, ‘Massachusetts in the Civil War’ (1868-71); Drake, ‘The French and Indian War’ (1870); Adams, ‘The Emancipation of Massachusetts’ (1887); Goodwin, ‘The Pilgrim Republic’ (1888); Ellis, ‘The Puritan Age and Rule in the Colony of the Massachusetts Bay’ (1888); Fiske, ‘The Beginnings of New England’ (1889); Adams, ‘Three Episodes of Massachusetts History’ (1892), and ‘Massachusetts: Its Historians and Its History’ (1893); Byington, ‘The Puritan in England and New England’ (1896); Howe, ‘The Puritan Republic (1899). There are numerous local, town and country histories, among them, Holland, ‘The History of Western Massachusetts’ (1855), and Winsor, ed., ‘The Memorial History of Boston’ (1880). Among popular compendiums consult Powell, ‘Historic Towns of New England’ (1901), and Bacon, ‘Historic Pilgrimages in New England’ (1898). The published collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society contain invaluable material not otherwise readily accessible, relating to the early history of the Commonwealth. Scientific: Hitchcock, ‘Report on the Geology, Mineralogy, Botany and Zoology of Massachusetts’ (1833); ‘Final Report on the Geology of Massachusetts’ (1841); ‘Ichnology of New England’ (1858); and supplement to the same (1865). The following are official reports: ‘Fishes, Reptiles and Birds of Massachusetts’ (1839); ‘Herbaceous Flowering Plants of Massachusetts’ (1840); ‘Invertebrata of Massachusetts’ (1841), and Emerson, ‘Trees and Shrubs of Massachusetts’ (1875). Public Documents: The census reports of the United States; reports of the decennial State census; annual State reports on the statistics of manufactures and on the statistics of labor bulletins, etc., issued by the State Bureau of Statistics; annual State reports of the board of education on railroads, savings banks, lunacy, charity, prisons, agriculture, etc.; reports of the treasurer and receiver-general, the auditor and reports upon vital statistics, and upon polls, property and taxes, issued by the secretary of the Commonwealth.

Librarian Emeritus, Boston Public Library.

Americana 1920 Massachusetts - State Capitol.jpg
Copyright, 1902 by Detroit Photographic Co.
State Capitol at Boston

  1. Embracing the following with product as specified: Cotton goods, $195,481,626; woolen and worsted goods, $127,351,434; wool scouring, $1,406,674; hosiery and knit goods, $17,357,319; silk and silk goods, $10,676,681; wool shoddy, $1,903,016; dyeing and finishing textiles, $22,455,086; hats, fur, felt, $864,722; carpets, other than rag, $10,981,344; linen goods, $3,050,254; felt goods, $2,997,080.

  2. Mr. Hinckley was governor till the union of the colonies in 1692,
    except during the administration of Sir Edmund Andros.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2
    A royal patent (3 Nov. 1620) created the Council for
    New England with definitions of territory. 19 March 1628,
    the council granted to Sir Henry Rosewell and others the
    territory afterward confirmed by royal charter to the “Governor
    and Company of the Mattachusetts Bay in Newe England.” This
    charter which passed the seals 4 March 1629, designated
    Matthew Cradock as the first governor of the company.
    On 13 May 1629, Cradock was rechosen by the company, but
    never came to New England. 20 Oct. 1629, John Winthrop was
    chosen governor by the company. John Endicott
    had been sent over as their agent by the grantees under the
    instrument of 19 March 1628. While Cradock was the nominal
    governor a commission was sent out, dated 30 April 1629, to
    Endicott at Salem appointing him “Governor of London's
    Plantation in the Mattachusetts Bay in Newe England.” In
    the exercise of his duties he was subordinate to the governor
    in London. Cradock and Endicott were thus chief governor and
    local governor, respectively, until 20 Oct. 1629,
    the date of the commission of Winthrop (who had not then
    arrived); and Winthrop and Endicott were chief and local
    governors, respectively, until the arrival of Winthrop at Salem,
    with charter, 12, June 1630; when Endicott's powers were
    merged in the general authority of Winthrop.

  4. On 9 Nov. 1715, Elizeus Burgess was proclaimed governor, he
    having been commissioned 17 March 1715, but he never came
    over to perform his duties, and resigned in April 1716.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 Died in office.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6
    Lieutenant-governor, acting governor during a vacancy. One of these,
    Moses Gill, died while so acting, 20 May 1800, and the Commonwealth,
    for the only time under the constitution, was without a governor or
    lieutenant-governor. The council, Hon. Thomas Dawes, president, officiated
    until the 30th of the month, when Caleb Strong was inaugurated governor.

  7. Resigned upon election to the Senate of the United States.