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The Evolution of Worlds/Index

INDEX

A


Abnormality, the survival of original state, 144, 146.
Absorption in spectrum,
planetary, 52, 161.
of Uranus, 118.
of Jupiter, 152.
of Saturn, 152.
Achilles, 94.
Adams, 119, 121.
Adams, Mr. J. C., 123-126.
Agassiz, 41.
Airy, 121, 123.
Albedo,
of dark star, 27.
of Mercury, 62, 73-75.
of Venus, 73-75.
of Moon, 75.
of Jupiter, 104, 105.
of Saturn, 109.
of Uranus, 116.
of Neptune, 168.
of clouds, 195.
Algol, 3.
American Academy, 125.
Amphibians, first record of, 188.
Anderson, Dr. Thomas D., 8, 12.
André, 265.
Andromeda, great nebula in, 10, 20, 21.
constitution disclosed by spectroscope, 45, 48.
Apex of Sun's way, 26.
Arago, 121.
Asteroids, 39, 60, 61, 94-102.
domain of, 94.
diminutive size, 94, 101.
number, 94, 101.
peculiar discovery of, 95-98.
never formed part of a pristine whole, 98.
where thickest, 98.
formation of large planet from, prevented, 98, 99.
mid-course between planets and comets, 100.
shape of, 101, 102.
mammoth meteorites, 102.
mark transition between inner and outer planets, 102.
Atmosphere,
spectrographic study of, 53, 54, 161.
Mercury deprived of, 71, 75, 232.
reflecting power, 75.
of Venus, 75.
Moon deprived of, 75, 232.
thin on Mars, 75, 91, 232.
of Uranus, enormous, 117, 118, 232.
of Neptune, vast, 118, 232.
of Jupiter, 166, 232.
depletion of, 231-233.
none on Ganymede, 232, 233.
of Saturn, 232.
lacking in Saturn's rings, 232.
Avogadro, 228.
Axes of planets,
systematic righting of, 132.
tilts accounted for, 146.

 

B


Babinet, 147.
Backland, 68.
Ball, Sir Robert, 145.
Barrande, M., 178.
Belopolski, 87.
Bessel, 120, 121.
Blandet, M., 175, 176.
Bode, 95, 119.
Bode's law, 96, 100, 119, 122, 126.
Bolometer, 194.
Bolton, Mr. Scriven, 103, 105, 106.
Boltzmann, 228.
Bose, 157.
Bouvard, Alexis, 120, 121.
Boyle, 228.
Bradley, 68.

 

C


Cambrian era, 178.
Cambridge Observatory, 123.
Campbell, 9.

Carboniferous period, 179.
Cassini, 76, 162.
Celestial mechanics, 28, 94, 155.
Ceres, 101.
Challis, 123.
Chemistry, indebted to the stars, 160.
Clausius, 228.
Clerke, Miss, 9, 164.
Climate, advent of, 185.
Clouds,
none on Venus, 75.
of Jupiter not ordered as ours, 107, 163, 167.
Uranus wrapped in, 168.
Neptune wrapped in, 168.
Earth once wrapped in, 170, 171, 178.
Collision of dark star with Sun, 25, 215.
warning of, 26-29.
disturbances previous to, 29, 30.
rarity of event, 30.
Collisions between meteorites of a flock, 11, 49.
causing light, 49, 50.
Columbus, 1 88.
Comets, 33, 61.
members of solar system, 34, 35.
orbits of, 61, 100.
Commensurability of orbital period, 99, 111.
Congruities of solar system, 128-137.
deviations from, 62, 100, 101, 130, 131, 141.
specify mode of evolution, 137.
Convection currents, 219.
in atmosphere of Venus, 80.
Copeland, Dr. 7.
Copernican system, 58.
Copernicus, 62.
Cosmic action, 1, 22, 184.
Croll, 196.
Cuticle of star, effect of impact on, 11.

 

D


Dana, 177, 186, 189.
Dark stars,
origin, 2.
number, 2, 25.
evidence of, 3-5.
collision of, 10, 11.
rendered visible, 26.
Darwin, 62, 138, Notes 252.
Day,
lengthened to infinity, 70, 219.
none on Venus, 83.
Jovian, 163.
first appreciation of, 186.
coincides with month, on satellites, 225.
Death of a planet,
defined, 214.
catastrophic cause, 215, 216.
due to tidal retardation of rotation, 216-219.
outcome of loss of oceans and air, 226, 233.
caused by extinction of Sun itself, 234.
Density,
of dark star, 27.
of planets, 51, Notes 243.
of Mercury, 63, 64.
of Venus, 90.
of Jupiter, 103, 117.
of Uranus, 115.
Deserts, increase of, on Earth, 208-211.
Devonian era, 187.
Dhurmsala meteorite, 41.
Diameter,
of Mercury, 63, 64, 66, 67.
of Venus, 90.
of Earth, 90.
of Mars, 91.
of satellites of Mars, 92.
of Jupiter, 103.
of Uranus, 115-117.
Dust, in atmosphere of Venus, 75.

 

E


Earth,
characteristics, not universal, 90, 91, 155.
evolved from a nebula, 149.
internal heat, 150.
early surface temperature, 160, 169, 170.
once cloud-wrapped, 170, 171, 178.
solid surface formed, 171.
hot seas of, 171, 172.
self-sustained, 182.
study of, within province of astronomy, 184.
ceased to be self-centred, 187.
Sun becomes dominant factor in organic life of, 190.
Earth shine, 82.
Eccentricity, orbital,
of Mercury, 63, 65, 69, 222.
of asteroids, erratic, 100, 101.

of satellites, increases with distance
from primary, 134.
Eclipsing binaries, 3, 4.
Ejectum from nova, 5, 16.
rate of regression, 16.
Elemental substances, 159.
in Sun, 159.
once in Earth, 160.
discovery of, in stars, 161, 162.
Ellipticity,
of Jupiter, 103.
of Saturn, 109.
of Uranus, 115.
Encke, 68.
Energy,
conservation of, 140, 150, 151.
dissipation, 140-142.
conditions for a minimum, 142.
Eros, fluctuation of light of, gives evidence of form, 101, 102.
Evolution, 153.
white nebulæ in process of, 49.
rounded out, 56.
of solar family, 100.
evidence of, in solar system, 117.
manner of, lessens energy, 141.
Evolution, chemical, 155, 173.
universal, 156.
temperature conducive to, 157, 158.
attendant upon cooling, 158, 162.
steps in, shown by spectroscope, 161.
Evolution, physical, 155, 162.
induced by cooling, 162.

 

F


Fabry, 34.
Fauna, 178, 179, 187.
Faye, 175, 176.
Flagstaff, Arizona, 52, 66, 68, 79, 83, 89, 92, 106, 110, 221, 232.
clear and steady air of, 66, 86.
Flamstead, 119.
Fleming, Mrs., 7.
Flemming, 120, 121.
Flora, of paleologic times, 177.
French Academy, 122.

 

G


Galle, Dr., 122, 123, 125.
Gases,
peculiar to nebulæ, 11, 16.
occluded in meteorites, 42, 43.
in atmospheres of planets, 53-55.
Gauss, 34, 96, 97.
Geikie, 160, 177, 189.
Geology,
relation to astronomy, 173, 174, 183, 184.
scope of, 174, 203.
Geysers, avenues to earlier state, 160.
Goodricke, 3.

 

H


Hakluyt, 188.
Harvard College Observatory, 8, 12.
Heat,
molecular motion, 150, 157, 230.
the result of evolving, 153.
the preface to higher evolution, 153, 156.
laws governing amount of, 190.
atmosphere keeps out, as well as stores, 191.
effective, received from Sun, 192-194.
invisible rays, 194.
retained, 194-196.
radiated, 194-196.
Heat of condensation of Earth,
accuses concourse of particles, 151.
evaluated, 151, 152.
sufficient for geologic phenomena, 152.
Hector, 94.
Helmholtz, 151.
Hencke, 98.
Herschel, Sir John, 122.
Herschel, Sir William, 96, 114, 162.
Hertha, periodic variability, 102.
Hipparchus, 5.
Holden, 9.
Hubbard, Professor, 124.
Huggins, 52.
Humphreys, 10.
Huntington, 209.

 

I


Ice Age, 196.
not of orbital occasioning, 197-199.
increased precipitation, the cause, 199, 200.
a local affair, 200-202.
Irradiation, affecting diameter of Mercury, 66, 68.

 

J


Jacobi, Notes 252.
Julius, Professor, 10.
Juno, 101.

Jupiter, 103-108.
not solid, 104, 107.
a semi-sun, 105, 108, 152, 166, 167.
white spots of, 106.
Jupiter, "great red spot" of, 164.
time of rotation, 164.
a vast uprush of heated vapor, 165, 166.
Jupiter's belts,
secular progression, 104.
rotate at different speeds, 104, 162, 163.
color, 104.
wisps across, 105, 106.
bright ones, cloud, 163, 167.
spectrographic study of, 166.

 

K


Kapteyn, 14.
Keeler, 19, 52, 110.
Kepler, 6.
Kinetic theory of gases, 226, 228.
corollary of, 54.
extension of, 230, 231.
Kirkwood, Professor, 35.

 

L


Lagrange, 94, 97.
Lalande, 123, 124.
Lane, Homer, 234.
Langley, 191, 194.
Laplace, 34, 110, 127, 129, 131, 132, 138, 139, 147, 152, 175.
Laplacian cosmos, 129, 130.
false congruities of, 131-133.
annular genesis, disproved, 138, 139.
original "fire mist" of, impossible, 138.
Lapparent, de, 173-176, 183, 189.
Lemonnier, 115, 119.
Leonard, Miss, 79.
Leverrier, 119, 121-126.
Lexell, 115.
Libration in longitude,
of Mercury, 65, 69, 70, 222, 223.
causes true day, 70, 71.
of Venus, inappreciable, 83, 223.
of Moon, 224.
Lick Observatory, 13, 14.
Lockyer, 48.
Lowell Observatory, 65, 74.

M


Major planets,
gaseous, 117.
constitution of, differs from Sun or Earth, 161.
types of early planetary stages, 162.
self-centred and self-sustained, 168.
Man, immanent, 159.
Mars,
polar caps, 198.
canals in dark regions, 206, 207.
dying of exhaustion, 234.
Mass,
of Mercury, 63, 64, 68.
of Mars, 91.
of Jupiter, 103.
arrangement of, in solar system, 135-137, 148.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 134, 184.
Mauvais, 125.
Maxwell, Clerk, 110, 113, 228.
Mayer, 119, 151.
Mendeleeff, 161.
Mercury, 62-73.
time of rotation and revolution the same, 65, 69.
axis stands plumb to orbit, 70.
turns same face to the Sun, 70, 72, 134, 221.
surface markings, 72, 221.
color, 72.
Meteorites, 31, 35, 36.
cosmic bodies, 32, 33.
relation to shooting stars, 36.
members of solar system, 36.
composition, 40-44, 55.
fused by friction with atmosphere, 40.
temperature, 41, 55.
fragments of a dark body, 44.
link past to present, 44, 56, 57, 130.
Meteors,
orbits of, 36, 39, Notes 241-243.
visibility of, 38.
Meteor-streams, 33, 61.
first recognition of, 34.
disintegrated comets, 34.
Michelson, 10.
Milham, Professor, 99.
Mira Ceti, 235.
Mohler, 10.
Molecular speeds, gaseous, 228-231.
critical velocity, 230, 231.

Molecule, organic, power in its instability, 160.
Moment of momentum, 140, Notes 250.
cause of original, 130.
Moment of momentum, conservation of, 140.
applied to solar system, 141-143.
Momentum, 140.
Monch, Mr., 10.
Moon,
turns same face to Earth, 134, 208, 224, 225.
once fiery, now dead, 233, 234.
Mountains, none on Mars, 91.
Müller, 73, 74, 104, 105, 116.

N


Naval Observatory at Washington, 122.
Nebulæ,
origin of, 10, 11.
amorphous, 18, 44.
planetary, 18.
spectrum of amorphous, 45.
Nebulæ, spiral, 17-25, 44.
evolved from disrupted stars, 10-15.
relation to novæ, 14-16.
corpuscular character of, 15, 16.
knots and patches of, 15.
most common, 19, 20.
two-armed, 20, 25.
central neucleus, globular, 21.
not due to explosive action, 22, 23, 25.
not caused by disintegration, 24, 25.
cause of development, 24, 25.
spectrum of, 45-48.
composed of flocks of meteorites, 48, 49.
constitution established by spectroscope, 49, 50.
Nebular hypotheses, 173.
Neologic times, clearing of sky in, 185.
Neptune, 118.
rotates backward, 118.
owes discovery to mathematical triumph, 119-126.
faint belts on, 168.
further advanced than giant planets, 168.
Newcomb, 67.
Newton, Professor, 36, 42.
Newton, Sir Isaac, 34.
Nova Aurigæ, 7, 8, 12.
history chronicled by its spectrum, 8,9.
Nova Cygni, 7.
Novæ, 6, 7.
origin 5, 10.
first chronicled, 5.
spectroscopic study of, 7.
Nova Persei, 7.
history of, 12-15.

 

O


Oceans.
none on Mars, 91.
evaporation of, 204.
basins of, on Moon, 204-208.
basins of, on Mars, 206, 207.
Olbers, 97.
Olmstead, Professor, 33.
Orbital distance,
of Mercury, 62.
of Venus, 73.
of Mars, 91.
of Eros, 94.
of Saturn, 108.
Orbital tilts,
of asteroids, erratic, 100, 101.
of satellites of Uranus, 116.
of planets, substantially the same, 129-131, Notes 244.
deviation from rule, by Mercury, 131.
of satellites, increase with distance
from primary, 133, 134.
Orbits,
determining factors, 35.
rendered more circular by collisions, 141-143, Notes 250, 251.
made more conformant to general plane by collisions, 141-143.
Orion, great nebula in, 18.

 

P


Paleologic times,
much warmth and little light in, 172.
fallacies in geologists' expositions of, 174-176.
climate continuous, 177, 186.
seas warm, 177, 178.
explained by cloud envelope, 178.
corroboration of explanation, 187, 179.
excessive rain in, 185, 186.
passage into Neologic, essentially astronomic, 185.
Pallas, 101.
Parabolic speed at orbit, Notes 245.

Patroclus, 94.
Peirce, no, 125, 126.
Perrine, 15.
Perrotin, 116.
Perturbations,
in motion of planets, heralding a catastrophe, 28, 30.
reflected, 63.
mass of planet determined by, 68.
of asteroids by Jupiter, 98, 99.
restrictive action of, 99.
the fashioning force of planetary orbits, 99, 100.
of rings of Saturn by satellites, in, 112.
of Uranus lead to discovery of Neptune, 121-126.
Petersen, Dr., 123.
Photometric determinations, 92, 93.
background, the fundamental factor in, 92, 93.
Piazzi, 96.
Pilgrim Star, 5, 6.
Planetary astronomy, advance in, 59, 60.
Planetology, 203.
defined, 173, 174.
Planets, 61.
knots in spiral nebulæ, 25, 139.
developed by agglomeration, 143, 149, 151, 152.
Pliny, 5.
Plutonic rocks, 160.
Pluvial eras, contemporaneous with
glacial, 200.
Polyp corals, in paleologic times, 186.
Pristine motion of planetary particles,
retrograde, 144.
superfluous energy in, 145.
unstable, 145.
Ptolemaic system, 58.

 

R


Refrigeration, tempered by loss of cloud, 196.
Revolutions,
of shooting stars, 39.
of asteroids, direct like planets, 100.
planetary, in same sense, 129, 130.
outermost satellites, retrograde, 132.
of satellites explained 146, 147, Notes 252.
Ritchey, 14.
Roberts, Dr., 20.
Roche, Edouard, 110.
Rosse, Lord, 17.
Rotation of planets, 131, 132.
systematic righting of axes, 132.
initially, retrograde, 146.
Rotation period,
of Venus, spectrographically determined, 83, 85-90.
of Mars, spectrographically determined, 88, 89.
of Jupiter, spectrographically determined, 89.
of Uranus, 116.
Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, 7.

 

S


Satellites, 61.
of Mars, 92.
of Saturn, 108, 112.
of Uranus, 116.
solid, 117.
of Neptune, 118
turn same face to primaries, 134, 147, 148, 225.
latest discoveries in regard to motions of, 146.
origin of, 147.
death of, before planet, 233.
impact of interplanetary particles on, Notes 246-250.
capture of, Notes 251, 252.
Saturn, 108-114.
belts of, 109, 168.
inherent light, 109, 152.
Saturn's rings, 109-114.
mechanical marvel of, not early appreciated, 110.
discrete particles, 110, 135.
knots upon, 110-113.
not flat, but tores, 111-114.
show devolution—not pristine state of solar system, 138, 139.
once a congeries, 139.
Schaeberle, 9.
Schiaparelli, 34, 36, 64-66, 69, 76, 77, 221.
Schroeter, 65, 77.
Seasons,
loss of, 71, 83, 217, 218.
begin with clearing of sky, 185.
fully developed, 189. See, Notes 251.

Seeliger, 10.
Shooting-stars, 33, 35.
radiant of, 33, 36.
members of solar system, 36-40.
tiny planets, 39.
Siderite, 36.
Silurian era, 178.
Sirona, periodic variability of, 102.
Sky, cause of clearing, 187.
Slipher, Dr. V. M., 52, 79, 83, 86, 88, 89, 117, 161, 166.
Slipher, Mr. E. C., 79, 233.
Solar constant, 191.
Solar system,
evolved from a dark star, 44.
evidence of origin, 51, 130.
characteristics of, 60-62.
evolutionarily one, 62.
gap in progression of orbital distances, 95100.
bodies of, egg-shaped, 217.
Specific gravity, of stone and iron, 44.
Spectroscope, 7, 84.
Spectroscopic shift, 84.
determining velocity, 3.
in Nova Aurigæ, 9.
produced by great pressure, 10, 13.
produced by anomalous refraction, 10.
produced by change of density, 10, 13.
explained, 85.
variation in, Notes 243, 244.
Spectrum,
of Nova Persei, 12, 13.
nebular, 13, 16, 45-48.
peculiarities of nebular, explained, 50.
photographic extension of, 52, 117, 161.
of major planets, 52, 53, 161.
of belts of Jupiter, 166.
Spiral structure, implies rotation combined with motion out or in, 22.
Stability of a system, condition for, 140, 141.
Stoney, Dr. Johnstone, 231.
Struve, 109.
Suess, 179.
Sun,
original slow rotation of the, 130.
heat of, 234, 235.
reversion to a dark star, 235, 236.
Sun spots, 104, 166.

 

T


Temperature,
of Moon, 191, 192.
of Mars, 192, 194, 196.
defined, 230.
no such thing as, in space, 230.
Tercidina, periodic variability of, 102.
Tertiary times, entrance of color with, 189, 190.
Tidal action, 143-147, 216-218.
causes loss of energy, 144.
inoperative, 144, 145, 147.
changes retrograde rotation of planet
to direct, 145-147, 217.
on satellites, 147.
slows down spin, 148, 217.
brings plane of rotation down to
orbital plane, 217.
lengthens day to infinity, 219.
analytically expressed, 224.
greatest on planets near Sun, 135, 224.
Tidal action, disruptive, 130.
exemplified by spiral nebulæ, 24, 25.
hinted at, by meteorites, 55.
theory corroborated by densities of planets, 51.
theory corroborated by atmospheres of planets, 52-55.
on comets, 139.
cause of Saturn's rings, 139.
Tisserand, 68.
Titius, 95.
Todd, 68.
Trees, deciduous, first appearance of, 189.
Trilobites, blindness of, 178, 179.
Twining, 33.
Tycho Brahe, 5.

 

U


Uranus, 114-118.
history of discovery, 114, 115, 119.
a ball of vapor, 115, 117.
belts of, 115, 116, 168.
tilt of axis to ecliptic, great, 115.
spectroscopic revelations of, 117, 118.
in an early amorphous state, 118.
further advanced than the giant planets, 168.

V


Velocity,
of Mercury in orbit, 63.
of satellites about primary, Notes 245.
of major planets, in orbit, Notes 245.
Venus, 73-90.
surface markings, 74, 77, 79, 80, 83, 220, 221.
brilliancy due to cloudless atmosphere, 75.
importance of rotation period, 75, 76.
turns same face to the Sun, 77-80, 134, 220, 221.
ice on the night side, causes ashen light, 82.
Very, Professor, 16, 191, 192, 194.
Vesta, 101.
Vogel, 52.
Volcanoes, avenues to earlier state, 160.
Von Zach, 96.

W


Walker, Mr., 123, 124.
Water,
becoming more scarce, 203, 204, 211.
lacking on Moon, 204.
Water-vapor,
in atmosphere of Jupiter, 53.
in atmosphere of Mars, 91, 161.
smaller planet has less hold on, 207.
Williams, Mr. Stanley, 103.
Witt, de, 94.
Wolf, Dr., 13.
Wolf, Max, 94.
Wolf-Rayet stars, 13, 48.
Wright, 13, 43.

Y


Year, of Uranus, 116.
Yerkes Observatory, 232.
Young, 46.