The Iliad of Homer (Buckley)/BOOK THE FIFTH

The Iliad of Homer  (1860)  by Homer, translated by Theodore Alois Buckley
BOOK THE FIFTH

BOOK THE FIFTH.

ARGUMENT.

The exploits of Diomedes, who, irritated by a wound from Pandarus, fights with unremitted fury, and even wounds Venus and Mars, who were aiding the Trojans.

Then, moreover, Pallas Minerva gave strength and daring to Diomede, the son of Tydeus, that he might become conspicuous among all the Argives, and might bear off for himself excellent renown. And she kindled from his helmet and his shield an unwearied fire, like unto the summer[1] star, which shines[2] very brightly, having been bathed in the ocean. Such a fire she kindled from his head and shoulders, and she urged him into the midst, where the greatest numbers were in commotion.

Now there was among the Trojans one Dares, rich, blameless, the priest of Vulcan; and he had two sons, Phegeus and Idæus, well skilled in all kinds of battle: these twain, apart [from their companions], rushed to meet [Diomede]; they on their part, from their two-horse chariot, but he, from the ground, made the attack on foot. When these, therefore, advancing against each other, were now near, Phegeus first hurled forth his long-shadowed spear, and the point of the spear went over the left shoulder of the son of Tydeus, nor did it strike him. But the son of Tydeus next rushed on with his brazen javelin; nor did the weapon fly in vain from his hand, but struck his [Phegeus'] breast between the paps, and forced him from his chariot. Then Idæus leaped down, having left the very beautiful chariot, nor ventured to protect his slain brother. [In vain,] for not even he would have escaped gloomy fate, but Vulcan snatched him away, and saved him, having enveloped him in darkness, that the old man might not be altogether sad. But the son of magnanimous Tydeus having taken the horses, gave them to his companions to lead to the hollow ships. When the magnanimous Trojans beheld the sons of Dares, the one[3] flying, the other slain at the chariot, the hearts of all were discomfited. But azure-eyed Minerva, seizing him by the hand, thus addressed impetuous Mars: "Mars, Mars, man-slayer, gore-stained, stormer of walls, should we not suffer the Trojans and the Greeks to fight, to which side soever father Jove may give glory? but let us retire, and avoid the wrath of Jove."

Thus having said, she led impetuous Mars from the battle, and afterward seated him on grassy[4] Scamander. Then the Greeks turned the Trojans to flight, and each of the leaders slew his man. First Agamemnon, king of men, hurled from his chariot huge Hodius, chief of the Halizonians. For in the back of him first turned [in flight], between his shoulders he fixed the spear, and drove it through his breast; and falling, he made a crash, and his arms resounded upon him.

But next Idomeneus killed Phæstus, the son of Mæonian Borus, who had come from fertile Tarne. Him, just as he was mounting his chariot,[5] spear-famed Idomeneus, with his long lance, wounded in the right shoulder: he fell from his chariot, and hateful darkness seized him. Then the attendants of Idomeneus despoiled him of his arms.

Menelaus, the son of Atreus, slew with his sharp[6] spear Scamandrius, son of Strophius, clever in the chase, an excellent huntsman; for Diana herself taught him to shoot all kinds of beasts, which the wood in the mountains nurtures. But then at least arrow-rejoicing Diana availed him not, nor his skill in distant shooting, in which he had been formerly instructed. But spear-renowned Menelaus, son of Atreus, wounded him, flying before him, with a spear in the back, between the shoulders, and drove [the spear] through his breast. Prone he fell, and his arms resounded upon him.

Meriones slew Phereclus, son of the artist Harmon, who knew how to form with his hands all ingenious things (for Pallas Minerva loved him exceedingly): who also for Alexander had built the equal ships, source of woes, which were a bane to all the Trojans and to himself, since he did not understand the oracles of the gods.[7] Meriones, indeed, when following he overtook him, struck him in the right hip; but the point went right through beneath the bone, near the bladder; and on his knees he fell lamenting, and death overshadowed him.

But Meges next slew Pedæus, son of Antenor, who, indeed, was a spurious son, yet noble Theano brought him up with care, equally with her own dear children, gratifying her husband. Him the spear-famed son of Phyleus, on his part, coming near, smote on the back of the head with his sharp spear; the steel cut through his teeth under his tongue. In the dust he fell, and caught the cold steel in his teeth.

But Eurypylus, son of Evæmon, slew noble Hypsenor, son of magnanimous Dolopion, who was priest of Scamander, and was honored as a god by the people; him, as he was flying before him, Eurypylus, then, the illustrious son of Evæmon, struck in the shoulder in his flight, rushing on with his sword, and cut off his heavy hand: then the gory hand fell in the field; but blood-red death and stern fate seized his eyes.

Thus they on their part labored in the violent fight. But you would not have known the son of Tydeus, to which side he belonged, whether he was mixed with the Trojans or with the Greeks. For he rushed through the plain, like unto a river swollen by mountain-streams, which flowing rapidly throws down bridges: and this, neither the fortified dams can restrain, nor the fences of the richly-blooming fields check, as it comes suddenly, when the rain-storm of Jove bears down heavily: many hopeful works of vigorous youths are wont to fall by it. Thus by the son of Tydeus were the close phalanxes of the Trojans thrown into confusion; nor did they withstand him, although being numerous.

When, therefore, Pandarus, the illustrious son of Lycaon, saw him rushing through the field, discomfiting the phalanxes before him, he drew his crooked bow, and smote him rushing on, striking him upon the right shoulder [on] the cavity of the corselet: the bitter shaft flew on and broke through to the other side; and the corselet was stained with blood. Whereupon the illustrious son of Lycaon exclaimed aloud:

"Rush on, ye magnanimous Trojans, spurrers of steeds; for the bravest of the Greeks is wounded; nor do I think that he will long endure the violent arrow, if king Apollo, the son of Jove, really urged me proceeding from Lycia."

Thus he spoke, vaunting; but him [Diomede] the swift arrow did not subdue: but having retreated, he stood before his horses and chariot, and thus accosted Sthenelus son of Capaneus:

"Haste, dear son of Capaneus, descend from thy chariot, that thou mayest draw from my shoulder the bitter shaft."

Thus he spoke, and Sthenelus leaped from his chariot to the ground, and, standing by him, drew the swift, deeply-piercing arrow forth from his shoulder, and the blood spurted out through the twisted mail. Then Diomede, brave in battle, prayed:

"Hear me, O daughter of ægis-bearing Jove, unwearied, if ever favoring thou stoodest by me and my sire in the hostile fight, now in turn befriend me, O Minerva. And grant my to slay this man, and that he may approach within the aim of my spear, who being beforehand has struck me, and boasts, and says that I shall not long behold the brilliant light of the sun."

Thus he spoke, praying, and Pallas Minerva heard him, and made light his limbs, his feet, and his hands above, and standing near him, spoke winged words:

"With confidence, now, O Diomede, fight against the Trojans; for into thy soul have I sent that intrepid ancestral might, such as the shield-brandishing knight Tydeus was wont to possess: and moreover I have taken away the darkness from thine eyes, which before was upon them, that thou mayest discern a god and also a man. Wherefore now, if any divinity come hither, making trial of thee, do thou by no means fight against any other immortal god; but if Venus, daughter of Jove, should come into battle, wound her at all events with the sharp brass."

Thus on her part having spoken, azure-eyed Minerva departed: but the son of Tydeus, returning again, was mixed with the van; and ardent as he before was in spirit to fight against the Trojans, then, indeed, thrice as much courage possessed him. Like as a lion, whom the shepherd in the country, by his fleecy ship, has grazed indeed, while over-leaping the court-yard, but has not killed; he [the shepherd] has merely roused his ardor; but afterward he ventures no further aid, but on the contrary retires within the fold, while the sheep, deserted, fly in consternation. These, indeed, are huddled in masses one upon another, but he [the lion] leaps joyfully from the lofty fold.[8] So was brave Diomede joyfully mixed with the Trojans.

Then he slew Astynoüs, and Hypenor the shepherd of the people: having smote the one above the pap with the brazen lance, but the other he smote with his huge sword on the collar-bone at the shoulder, and separated the shoulder from the neck and back. These, indeed, he left, but rushed on Abas and Polyïdus the sons of Eurydamas, the aged interpreter of dreams; to whom going to the war, the old man did not interpret their dreams; but brave Diomede spoiled them when slain. Then he went against Xanthus and Thoon, the sons of Phænops, both dearly cherished;[9] but he was worn by sad old age, and did not beget another son to leave over his possessions. These, then, Diomede slew, and took their life from both, but to their father left grief and mournful cares, since he did not receive them returning alive from battle; but his next of kin[10] divided the inheritance among them.

Then he seized Echemon and Chromius, two sons of Dardanian Priam, being in one chariot. As when a lion, leaping amid the herd, has broken she neck of a heifer or of an ox pasturing in a thicket; so did the son of Tydeus forcibly dislodge them both from the chariot against their wills, and then spoiled them of their arms. But the steeds he gave to his companions, to drive to the ships.

But him Æneas beheld devastasing the ranks of men, and he hastened to go both through the battle and the din of spears, seeking godlike Pandarus, if any where he might find him. He found the blameless and valiant son of Lycaon, and stood before him, and spoke [this] word to him:

"O Pandarus, where are thy bow and thy winged shafts, and thy renown, with which no man here at least contends with thee, nor does any person in Lycia boast to be braver than thou? But come, having raised thy hands to Jove, aim an arrow against this man (whoever he be, who is thus prevailing, and who has already wrought many ills against the Trojans, since he has relaxed the knees of many and of brave), unless he be some god, wrathful against the Trojans, angry on account of sacrifices [not offered]: and unless the severe wrath of a deity be upon us."

Him the illustrious son of Lycaon answered in turn: "Æneas, counselor of the brazen-mailed Trojans, I assimilate him in all respects to the warlike son of Tydeus, recognizing him by his shield and oblong helmet, and looking on his steeds: but I do not know certainly whether he be a god. But if this man, whom I speak of, be thy warlike son of Tydeus, he does not perform these frantic deeds without divine aid, but some one of the immortals stands near, wrapped round as to his shoulders[11] in a cloud, who has turned into another course the swift shaft just about to hit him. For but just now I aimed an arrow at him, and struck him on the right shoulder, entirely through the cavity of his corselet; and I thought I should hurl him down to Pluto; yet did I not altogether subdue him; some god, of a truth, is wrathful. And steeds and chariots are not present, which I might ascend: but somewhere in the palaces of Lycaon [are] eleven chariots, beautiful, newly-built, lately made: coverings are spread around them: and beside each of them stand steeds yoked in pairs, eating white barley and wheat. Of a truth the aged warrior Lycaon gave me, on setting out, very many commands in his well-built palaces: he ordered me, having ascended my steeds and my chariot, to command the Trojans in the fierce conflicts; but I heeded him not (and truly it would have been much better), sparing my steeds, lest they, accustomed to feed largely, should want food, to my cost,[12] the men being shut up [in the city]. Thus I left them; but I have come on foot to Troy, relying on my bow and arrows, but these were not destined to profit me. For lately I aimed [a shaft] at two chiefs, at the son of Tydeus and the son of Atreus; and having struck, I drew blood manifestly from both; but I roused them the more. Therefore, with evil fate I took down my curved bow from the peg, on that day when I led the Trojans to pleasant Ilium, doing a favor to divine Hector. But if I shall return, and shall with these eyes behold my country, and my wife, and my lofty-roofed great palace, immediately may some hotile man cut off my head, if I do not put this bow into the shining fire, having broken it with my hands; for it attends on me to no purpose."

Him then Æneas, the leader of the Trojans, addressed in turn: "Speak not so: but it will not be otherwise, before that we twain, with horses and chariot, going against this man, make trial of him with arms. But come, ascend my chariot; that thou mayest see of what kind are the steeds of Troy, skillful in the plain to pursue rapidly here and there, and to retreat; they also shall bring us safe again to the city, if Jove will a seeond time afford glory to Diomede, the son of Tydeus. But come, take the whip now, and the shining reins, and I will descend from the chariot, that I may fight; or do thou await this man, and the steeds shall be my care."

Him then the illustrious son of Lycaon answered in turn: "Æneas, do thou thyself hold the reins and thy own steeds: the better will they bear along the curved chariot under their accustomed charioteer, if we shall fly back from the son of Tydeus; lest they, taking fright, should become restive, and be unwilling to bear us away from the war, missing thy voice, and the son of magnanimous Tydeus, rushing on us, should slay ourselves, and drive away thy solid-hoofed steeds. But do thou thyself drive the chariot and thy own steeds, but with my sharp spear will I receive him advancing."

Thus having said, ascending the variegated chariot, they directed the swift steeds impetuously against the son of Tydeus. But Sthenelus, the illustrious son of Capaneus, perceived them, and immediately to the son of Tydeus he spoke winged words:

"Diomede, son of Tydeus, most dear to my soul, I perceive two valiant men eager to fight against thee, possessing immense might; one, indeed, well-skilled in the bow,[13] Pandarus, and moreover he boasts to be the son of Lycaon, and Æneas, [who] boasts to be born the son of magnanimous Anchises; but Venus is his mother. But come, let us now retire, having ascended our horses, nor thus, I pray thee, run furiously through the van, lest thou shouldst lose thy dear life."

But him sternly regarding, brave Diomede thus addressed: "Talk not to me of retreat,[14] since I think thou wilt not persuade me. It becomes not my nature to fight in a skulking manner, nor to tremble; as yet my strength is unimpaired. I am averse to mount the chariot, but even as I am will I advance to meet them: spear-brandishing Minerva does not suffer me to tremble. Never shall the swift horses bear these twain both back again from us, supposing even one of them shall escape. But another thing I tell thee, and do thou lay it up in thy soul, if most prudent Minerva should grant me the glory to kill both, then do thou detain here these swift steeds, stretching forth the reins from the rim, and, mindful, rush upon the horses of Æneas, and drive them from the Trojans to the well-greaved Greeks. For they are of that breed which far-seeing Jove gave as a price to Tros for his son Ganymede; wherefore they are the best of steeds, as many as are under the east and the sun. From this breed Anchises, king of men, stole them, having supplied mares without the knowledge of Laomedon: of the breed of these six were foaled in his courts. Reserving four himself, he nourished them at the manger, and two, skilled in rousing terror, he gave to Æneas. If ve can take these, we shall have borne away excellent glory."

Thus they were speaking such things to each other; but the others soon drew near, urging onward their swift steeds. The illustrious son of Lycaon first accosted Diomede:

"Stout-hearted, warlike-minded, son of illustrious Tydeus, certainly my swift shaft, my bitter arrow has not stain thee. Now again will I try with my spear, whether I can hit my mark."[15]

He said, and brandishing [it], he sent forth his long-shadowed spear, and struck the shield of Tydides: but the brazen spear flying straight through, approached the corselet. Then the son of Lycaon shouted loudly over him:

"Thou art wounded in the flank, through and through, nor do I think thou wilt endure it much longer: but to me hast thou given great glory."

But him the valiant son of Tydeus, undisturbed, addressed: "Thou hast erred, nor hast thou reached thine aim;[16] but I certainly think thou wilt not cease, till one of you at least, having fallen, shall satiate Mars, the warrior of the bull's-hide shield, with his blood."

Thus having spoken, he hurled forth [his lance], and Minerva directed the weapon to his nose, near the eye; and it passed quite through his white teeth: and then unwearied, the brass cut the root of his tongue, and the point came out at the bottom of his chin. From his chariot he fell, and his variegated, shining[17] arms resounded upon him; but his swift-footed steeds started aside through fright, and there were his soul and strength dissolved. Æneas then bounded down with his shield and long spear, fearing lest the Greeks by any means should take the body away from him. He walked round it, therefore, like a lion, confiding in his strength: and before him he stretched out his lance, and his shield equal on all sides, shouting dreadfully, eager to slay him, whoever might come against him. But the son of Tydeus seized in his grasp a hand-stone, a huge affair, such as no two men could carry, such at least as mortals are now, but he even alone easily wielded it. With it he struck Æneas on the hip, where the thigh is turned in the hip;—they call it the socket;—the socket he smote violently, and broke besides both tendons, and the rugged stone tore off the skin. But the hero having fallen on his knees, remained so, and supported himself with his strong hand upon the ground, and dark night vailed his eyes.

And there, of a truth, Æneas, the king of men, had perished, unless Venus, the daughter of Jove, had quickly perceived him, his mother, who brought him forth to Anchises, as he fed his oxen;[18] but around her own dear son she spread her white arms, and before him she extended the folds of her shining robe, as a fence against arrows, lest any of the swift-horsed Greeks having cast the steel into his breast, should take away his life. She, indeed, stealthily bore off her beloved son from the battle. Nor was the son of Capaneus forgetful of those commands which warlike Diomede gave him: but he detained his own solid-hoofed steeds apart from the tumult, having stretched forth the reins from the rim; and rushing forward, drove from the Trojans to the well-greaved Greeks the beautiful-maned steeds of Æneas, and gave them to Deipylus, his beloved companion (whom he honored above all his coevals, because he possessed in his mind sentiments congenial with himself), to drive them to the hollow ships: but the hero himself, having ascended his chariot, took the splendid reins; and instantly drove his solid-hoofed steeds after the son of Tydeus with ardor; but Diomede pursued Venus with the cruel steel,[19] knowing that she was an unwarlike goddess, nor [one] of those goddesses who administer the war of men, neither Minerva, nor city-destroying Bellona. But when he had now overtaken her, having pursued her through a great crowd, then the son of magnanimous Tydeus, having stretched forward, wounded the feeble [goddess] in the extremity of the hand, bounding on with the sharp brass. Instantly the spear pierced through the skin, through her ambrosial robe (which the Graces themselves had wrought), at the extremity [of the hand] above the palm. Immortal blood flowed from the goddess, ichor, such, to wit, as flows from the blessed gods. For they eat not bread, nor drink dark wine; therefore are they bloodless, and are called immortal. But she screaming aloud, cast her son from her: and him Phœbus Apollo rescued in his hands in a sable cloud, lest any of the swift-horsed Greeks, casting the steel into his breast, should take away his life. But warlike Diomede shouted loudly after her:

"Withdraw, O daughter of Jove, from war and battle. Is it not sufficient that thou dost practice deception upon feeble women? But if thou wilt go to the war, I certainly think thou wilt hereafter dread battle, even though thou but hearest of it elsewhere."

Thus he spoke: but she departed, distracted [with pain], for she was grievously exhausted. But swift-footed Iris having taken her, led her outside the crowd, oppressed with griefs; but she began to turn livid as to her beauteous skin. Then she found impetuous Mars sitting at the left of the battle; and his spear and swift horses had been enveloped in darkness. But she, falling on her knees, with many entreaties besought from her dear brother his golden-frontleted steeds:

"Dear brother, render me a service, and give me thy steeds, that I may go to Olympus, where is the seat of the immortals. I am grievously oppressed with a wound which a mortal man, the son of Tydeus, inflicted on me, who now would fight even with father Jove."

Thus she spoke: but Mars gave her the golden-frontleted steeds. But she mounted the chariot, grieving in her heart; and Iris mounted beside her, and took the reins in her hands, and scourged them to go on, and they flew not unwillingly. And immediately then they reached the seat of the gods, the lofty Olympus. There nimble, swift-footed Iris staid the steeds, having loosed them from the chariot, and set before them ambrosial fodder. But the goddess Venus fell at the knees of her mother Dione; and she embraced her daughter in her arms, and soothed her with her hand, and addressed her, and said:

"Which of the heavenly gods, beloved daughter, has wantonly done such things to thee, as if thou hadst openly wrought some evil?"

But her laughter-loving Venus answered: "The son of Tydeus, haughty Diomede, has wounded me, because I was withdrawing from battle my beloved son Æneas, who is by far most dear to me of all. For it is no longer the destructive contest of Trojans and of Greeks; but now the Greeks fight even with the immortals."

But her Dione, divine one of goddesses, answered: "Endure, my daughter, and bear up, although grieved; for many of us, possessing Olympian habitations, have in times past endured pains at the hand of men,[20] imposing heavy griefs on one another. Mars, in the first place, endured it, when Otus and valiant Ephialtes, the sons of Aloëus, bound him in a strong chain. He was chained in a brazen prison for thirteen months: and perhaps Mars, insatiate of war, had perished there, had not his step-mother, all-fair Eëribæa, told it to Mercury; but he stole Mars away, already exhausted, for the cruel chain subdued him. Juno also suffered, when the brave son of Amphitryon smote her in the right breast with a three-pronged shaft. Then most irremediable pain seized her. Among these Pluto also endured a swift shaft, when the same hero, the son of ægis-bearing Jove, afflicted him with pains at Pylos among the dead, having wounded him. But he went to the palace of Jove, and the lofty Olympus, grieving in his heart, and transfixed with pains; for the shaft had pierced into his huge shoulder, and tortured his soul. But Pæon healed him, sprinkling pain-assuaging remedies, for he was not at all mortal. Audacious, regardless one! who felt no compunction in doing lawless deeds—who with his bow violated the gods that dwell in Olympus. But against thee azure-eyed goddess Minerva has excited this man. Infatuate! nor does the son of Tydeus know this in his mind, that he is by no means long-lived who fights with the immortals, nor ever at his knees will sons lisp a father's name, as he returns from war and dreadful battle. Therefore, let the son of Tydeus now, though he be very brave, have a care, lest a better than thou fight with him; lest at a future time Ægialëa, the very prudent daughter of Adrastus, the noble spouse of horse-taming Diomede, grieving, should rouse her servants from sleep, longing for the husband of her youth, the bravest of the Greeks."

She spoke, and with her palms wiped off the ichor from her hand: the hand was healed, and the severe pains mitigated. But then Minerva and Juno looking on, provoked Saturnian Jove with heart-cutting words; but amid them azure-eyed goddess Minerva thus began speaking:

"Father Jove, wilt thou indeed be angry with me on account of what I shall say? Surely it must be that Venus, inspiring some one of the Grecian women with a desire of accompanying the Trojans, whom now she exceedingly loves, while caressing one of those fair-robed Grecian women, has torn her delicate hand against a golden buckle."

Thus she spoke: but the father of men and gods smiled, and having called, he thus accosted golden Venus :

"Not to thee, daughter mine, are intrusted warlike works; but do thou confine thyself to the desirable offices of marriage, and all these things shall be a care to swift Mars and to Minerva."

Thus they, indeed, were speaking such things to each other. But Diomede, doughty in the din of battle, rushed upon Æneas, conscious that Apollo himself held over him his hands. But he revered not the mighty god, for he always longed to slay Æneas, and despoil him of his glorious armor. Thrice then, immediately, he rushed on, eager to slay him, and thrice Apollo repelled his shield with violence; but when at length the fourth time he rushed on, like a god, the far-darting Apollo menacing terribly, addressed him: "Consider, O son of Tydeus, and retire, nor wish to think things equal with the gods; for the race of the immortal gods and of men walking on the earth is in nowise similar."

Thus he spoke; but the son of Tydeus retired a little avoiding the wrath of far-darting Apollo. But Apollo placed Æneas apart from the crown, in sacred Pergamus, where his temple was.[21] Latona and shaft-rejoicing Diana healed him in the mighty shrine, and adorned him with glory. But silver-bowed Apollo formed a phantom like unto Æneas himself, and such in arms. Around the phantom the Trojans and the noble Greeks smote on each others' breasts the well-orbed ox-hide shields, and the light bucklers. Then at length Phœbus Apollo addressed impetuous Mars:

"Mars! Mars! man-slaughterer, gore-tainted, well-battering! wouldst not thou now, meeting this man, the son of Tydeus, withdraw him from the battle, who would even now fight with father Jove? First, indeed, in close combat he wounded Venus in the hand, at the wrist; but then he rushed on me, like unto a god."

Thus having spoken, he sat down on lofty Pergamus; but destructive Mars aroused the ranks of the Trojans, going through them, assimilating himself to Acamus, the swift leader of the Thracians, and thus he harangued the Jove-nourished sons of Priam:

"Ye sons of Priam, Jove-nourished king, how long will ye yet suffer the people to be slain by the Greeks? Is it until they fight around the well-made gates? A hero lies prostrate, whom we honored equally with noble Hector, the son of magnanimous Anchises. But come, let us rescue from the tumult our excellent companion."

Thus having spoken, he excited the might and courage of each. Then Sarpedon much rebuked noble Hector:

"Hector, where now has that strength gone, which thou didst formerly possess? Thou saidst, I ween, that thou alone, with thy kindred and thy brothers, couldst defend the city without the forces and allies. Now I can neither see nor perceive any of these; but they crouch down, like dogs about a lion: we, on the contrary, who are here mere allies, bear the brunt of the fight. Even I, being thine ally, have come from a very great distance; for far off is Lycia, at eddying Xanthus, where I left my beloved wife and my infant son, and many possessions, which he who is poor covets: but I, nevertheless, exhort the Lycians, and I am ready myself to fight with that hero; and yet there is not here to me such store as the Greeks can carry or lead off. But thou standest still, and dost not exhort even the other forces to stand and to defend their wives. [Beware,] lest perchance, as though ensnared in the meshes of an all-capturing net, thou become a prey and a spoil to hostile men: for quickly will they destroy thy well-inhabited city. But it behooves thee, both night and day, to interest thyself in all these matters, beseeching the chiefs of thy far-summoned allies to persevere with ardor, and forego their violent strife."

Thus spoke Sarpedon, but his speech gnawed the soul of Hector, and immediately he leaped from his chariot with his armor to the ground, and brandishing his sharp spears, he went in all directions through the army, exhorting them to battle; and he stirred up a grievous conflict. They then rallied and stood against the Greeks; but the Greeks, in close array, withstood them, nor fled.

And as the wind scatters the chaff about the sacred thrashing-floors, when men are winnowing [it], and when yellow Ceres is separating both the grain and the chaff, as the winds rush along; and the chaff-heaps[22] grow white from beneath; thus then the Greeks became white with the dust from above, which indeed through them, as they again were mingled in the combat, the feet of the steeds struck up [from the ground] to the brazen heaven; for the charioteers were turning back. But they directed the strength of their hands straight forward; and fierce Mars spread a vapor over the battle, aiding the Trojans, going about every where, executing the commands of golden-sworded Phœbus Apollo, who ordered him to excite the courage of the Trojans, whenever he should see Pallas Minerva departing; for she was an ally to the Greeks. But he sent forth Æneas from his very rich shrine, and infused strength into the breast of the shepherd of the people.

Then Æneas placed himself amid his companions; but they rejoiced when they saw him approaching alive and unhurt and having excellent strength. They did not, however, ask any questions; for a different labor did not permit, which the silver-bowed god and man-slaughtering Mars, and Strife insatiably raging, had excited, But them the Greeks, the two Ajaces, and Ulysses and Diomede, urged on to fight. But they, even by themselves, feared neither the violent attacks[23] of the Trojans, nor their shouts: but remained firm, like unto clouds, which the son of Saturn, during a calm, has placed upon the lofty mountains, at rest, when the might of Boreas sleeps[24] and of the other impetuous winds, which, blowing with shrill blasts, disperse the shadowy clouds. Thus the Greeks awaited the Trojans, standing firm, nor fled. But the son of Atreus kept hurrying through the host, exhorting them much:

"O friends, be men, and assume a valiant heart, and feel shame[25] toward each other through the fierce engagements: for more of those men who dread shame are safe, than are slain: but from fugitives neither does any glory arise, nor any assistance."

He spoke, and darted with his spear quickly, and struck Deicoon, son of Pergasis, a warrior chief, the companion of magnanimous Æneas, whom the Trojans honored equally with the sons of Priam; since he was prompt to fight amid the van. Him then king Agamemnon struck in the shield with his spear, but it [the shield] did not repel the spear, for even through this it passed onward, and pierced him through the belt at the lower part of the stomach. And he made a crash as he fell, and his arms rattled over him.

Here then Æneas slew some brave heroes of the Greeks— Crethon and Orsilochus, the sons of Diocles: their father, indeed, rich in sustenance,[26] dwelt in well-built Pheræ; but his origin was from the river Alpheus, which flows widely through the land of the Pylians. Alpheus begat Orsilochus, a prince over many men; but Orsilochus begat magnanimous Diocles; and of Diocles were born two sons, Crethon and Orsilochus, well skilled in all kinds of battle. These, indeed, in the bloom of youth, in their sable ships followed with the Argives to Ilium famed for noble steeds, seeking honor for the sons of Atreus, Agamemnon and Menelaus: but there the end of death overshadowed them.

They two,[27] just as two lions have been reared under their dam, amid the thickets of a deep wood, on the mountain's heights; they in process of time seizing oxen and fat sheep, lay waste the stalls of men, till at length they are themselves killed by the hands of men with the sharp brass; such these two, subdued by the hands of Æneas; fell like lofty firs. Then Menelaus brave in the din of war, pitied them fallen, and went through the van, equipped in shining brass, brandishing his spear; for Mars kindled his strength, with the design that he should be subdued by the hands of Æneas.

But him Antilochus, son of magnanimous Nestor, beheld, and proceeded through the van, for he feared much for the shepherd of the people lest he should suffer any thing, and greatly disappoint them of [the fruits of] their labor. And now they were stretching forth their hands and sharp spears against each other, eager to fight; but Antilochus stood very near the shepherd[28] of the people. But Æneas, though a brisk warrior, remained not, when he beheld the two heroes standing near each other. When, therefore, they had drawn the dead bodies[29] to the people of the Greeks, they gave the miserable pair into the hands of their companions; and they themselves, returning back, fought in the van.

Then they slew Pylæmenes, equal to Mars, general of the magnanimous shielded Paphlagonians. Him indeed the son of Atreus, spear-renowned Menelaus, wounded with a spear, as he stood, having smote him on the collar-bone. But Antilochus on his part smote the charioteer Mydon, his brave attendant, the son of Atymnias (now he was in the act of turning his solid-hoofed steeds), having struck him with a hand-stone on the elbow; immediately the reins, white with ivory, fell from his hands on the ground in the dust. But Antilochus, rushing on, smote him with his sword in the temple, and panting he fell from the well-made chariot, headlong in the dust, on his head and his shoulders. Very long he stood (for he fell on deep sand), till the two horses, striking him, cast him to the ground in the dust; but Antilochus lashed them on, and drove them to the army of the Greeks.

But them Hector discerned through the ranks, and rushed on them, vociferating, and with him followed the brave phalanxes of the Trojans. Mars and venerable Bellona led them; she, on the one hand, bearing with her tumultuous Din, but Mars, on the other, brandished a huge spear in his hands. At one time, indeed, he paced before Hector, at another after him.

But him Diomede, brave in fight, seeing, trembled. As when a man, uncertain of his course, passing over a great plain; has stopped at a swift-flowing river, running into the sea, beholding it boiling with foam, and retreats back in haste; so then did the son of Tydeus retire, and he said to the host:

"O friends, how do we all admire noble Hector, that he is both a spearman and a daring warrior! But with him one at least of the gods is ever present, who wards off death; even now Mars in person stands by him like unto a mortal man. But retreat back, [with your faces] turned always to the Trojans, nor desire to fight valiantly against the gods."

Thus then he said: but the Trojans advanced very near them. There Hector slew two heroes skilled in battle, Menesthes and Anchialus, being in one chariot. But mighty Telamonian Ajax pitied them falling; and advancing he stood very near them, and lanched with his shining spear, and smote Amphius, son of Selagus, who, excedingly rich in property and crops, dwelt in Pæsus. But fate had led him as an ally to Priam and his sons. Him Telamonian Ajax smote on the belt, and the long-shadowed spear was fixed in the pit of his stomach. Falling, he made a crash, and illustrious Ajax ran up to him, about to spoil [him of] his armor; but the Trojans poured upon him sharp spears, shining all around, and his shield received many. But he, pressing on him with his heel, drew from the body his brazen spear; however, he was not able to take off from his shoulders any other beautiful armor, for he was pressed upon with weapons. He also dreaded the stout defense of haughty Trojans,[30] who, both numerous and doughty, stood around, stretching forth their spears, and who drove him away from them, although being mighty, and valiant, and renowned. But he, retiring, was repelled by force.

Thus they, on the one hand, toiled through the violent conflict. But violent fate urged on Tlepolemus, the brave and great son of Hercules, against godlike Sarpedon. But when they, the son and grandson of cloud-collecting Jove, were now rushing against one another, Tlepolemus first addressed him [Sarpedon]:

"Sarpedon, chief of the Lycians, what necessity is there for thee, being a man unskilled in war, to tremble here? Falsely do they say that thou art the offspring of ægis-bearing Jove, since thou art far inferior to those heroes, who were of Jove, in the time of ancient men. But what sort do they say that Hercules was, my bold-minded, lion-hearted father? who formerly coming hither, on account of the steeds of Laomedon, with six ships only, and with a few men, laid waste the city of Ilium, and widowed its streets. But thou hast an ignoble mind, and thy forces are perishing away; nor do I think that thou wilt be an assistance to the Trojans, having come from Lycia, not even if thou be exceedingly valiant; but that, slain by me, thou wilt pass through the gates of Hades."

But him Sarpedon, leader of the Lycians, in return accosted: "Tlepolemus, he indeed overturned sacred Ilium, through the folly of the hero, famous Laomedon, who reproved with harsh language him who had deserved well, nor did he give back the steeds, on account of which he came from afar. But I tell thee that here slaughter and gloomy death will befall thee at my hands; and that, subdued by my spear, thou wilt give glory to me, and a siprit to steed-famed[31] Pluto."

Thus spoke Sarpedon: but Tlepolemus raised his ashen spear, and from their hands, at the same moment, flew the long spears. Sarpedon, on his part, struck the center of [his adversary's] neck, and the grievous weapon passed right through; and gloomy night overspread his eyes. But Tlepolemus in the mean time had struck Sarpedon in the left thigh with his long spear; and the spear, rushing with violence, passed through, grazing the bone: but his father as yet averted death.

His noble companions bore godlike Sarpedon from the battle; but the long spear, trailed along with him, pained him; but this no one of them hastening noticed, nor thought of extracting from his thigh the ashen spear, that he might ascend the chariot; for such anxiety did his attendants entertain for him. But on the other side the well-greaved Greeks carried Tlepolemus from the fight; and divine Ulysses, possessing an enduring heart, perceived them, and his soul was stirred within him. And then he anxiously pondered in his mind and soul, whether he should pursue further the son of loud-thundering Jove, or should take away the lives of many more Lycians. But it was not fated for magnanimous Ulysses to slay the brave son of Jove with the sharp spear. Therefore Minerva turned his thoughts toward the multitude of the Lycians. Then he slew Cœranus, and Alastor, and Chromius, and Alcander, and Halius, and Noëmon, and Prytanis. And yet more Lycians would noble Ulysses have slain, had not mighty crest-tossing Hector quickly perceived him. He therefore went through the van, armed in shining brass, bearing terror to the Greeks: then Sarpedon, the son of Jove, rejoiced at him approaching, and spoke [this] mournful address:

"O son of Priam, I pray thee, suffer me not to lie a prey to the Greeks, but aid me. Even then[32] let life forsake me in thy city; since I was not destined to gladden my dear wife and infant son, returning home to my dear fatherland."

Thus he spoke: but him plume-waving Hector answered naught, but flew past him, in order that he might repel the Greeks with all haste, and take away the lives of many. His noble companions meantime placed godlike Sarpedon under a very beautiful beech of ægis-bearing Jove. Stout Pelagon then, who was his beloved companion, forced out the ashen spear from his thigh. Thereupon animation left him, and darkness was poured over his eyes; but he again revived, for the breeze of Boreas, breathing upon him around, refreshed in spirit him panting with difficulty.

But the Greeks, on account of Mars and brazen-helmed Hector, neither were driven at any time back to their sable ships, nor did they advance forward to battle; but always kept giving ground, since they had heard that Mars was with the Trojans.

Then whom first, whom last did Hector, the son of Priam, and brazen Mars slay? The godlike Teuthras, and moreover the knight Orestes, the Ætolian spear-man Trechus, and Œnomaus, and Helenus of the race of Œnops, and Oresbius of flexible[33] belt, who dwelt in Hyla, near the lake Cephissus, very intent on wealth: and near him dwelt other Bœotians, having a very rich territory.

When therefore the white-armed goddess Juno perceived these Greeks perishing in the violent engagement straightway to Minerva she addressed winged words:

"Strange! O daughter of ægis-bearing Jove, unwearied one, certainly we have made a vain promise to Menelaus, that he should return after having destroyed well-walled Ilium, if we suffer destructive Mars thus to rage. But come, let us too bethink ourselves of some powerful aid."

Thus she spoke; nor did the azure-eyed goddess Minerva disobey her. Juno, on her part, venerable goddess, daughter of mighty Saturn, quickly moving, harnessed her gold-caparisoned steeds; but Hebe speedily applied to the chariot, to the iron axle-tree on both sides, the curved wheels, golden, with eight spokes. Of these, indeed, the felloe is of gold, imperishable: but above [are] brazen tires fastened on them, wonderful to be seen; but the circular naves on both sides are of silver; and the body[34] was stretched on with gold and silver thongs (there was a double circular rim); from this projected a silver pole; at its extremity she bound the golden, beauteous yoke, and to it attached the beautiful golden poitrels. But Juno, longing for conquest and battle, led the swift-footed steeds under the yoke.

Minerva, on the other hand, the daughter of ægis-bearing Jove, let flow down on her father's floor her dainty robe of variegated hue, which she herself had wrought and worked with her own hands: then she, having put on her tunic, equipped herself for the tearful war in the armor of cloud-compelling Jove, and around her shoulders she then threw the fringed ægis, dreadful, around which on all sides Terror appears plumed. Thereon was Strife, thereon Fortitude, and thereon was chilling Pursuit;[35] on it was the Gorgonian head of the dreadful monster, dire, horrible, a portent of ægis-bearing Jove. On her head she placed her four-crested helmet, with a spreading metal ridge,[36] golden, sufficient for the heavy-armed of a hundred cities. She then stepped into her shining chariot with her feet; and took her spear, heavy, huge, and sturdy, with which she, sprung from a dread sire, subdues the ranks of heroic men, with whomsoever she is wroth. But Juno with the lash quickly urged on the steeds. The gates of heaven creaked spontaneously, the gates which the Hours guarded, to whom are intrusted the mighty heaven and Olympus, as well to open the dense cloud as to close it. In this way, indeed, through these gates, they drove their steeds, urged on with the goad: and they found the son of Saturn sitting apart from the other gods on the highest summit of many-peaked Olympus. There staying her steeds, the white-armed goddess Juno interrogated supreme Saturnian Jove, and thus addressed him:

"O father Jove, art thou not indignant at Mars for these bold deeds—how numerous and how choice a multitude of Greeks he has destroyed rashly, nor as became him: a grief indeed to me; but Venus and silver-bowed Apollo in quiet are delighted, having let slip this frantic [god], who knows no rights. Father Jove, wilt thou be angry with me if I drive Mars from the battle, having dreadfully wounded him?"

But her answering, cloud-compelling Jove addressed: "Come, incite the pillaging Minerva against him, who is very wont to cause him to approach grievous woes."

Thus he spoke: nor did the white-armed goddess Juno disobey, but she lashed on her steeds. They flew, not unwillingly, midway between the earth and the starry heaven. Now, as much haze[37] as a man sees with his eyes, sitting upon some lofty point, and looking over the darkling ocean, so far do the high-sounding steeds of the gods clear at one bound. But when they now reached Troy, and the two flowing rivers, where Simois and Scamander unite their streams, there the white-armed goddess Juno staid her steeds, having loosed them from the chariot, and shed a dense mist around them. But to them Simois afforded ambrosial food to feed on.

But they went on, like unto timid doves in their pace, hastening to assist the Grecian heroes. But when they had now arrived were the most numerous[38] and the bravest stood collected in dense array round horse-breaking Diomede, like raw-devouring lions or wild boars, whose strength is not feeble, there standing, the white-armed goddess Juno shouted aloud, having likened herself to great-hearted, brazen-voiced Stentor, who was accustomed to shout as loud as fifty other men:

"Shame! ye Greeks! foul subjects of disgrace! admirable in form [alone]. As long, indeed, as divine Achilles was wont to be engaged in the war, the Trojans were not in the habit of advancing beyond the Dardan gates; for they dreaded his mighty spear; but now they fight at the hollow ships, far away from the city."

Thus saying, she aroused the strength and courage of each. The azure-eyed goddess Minerva rushed toward the son of Tydeus; but she found that prince by his steeds and chariot, cooling the wound which Pandarus had inflicted on him with a shaft. For perspiration had afflicted him beneath the broad belt of his well-orbed shield: with this was he afflicted, and he was fatigued as to his hand; and raising the belt, he wiped away the black gore. Then the goddess touched the yoke of the horses, and said:

"Little like himself has Tydeus begotten a son. Tydeus was certainly small in body, but a warrior. And even when I suffered him not to fight, nor to rush furiously to battle, when he came far from the Greeks, an embassador to Thebes to the numerous Cadmeans, I commanded him to feast quietly in the palaces; but he, retaining his doughty spirit, as before, challenged the youths, the Cadmeans, and easily conquered them in every thing; so great an auxiliary was I to him. But thee, indeed, I stand by and preserve, and I exhort thee freely to fight against the Trojans. But either weariness, from great toil, has entered thy limbs, or at least disheartening fear in some manner possesses thee. Thou art not henceforth to be deemed at least the son of Tydeus, the gallant son of Æneas."

But her valiant Diomede answering addressed: "I know thee, O goddess, daughter of ægis-bearing Jove; therefore will I willingly tell this word to thee, nor will I conceal it. Neither does any disheartening fear possess me, nor any sloth: but as yet I am mindful of thy mandates, which thou didst enjoin. Thou didst not suffer me to fight with the other happy gods; but if Venus, the daughter of Jove, should come into the battle, to wound her at least with the sharp steel. Wherefore now I myself retire, and have ordered all the other Greeks to be collected here: for I perceive Mars dispensing the battle."

But him the azure-eyed goddess Minerva then answered: "Diomede, son of Tydeus, most dear to my soul, neither fear this Mars at all, nor any other of the immortals; such an auxiliary am I to thee. But come, first direct thy solid-hoofed steeds against Mars, strike him in close combat, nor regard impetuous Mars, this frenzied and unnatural pest, shifter from one to another; who lately haranguing promised me and Juno that he would fight against the Trojans, and aid the Greeks; but now he mixes with the Trojans, and has forgotten these."

Thus having said, she forced Sthenelus from his horses to the ground, dragging him back with her hand; but he promptly leaped down. Then the goddess herself, infuriate, ascended the chariot beside noble Diomede, and greatly did the beechen axle groan under the weight; for it bore a dreadful goddess and a very brave hero. Then Pallas Minerva seized the scourge and the reins. Straightway she drove the solid-hoofed steeds against Mars first. He, indeed, had just slain huge Periphas, the illustrious son of Ochesius, by far the bravest of the Ætolians. Him indeed gore-stained Mars slew; but Minerva put on the helmet of Pluto, that impetuous Mars might not see her.

But when man-slaughtering Mars saw noble Diomede, he suffered huge Periphas to lie there, where first slaying him he had taken away his life, but he went straight against horse-breaking Diomede. And when these came near, advancing against each other, Mars first, over the yoke and the reins of the steeds, stretched himself forward with his brazen spear, eager to take away his life. It then the azure-eyed goddess Minerva having caught in her hand, turned from the chariot, so as to be borne away in vain. But next Diomede, valiant in the din of war, made the attack with his brazen spear; and Pallas Minerva firmly fastened it in his lowest flank, where he was girt with his belt. In that very part striking, she wounded him, and tore his beautiful skin, and drew out the spear again. Then roared brazen Mars, as loud as nine or ten thousand men roar in war, joining the strife of battle. And then fear seized the terrified Greeks and Trojans, so loud bellowed Mars, insatiate with war.

And as when from the clouds, a gloomy haze appears, a heavy-blowing wind arising from heat; such did brazen Mars appear to Diomede, son of Tydeus, going amid the clouds into the broad heaven. Quickly he reached lofty Olympus, the seat of the gods, and sat near Saturnian Jove, grieving in his heart, and showed the immortal blood flowing down from the wound, and complaining, he spoke winged words:

"Father Jove, art thou not incensed beholding these violent deeds? Ever, of a truth, are we deities suffering most grievous woes from the machinations of each other, and [while] conferring favor upon men. We all are indignant with thee;[39] for thou hast begotten a mad, pernicious daughter, to whom evil works are ever a care. For all the other gods, as many as are in Olympus, obey thee, and unto thee each of us is subject. But her thou restrainest not by words, nor by any act, but dost indulge her, since thou thyself didst beget this destructive daughter. Who now has urged on Diomede, the overbearing son of Tydeus, to rage against the immortal gods. Venus he first wounded, in close fight, in the hand at the wrist; and, equal to a god, he afterward rushed on myself; but my swift feet withdrew me; [otherwise] I should certainly for a long time have endured woes there amid the dreadful heaps of slain, or living, should have been exhausted by the strokes of the brass."

Him sternly regarding, cloud-compelling Jove addressed: "Complain not to me, inconstant one, sitting by me: for thou art most hateful to me, of all the gods that possess Olympus: for to thee discord is ever grateful, and wars and battles: thou hast thy mother Juno's insufferable and unbending disposition, which I myself can scarcely repress with words. Wherefore I think thou sufferest these things by her instigation. Yet no longer can I endure thy suffering pain, for thou art my offspring, and to me thy mother brought thee forth. But hadst thou, destructive as thou art, been born of any other of the gods, even long since hadst thou been far lower than the sons of Uranus."

Thus he spoke, and ordered Pæon to heal him: and Pæon healed him, spreading [on his wound] pain-assuaging medicines; for he was not by any means mortal. As when fig-tree juice,[40] on being stirred about, curdles the white milk, fluid before, and it very rapidly coagulates, while one is mixing it; thus at that time did he speedily heal impetuous Mars. Hebe then washed him, and put on him beautiful garments. Then, exulting in glory, near Saturnian Jove he sat down.

And now again Argive Juno and the powerful assistant Minerva returned to the palace of mighty Jove, after having staid man-slaying Mars from his deeds of slaughter.


  1. i. e., the dog star, Sirius, whose rising marked the beginning of the ὀπώρα or season extending from the middle of July to the middle of September, It is said to be most brilliant at its time of rising. Cf. Apoll. iii. 956: Ὃς δή τοι καλὸς μὲν ἀριζηλός τ' ἐσιδέσθαι Ἀντέλλει
  2. This use of the subjunctive mood is called the σχῆμα Ἰθύκειον by Lesbonax, p. 179, ed. Valck.
  3. Observe the construction by apposition, Soph, Ant. 21:Τὼ κασιγνήτω, Τὸν μὲν προτίσας, τὸν δ' ἀτιμάσας ἔχει.—561: Τὼ παῖδε φημὶ τώδε τὴν μὲν ἀρτίως Ἄνουν πεφάνθαι, την δ' ἀφ' οὗ τὰ πρῶτ' ἔφυ.
  4. See Buttm. Lexil. p. 324. sqq.
  5. I shall generally adopt this translation of ἳπποι with Anthon.
  6. Apoll. Lex. Hom. p. 604, ed. Villois: ὀξυόεντι. Ὁ μὲν Ἀπίων, ὀξεῖ ἔγχει, ὀξυόεντι δὲ, ὀξυΐνῳ. With Anthon, I prefer Apion's interpretation. Others explain it "beechen," or "thorn-wood." Cf. Alberti on Hesych. p. 766.
  7. A doubtful line, but probably referring to an oracle by which the Trojans were recommended to avoid maritime affairs. Cf. Procl. Chrestom. p. 472, ed. Gaisf.
  8. A very doubtful line.
  9. Cf. Buttm. Lexil. p. 511.
  10. Schol.: Χηρωσταὶ, οἱ τὸν χῆρον οἶκον διανεμόμενοι κληρονόμοι. Apoll. Lex. p. 854: Οἱ μακρόθεν προσήκοντες κατὰ γένος, καὶ χῆρα ὄντα των σύνεγγυς τὰ χρήματα κληρονομοῦντες.
  11. Cf. Hor. Od. i. 2, 31: "Nube candentes humeros amictus."
  12. Observe the force of μοι.
  13. This bold change of construction, where one would have expected τὸν μὲν, τὸν δὲ, has been noticed by Lesbonax, p. 186.
  14. But Anthon, I think, with more spirit, renders this, "Speak not at all fearward."
  15. This is the best manner of expressing the full meaning of τύχωμι.
  16. i. e., gives a mortal wound.
  17. But Buttm. Lexil. p. 65, prefers "agile," i. e., easily-wielded.
  18. Cf. Theocrit. i. 105: Οὐ λέγεται τὰν Κύπριν ὁ βουκόλος, ἕρπε ποτ' Ἰδὰν, Ἕρπε ποτ' Ἀγχίσαν. See Hymn. in Vener. 54, sqq.; and Grote, Hist. of Greece, vol. i. p. 73.
  19. It is well known that these battles and woundings of the gods gave so much scandal to Plato, that he wished to cast Homer out of his republic, much to the indignation of Heraclides Ponticus, Alleg. Hom. p. 511. The fathers of the early church made no small use of Plato's opinion on this head. Cf. Euseb. P. E. ii. 10; Tertull. Apol. § xiv.; Augustin. C. D. ii. 14; Minucius Felix, 22; who all make use of his testimony as an argument against Paganism. See Coleridge, Classic Poets, p. 64.
  20. Speaking of those humiliations of the gods, Grote, Hist. t. i. p. 78, well observes : "The god who serves is for a time degraded; but the supreme god who commands the servitude is in the like proportion exalted, while the idea of some sort of order and government among these super-human beings was never lost sight of"
  21. "On the Trojan citadel of Pergamus itself was a temple of Apollo, with Diana and Latona; and hence Homer represents these three duties as protecting the falling city." — Müller, Dorians, vol. i. p. 248.
  22. But cf. Schol. οἱ τόποι εἰς οὒς ἄχυρα ἐκπίπτει.
  23. Such seems to be the force of the plural βίας.
  24. "Ascending, while the north wind sleeps."—Milton, P. L. ii. 489.
  25. i. e., be ashamed to fly or give way. Compare Plato, Sympos. p. 317, F. G. ed. Læm., where he dwells upon the advantage of friends fighting together, as rendering men ashamed of any cowardly action.
  26. This construction with the genitive is very common in Latin. Virg. Georg. ii. 468; "dives opum." Æn. i. 18; Hor. Ep. ii. 2. 31; Od. iv. 8, 5 Silius. i. 393.
  27. The order is, τώγε, οἵω λέωντε δύω. Anthon refers to Kühner, 443, 4, p. 97, Jelf's Translation.
  28. See note on ver. 50.
  29. Of the sons of Diocles.
  30. Cf. Lex. Seg. 6., p. 336. Bekk.: ἀγέρωχος, σεμνὸς, ὑπεροπτής, θρασύς. On the different and doubtful etymologies of this word, see Alberti on Hesych. t. i. p. 44, and Buttm. Lexil. p. 19, sq.
  31. An epithet probably derived from the steeds ("inferni raptoris equos," Claudian, de R. P. i. 1) employed in the abduction of Proserpine.
  32. i. e., when you have rescued my body from the foe, I will die content in Troy.—Anthon.
  33. Cf. Buttm. Lexil. p. 66. "i. e., a belt which he could easily move, and which, from its suppleness and flexibility, yielded to the pressure of his person,"—Anthon.
  34. δίφρος is properly the seat, but is here put for the whole chariot
  35. Compare Προΐωξις and Παλίωξις, similarly personified, in Hesiod Scut. Herc. 134, and Virg. Æn. viii. 701:

    "———tristesque ex æthero Diræ,
    Et scissâ gaudens vadit Discordia pallâ;
    Quam cum sanguineo sequitur Bellona flagello"

  36. See note on iii. 362
  37. Opposed to the pure air of æther. See Buttm. Lexil. p. 37, sqq.
  38. Observe the elegant position of the plural verb between two singular substantives, according to the Schema Alcmanicum. Compare Od. K, 515, and Il. Υ, 138, which have been pointed out by Lesbonax, p. 179, ed Yalck.
  39. Or, "through thee we are all at variance," taking σοὶ as put for διὰ σέ with Lesbonax, περὶ σχημ. p. 186; Hesychius, t. ii. p. 1234, and the Scholiast.
  40. Used as rennet.