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International Theological Library


THE

GREEK AND EASTERN CHURCHES



BY

WALTER F. ADENEY, M.A., D.D.

PRINCIPAL OF LANCASHIRE COLLEGE
MANCHESTER





NEW YORK

CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS

1908

 

 
 

PREFACE

This book is divided into two Parts. In the First Part I have traced the history of the main body of the Church throughout the Eastern provinces of Christendom, until by losing one limb after another this is seen to become more and more limited in area, although still claiming to be the one orthodox Church. In the Second Part I have taken up the stories of the separate Churches. In order to do this intelligibly I have found it necessary to go back in each case as far as possible to the particular Church's origin. Since that was usually some controversy of the older Church which was discussed in the first part of the volume, the consequence has been a certain amount of repetition. But I have deemed it better to say the same thing twice over—first in the general history and then in the local—than to leave either of them seriously incomplete. Besides, the story is not just the same when viewed from the standpoint of the local branch that it was when it first appeared in the course of the main history.

If there is any special characteristic of this book to which I would desire to lay claim, it is an honest endeavour to do justice to all parties. Now that the heat of controversy has subsided and the dust of battle settled, it should be possible to take a calm and clear view of the facts, with a full recognition of all that was excellent in various bodies of Christians who in their own day mutually anathematised one another.

I have set at the head of each of the chapters two lists of books. Those marked (a) are principal original authorities; those indicated by (b) are more or less modern works, often selected out of a large number, as in my own judgment the books most likely to be of service to the student.

I desire to express my thanks to Professor Gwatkin for very kindly reading the proofs of the chapters on the Arian period, and for his learned and acute suggestions in conversation with reference to this and other parts of the history; to the Rev. E. Eubank for the loan of a number of works from his excellent collection of books on the Eastern Church; to the Greek, Coptic, and Armenian priests and Protestant pastors and missionaries with whom I have had conversations concerning the present condition of the Eastern Churches; to the Librarians and Authorities of the British Museum, the John Ryland's Library, the Dr. William's Library, and my own College Library for their unfailing kindness and courtesy in putting at my disposal the many books—often from out-of-the-way regions of literature—that it has been necessary to consult in an attempt to cover a vast field of history, much of which is little known and but rarely traversed.

Lastly, I record my indebtedness to the careful proofreading and valuable literary criticism of my wife while this book was passing through the press.

WALTER F. ADENEY.

Lancashire College,
September 1908.

 

 
 

CONTENTS

  1. PAGES
  2. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    112
  3.  

    PART I

    THE CHURCH AND THE EMPIRE

     

    DIVISION I

    THE AGE OF THE FATHERS

     

    CHAPTER I

    Christianity in the East under the Pagan Emperors

  4. The Apostolic Age—The Attitude of Rome—The Persecutions—Extent of the Church in the East
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    1326
  5.  

    CHAPTER II

    Constantine the Great

  6. Accession of Constantine—Founding of Constantinople—Conversion of Constantine—The Edict of Milan—New Relations of Church and State
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    2740
  7.  

    CHAPTER III

    Arianism

  8. An Eastern Heresy—Its Origin in Antioch—The Arian System—Arius at Alexandria—The Emperor's influence as Peacemaker—The Council of Nicæa—The Nicene Creed
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    4157
  1. Constantius—Athanasius—Julian—His Pagan Church and Theology—The Persecution by Valens—The Semi-Arians
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    5870
  2.  

    CHAPTER V

    The Cappadocian Theologians

  3. The most brilliant Literary Period of the Greek Church—Basil—Gregory Nazianzen—Gregory of Nyssa—Apollinaris
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    7184
  4.  

    CHAPTER VI

    The Movements that led to the Council of Chalcedon

  5. Theodosius the Great—Chrysostom—The Christological Controversies—Nestorianism—The Council of Ephesus—Eutychianism—The Council of Chalcedon
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    85101
  6.  

    CHAPTER VII

    The Monophysite Troubles

  7. The Monophysite Idea—The Theotokos—Timothy Ælurus—Timothy Salofaciolus—Peter the Fuller—Zeno's Heneticon—The Acephali
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    102116
  8.  

    CHAPTER VIII

    Later Christological Controversies

  9. Justinian and Theodora—"The Three Chapters"—The Monothelete Controversy—Severus of Constantinople—Cyrus and Sophronius—The Ecthesis—The Type—The Sixth General Council (Third Constantinople)
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    117131
  10.  

    CHAPTER IX

    Organisation and Worship

  11. Bishops—Metropolitans—Patriarchs—The new Constantinople Patriarchate—Gregory the Great—John the Faster—The Doctrine of Transubstantiation
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    132146
  1. (1) General Asceticism—(2) Specific Asceticism—(3) Anchoritism—Palladius—(4) Cœnobitism—(5) Regulated Monasticism
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    147159
  2.  
     

    DIVISION II

    THE MOHAMMEDAN PERIOD

     

    CHAPTER I

    The Rise and Spread of Mohammedanism

  3. No Middle Ages in the Oriental Churches—Mohammed—The Doctrines of Islam—Heraclius and his Victories—The Advance of the Arabs—Treatment of Christians by Mohammedans
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    160173
  4.  

    CHAPTER II

    Byzantine Art

  5. Byzantine and Gothic Architecture—The Basilica—St. Sophia—Icons
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    174186
  6.  

    CHAPTER III

    The Iconoclastic Reforms

  7. Revival of the Empire—Leo the Isaurian—Iconoclasm—Constantine Copronicus—The Abbot Stephen
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    187200
  8.  

    CHAPTER IV

    The Restoration of Image Worship

  9. Leo the Armenian—Constantine Porphyrogenitus—The Empress Irene—Seventh General Council (Second Nicæa)—Leo's Reforms—John of Damascus—Theodore of Studium
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    201215
  1. The Origin of the Name—The Key of Truth—Constantine of Mananalis or "Silvanus"—Paul the Armenian—Sergius—The Empress Theodora—Paulicians in Thrace—The Euchites—The Bogomiles
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    216228
  2.  

    CHAPTER VI

    The Great Schism

  3. The Cleavage of Christendom—Causes: (1) Difference of Race; (2) Separation of the two Empires; (3) Rivalry of Patriarchs; (4) The Filioque Clause—The Final Rupture
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    229241
  4.  

    CHAPTER VII

    The Crusades

  5. Causes provoking the Crusades—Urban ii. and Peter the Hermit—The First Crusade—Bernard of Clairvaux and the Second and Third Crusades—The Fourth Crusade—A Western Invasion of Greek Territory—The Latin "Empire" of Constantinople
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    242255
  6.  

    CHAPTER VIII

    The Greek Church at the Fall of the Byzantine Empire

  7. Decay of Byzantine Empire—The Latin "Emperors"—Restoration of Byzantine Empire by Michael—The Patriarch Arsenius—Negotiations with the Papacy—Constantine Palæologus—Mohammed ii.—Fall of Constantinople.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    256272
  8.  

    CHAPTER IX

    Life and Letters in the Byzantine Church

  9. Echoes of old Controversies—Church Government—The Liturgies of St. Basil and St. Chrysostom—Service Books—The Byzantine Historians—Later Byzantine Writers—The Story of Barlaam and Joshaphat—Greek Hymns—The Monks of Mount Athos—Religious and Moral Condition of the Church
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    273291
  1.  
     

    PART II

    THE SEPARATE CHURCHES
  1. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    292294
  2.  

    DIVISION I

    EARLY CHRISTIANITY OUTSIDE THE EMPIRE

  3. Early Christianity in Persia—Persecution under Sapor—Conversion of the Goths—Ulfilas
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    295308
  4.  

    DIVISION II

    THE MODERN GREEK CHURCH

     

    CHAPTER I

    Cyril Lucar and the Reformation

  5. The Janissaries—The Patriarch of Constantinople under the Sultan—Contact with Lutherans—Cyril Lucar—His Confession of Faith—Cyril at Constantinople—His Attempt at a Reformation
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    309324
  6.  

    CHAPTER II

    The Later Greek Church under the Turks

  7. Patriarch and Bishops—Venetian Conquests—Revival of Greece—The Philiké Hetairia—Massacre of Turks in the Morea—Execution of the Patriarch Gregorios—The Independent Church of Greece
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    325339
  8.  

    CHAPTER III

    The Outlying Branches of the Greek Church

  9. Cyprus—Georgia—Bulgaria—Servia—Bosnia and Herzegovina
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    340354
  10.  

    DIVISION III

    THE RUSSIAN CHURCH

     

    CHAPTER I

    The Origin of Christianity in Russia

  11. The Sclavs—Early Missions—The Princess Olga—Vladimir
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    355370
  1. Spread of the Gospel in Russia—A Temporary Breach with Constantinople—The Mongol Invasion—Effect on Russia
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    371384
  2.  

    CHAPTER III

    Revival of Russia

  3. Reformation of Church Discipline—Poland and Lithuania—Isidore—Russia and the New Age—The Metropolitan Zosimus—Ivan the Terrible
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    385403
  4.  

    CHAPTER IV

    The Patriarchate

  5. Origin of Patriarchate of Moscow—Attempts to win Russia to Rome—The false Dmitri—Philaret—Peter Mogila's "Confession of Faith"—The Patriarch Nicon
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    404419
  6.  

    CHAPTER V

    Peter the Great and the Holy Synod

  7. The Life and Character of Peter—Reorganisation of the Empire—The Holy Synod—The Conservative Reaction—Condition of Russian Church
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    420433
  8.  

    CHAPTER VI

    The Orthodox Church in Modern Russia

  9. Catherine ii.—Seraphim and Photius—Alexander and the Emancipation of the Serfs
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    434440
  10.  

    CHAPTER VII

    Russian Sects

  11. Raskolniks—"The Old Believers"—The Popòftsky—The Befpopòftsky—The Philippoftsky—The Theodosians—The Pomortsky—The Jumpers—The Khlysty—The Skoptsy—The Molokans—The Donkhobors—The Stundists—Count Tolstoi
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    441458
  1.  

    DIVISION IV

    THE SYRIAN AND ARMENIAN CHURCHES

     

    CHAPTER I

    Early Syrian Christianity
  1. The Churches of the Euphrates Valley—Four separating Influences—The Legend of Abgar—Palut—Tatian—Bardaisan—The Homilies of Aphraates—The Acts of Thomas
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    459476
  2.  

    CHAPTER II

    The Syrian Nestorians

  3. The Nestorians at Edessa—Rabbulas—The Catholicos—Thomas of Marca's Book of the Governors—Syrian Monasticism—The Monastery of Beth ‘Abhê
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    477492
  4.  

    CHAPTER III

    The Later Nestorians, the Chaldæans, and the Jacobites

  5. The Nestorians under the Caliphate—Mohammedan Persecutions—The Jacobites—Jacob al Bardai—Persecution of Syrian Monophysites—The Tetratheists—Literature of the Syrian Church
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    493509
  6.  

    CHAPTER IV

    The Nestorians of the Far East

  7. Syrian Missions—The Acts of Thomas—India—The Syrian Church in Travancore—Old Crosses
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    510522
  8.  

    CHAPTER V

    Later Eastern Christianity

  9. The Portuguese in India—Xavier—The Inquisition at Goa—The Synod of Diamper—The Dutch at Cochin—Syrian Christianity in China—Syrian Christianity in Turkey—Roman Catholic and Protestant Missions
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    523538
  1. The Legendary Period—Gregory the Illuminator—Mesrob—The Council of Tiben—The Council of Carana—Severance from the Greek Church—The Armenian Constitution—Russian Possessions in Armenia—The Massacres
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    539552
  2.  

    DIVISION V

    THE COPTIC AND ABYSSINIAN CHURCHES

     

    CHAPTER I

    Origin and Early History of the Coptic Church

  3. The Copts—Origin of Christianity in Egypt—Its Characteristics—Alexandrian Opposition to Nestorianism—The Monks—Monophysite Schism
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    553571
  4.  

    CHAPTER II

    The Persian and Arab Conquests

  5. The Copts during the Invasions—The Failure of Heraclius as a Ruler—The Mohammedan Invasion—The National Patriarch Benjamin—The Melchite Patriarch Cyril—The Mukaukas—The Mohammedan Settlement
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    572584
  6.  

    CHAPTER III

    The Copts under the Caliphate

  7. Coptic Art—John Semundæus—A Friendly Caliphate—Persecution—The Scandal of Simony—The Fatimite Period
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    585602
  8.  

    CHAPTER IV

    The Turkish Period

  9. Turkish Sultans—The Copts during the Crusades—The Dispute about Confessing over a Censer—Saladin—The Mamelukes—The Copts in Modern Times
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    603614
  10.  

    CHAPTER V

    Abyssinian Christianity

  11. Ethiopia—Frumentius and Ædesius—The Vanishing of Christianity from Nubia—Isolation of Abyssinia—Portuguese Embassy—Bruce's Travels—Recent Events
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    615626
  12. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    627