The History of Freedom and Other Essays

History of Freedom and Other Essays  (1922) 
by John Emerich Edward Dalberg Acton
THE HISTORY OF FREEDOM
AND OTHER ESSAYS

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John Dalberg-Acton, 1st Baron Acton portrait.png

THE

HISTORY OF FREEDOM

AND OTHER ESSAYS

BY

JOHN EMERICH EDWARD DALBERG-ACTON

FIRST BARON ACTON

D. C. L., LL. D., ETC. ETC.

REGIUS PROFESSOR OF MODERN HISTORY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE

EDITED WITH AN INTRODUCTION BY

JOHN NEVILLE FIGGIS, Litt.D.

SOMETIME LECTURER IN ST. CATHARINE'S COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE

AND

REGINALD VERE LAURENCE, M.A.

FELLOW AND LECTURER OF TRINITY COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE

MACMILLAN AND CO., LIMITED

ST. MARTIN'S STREET, LONDON

1922

COPYRIGHT

First Edition 1907
Reprinted 1909, 1919, 1922




PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN

PREFATORY NOTE

The Editors desire to thank the members of the Acton family for their help and advice during the preparation of this volume and of the volume of Historical Essays and Studies. They have had the advantage of access to many of Acton's letters, especially those to Döllinger and Lady Blennerhasset. They have thus been provided with valuable material for the Introduction. At the same time they wish to take the entire responsibility for the opinions expressed therein. They are again indebted to Professor Henry Jackson for valuable suggestions.

This volume consists of articles reprinted from the following journals: The Quarterly Review, The English Historical Review, The Nineteenth Century, The Rambler, The Home and Foreign Review, The North British Review, The Bridgworth Journal. The Editors have to thank Mr. John Murray, Messrs. Longmans, Kegan Paul, Williams and Norgate, and the proprietors of The Bridgnorth Journal for their kind permission to republish these articles, and also the Delegacy of the Clarendon Press for allowing the reprint of the Introduction to Mr. Burd's edition of Il Principe. They desire to point out that in Lord Acton and his Circle the article on "The Protestant Theory of Persecution" is attributed to Simpson: this is an error.

J. N. F.

R. V. L.

August 24, 1907.

CONTENTS
page
Portrait of Lord Acton Frontispiece
Chronicle viii
Introduction ix
I. The History of Freedom in Antiquity 1
II. The History of Freedom in Christianity 30
III. Sir Erskine May's Democracy in Europe 61
IV. The Massacre of St. Bartholomew 101
V. The Protestant Theory of Persecution 150
VI. Political Thoughts on the Church 188
VII. Introduction to L. A. Burd's Edition of Il Principe by Machiavelli 212
VIII. Mr. Goldwin Smith's Irish History 232
IX. Nationality 270
X. Döllinger on the Temporal Power 301
XI. Döllinger's Historical Work 375
XII. Cardinal Wiseman and the Home and Foreign Review 436
XIII. Conflicts with Rome 461
XIV. The Vatican Council 492
XV. A History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages. By Henry Charles Lea 551
XVI. The American Commonwealth. By James Bryce 575
XVII. Historical Philosophy in France and French Belgium and Switzerland. By Robert Flint 588
Appendix 597
Index 599

This work was published before January 1, 1927, and is in the public domain worldwide because the author died at least 100 years ago.