The Iliad of Homer (Buckley)/BOOK THE SECOND

The Iliad of Homer  (1860)  by Homer, translated by Theodore Alois Buckley
BOOK THE SECOND

BOOK THE SECOND.

ARGUMENT.

Jove sends a dream to Agamemnon, in consequence of which he re-assembles the army. Thersites is punished for his insolent speech, and the troops are restrained from seeking a return homeward. The catalogue of the ships and the forces of the confederates follows.

The rest, then, both gods and horse-arraying men,[1] slept all the night: but Jove sweet sleep possessed not; but he was pondering in his mind how he might honor Achilles, and destroy many at the ships of the Greeks. But this device appeared best to him in his mind, to send a fatal dream[2] to Agamemnon, the son of Atreus. And addressing him, he spoke winged words:

"Haste away, pernicious dream, to the swift ships of the Greeks. Going into the tent of Agamemnon, son of Atreus, utter very accurately every thing as I shall command thee. Bid him arm the long-haired Achæns[3] with all their array; for now perhaps he may[4] take the wide-wayed city of the Trojans; for the immortals who possess the Olympian mansions no longer think dividedly, for Juno, supplicating, hath bent all [to her will]. And woes are impending over the Trojans."

Thus he spake: and the dream[5] accordingly departed, as soon as it heard the mandate. And quickly it came to the swift ships of the Greeks, and went unto Agamemnon, the son of Atreus. But him it found sleeping in his tent, and ambrosial slumber was diffused around. And he stood over his head, like unto Nestor, the son of Neleus, him, to wit, whom Agamemnon honored most of the old men. To him assimilating himself, the divine dream addressed him:

"Sleepest thou, son of the warrior, horse-taming Atreus? It becomes not a counsel-giving man, to whom the people have been intrusted, and to whom so many things are a care, to sleep all the night. But now quickly attend to me; for I am a messenger to thee from Jove, who, although far distant, greatly regards and pities thee. He orders thee to arm the long-haired Greeks with all their array, for now mayest thou take the wide-wayed city of the Trojans, since the immortals, who possess the Olympian mansions, no longer think dividedly; for Juno, supplicating, hath bent all [to her will], and woes from Jove are impending over the Trojans. But do thou preserve this in thy recollection, nor let forgetfulness possess thee, when sweet sleep shall desert thee."

Thus then having spoken, he departed, and left him there pondering these things in his mind, which were not destined to be accomplished. For he, foolish, thought that he would take the city of Priam on that day; nor knew he the deeds which Jupiter was really devising; for even he was about yet to impose additional hardships and sorrows upon both Trojans and Greeks, through mighty conflicts. But he awoke from his sleep, and the heavenly voice was diffused around him. He sat up erect, and put on his soft tunic, beautiful, new; and around him he threw his large cloak. And he bound his beautiful sandals his shining feet, and slung from his shoulders the silver-studded sword. He also took his paternal scepter, ever imperishable, with which he went to the ships of the brazen-mailed Greeks.

The goddess Aurora[6] now ascended wide Olympus, announcing the dawn to Jove and the other immortals. But he[7] on his part ordered the clear-voiced heralds to summon the long-haired Achæans[8] to an assembly. They therefore summoned them, and the people were very speedily assembled. First the assembly of magnanimous elders sat at the ship of Nestor, the Pylus-born king. Having called them together, he propounded a prudent counsel:

"Hear me, my friends; a divine dream came to me in sleep, during the ambrosial night, very like unto the noble Nestor, in form, in stature, and in mien. And it stood above my head, and addressed me: ' Sleepest thou, son of the warrior, horse-taming Atreus? It becomes not a counselor, to whom the people have been intrusted, and to whom so many things are a care, to sleep all the night. But now quickly attend to me; for I am a messenger to thee from Jove, who, although far distant, greatly regards and pities thee. He orders thee to arm the long-haired Greeks with all their array, for now mayest thou take the wide-wayed city of the Trojans; for the immortals, who possess the Olympian mansions, no longer think dividedly, for Juno, supplicating, has bent all [to her will], and woes from Jove are impending over the Trojans; but do thou preserve this in thy thoughts.' Thus having spoken, flying away, it departed; but sweet sleep resigned me. But come, [let us try] if by any means we can arm the sons of the Greeks. But first with words will I sound their inclinations, as is right, and I will command them to fly with their many-benched ships; but do you restrain them with words, one in one place, another in another."

He indeed having thus spoken, sat down; but Nestor, who was king of sandy Pylus, rose up, who, wisely counseling, harangued them, and said:

"O friends, generals and counselors of the Argives, if any other of the Greeks had told this dream, we should have pronounced it a fabrication, and withdrawn ourselves [from the reciter]. But now he has seen it, who boasts himself [to be] by far the greatest man in the army. But come on, if by any means we can arm the sons of the Greeks."

Thus then having spoken, he began to depart from the assembly; and they, the scepter-bearing princes, arose, and obeyed the shepherd of the tribes, and the hosts rushed forward. Even as the swarms of clustering bees,[9] issuing ever anew from the hollow rock, go forth, and fly in troops over the vernal[10] flowers, and some have flitted in bodies here, and some there; thus of these [Greeks] many nations from the ships and tents kept marching in troops in front of the steep shore to the assembly. And in the midst of them blazed Rumor, messenger of Jove, urging them to proceed; and they kept collecting together. The assembly was tumultuous, and the earth groaned beneath, as the people seated themselves, and there was a clamor; but nine heralds vociferating restrained them, if by any means they would cease from clamor, and hear the Jove-nurtured princes. With difficulty at length the people sat down, and were kept to their respective[11] seats, having desisted from their clamor, when king Agamemnon arose, holding the scepter, which Vulcan had laboriously wrought. Vulcan in the first place gave it to king Jove, the son of Saturn, and Jove in turn gave it to his messenger, the slayer of Argus.[12] But king Mercury gave it to steed-taming Pelops, and Pelops again gave it to Atreus, shepherd of the people. But Atreus, dying, left it to Thyestes, rich in flocks; but Thyestes again left it to Agamemnon to be borne, that he might rule over many islands,[13] and all Argos.[14] Leaning upon this, he spoke words among the Greeks:

"O friends, Grecian heroes, servants of Mars, Jove, the son of Saturn, has entangled me in a heavy misfortune. Cruel, who before indeed promised to me, and vouchsafed by his nod, that I should return home, having destroyed well-fortified Ilium. But now he has devised an evil deception, and commands me to return to Argos, inglorious,

after I have lost many of my people. So forsooth it appears to be agreeable to all-powerful Jove, who has already overthrown the citadels of many cities, yea, and will even yet overthrow them, for transcendent is his power. For this were disgraceful even for posterity to hear, that so brave and so numerous a people of the Greeks warred an ineffectual war, and fought with fewer men; but as yet no end has appeared. For if we, Greeks and Trojans, having struck a faithful league,[15] wished that both should be numbered, and [wished] to select the Trojans, on the one hand, as many as are townsmen; and if we Greeks, on the other hand, were to be divided into decades, and to choose a single man of the Trojans to pour out wine [for each decade], many decades would be without a cup-bearer.[16] So much more numerous, I say, the sons of the Greeks are than the Trojans who dwell in the city. But there are spear-wielding auxiliaries from many cities, who greatly stand in my way, and do not permit me wishing to destroy the well-inhabited city. Already have nine years of mighty Jove passed away, and now the timbers of our ships have rotted, and the ropes have become untwisted.[17] Our wives and infant children sit in our dwellings expecting us; but to us the work for which we came hither remains unaccomplished, contrary to expectation. But come, as I shall recommend, let us all obey; let us fly with the ships to our dear native land, for at no future time shall we take wide-wayed Troy."

Thus he spoke; and to them he aroused the heart in their breasts, to all throughout the multitude, whoever had not heard his scheme.[18] And the assembly was moved, as the great waves of the Icarian Sea, which, indeed, both the south-east wind and the south are wont to raise,[19] rushing from the clouds of father Jove. And as when the west wind[20] agitates the thick-standing corn, rushing down upon it impetuous, and it [the crop] bends with its ears; so was all the assembly agitated. Some with shouting rushed to the ships, but from beneath their feet the dust stood suspended aloft; and some exhorted one another to seize the vessels, and drag them to the great ocean; and they began to clear the channels. The shout of them, eager [to return] home, rose to the sky, and they withdrew the stays from beneath the vessels. Then truly a return had happened to the Argives, contrary to destiny, had not Juno addressed herself to Minerva:

"Alas! indomitable daughter of ægis-bearing Jove, thus now shall the Argives fly home to their dear native land, over the broad back of the deep, and leave to Priam glory, and to the Trojans Argive Helen, on whose account many Greeks have perished at Troy, far from their dear native land? But go now to the people of the brazen-mailed Greeks, and restrain each man with thy own flattering words, nor suffer them to launch to the sea their evenly-plied[21] barks." Thus she spoke, nor did the azure-eyed goddess Minerva refuse compliance. But she, hastening, descended down from the summits of Olympus, and quickly reached the swift ships of the Achæans. Then she found Ulysses, of equal weight with Jove in counsel, standing still; nor was he touching his well-benched, sable bark, since regret affected him in heart and mind. But standing near him, azure-eyed Minerva said:

"Jove-sprung son of Laertes, Ulysses of many wiles, thus then will ye fly home to your dear native land, embarking in your many-benched ships? And will ye then leave to Priam glory, and to the Trojans Argive Helen, on whose account many Greeks have fallen at Troy, far from their dear native land? But go now to the people of the Greeks, delay not; and restrain each man by thy own flattering words, nor suffer them to launch to the sea their evenly-plied barks."

Thus she spoke, but he knew the voice of the goddess speaking. Then he hastened to run, and cast away his cloak, but the herald Eurybates, the Ithacensian, who followed him, took it up. But he, meeting Agamemnon, son of Atreus, received from him [22] the ever-imperishable paternal scepter, with which he went through the ships of the brazen-mailed Greeks.

Whatsoever king, indeed, or distinguished man he chanced to find standing beside him, he checked him with gentle words:

"Strange man! it ill becomes thee, coward-like, to be intrepidation; but both sit down thyself, and make the other people sit down, for thou hast not as yet clearly ascertained what the intention of Atrides is. He is now making trial of, and will quickly punish the sons of the Greeks. We have not all heard what he said in council. Take care lest he, being incensed, do some mischief to the sons of the Greeks. For the anger of a Jove-nurtured king is great; his honor too is from Jove, and great-counseling Jove loves him."

But on the other hand, whatever man of the common people he chanced to see, or find shouting out, him would he strike with the scepter, and reprove with words:

"Fellow, sit quietly, and listen to the voice of others, who are better than thou; for thou art unwarlike and weak, nor ever of any account either in war or in council. We Greeks can not all by any means govern here, for a government of many is not a good thing;[23] let there be but one chief, one king,[24] to whom the son of wily Saturn has given a scepter, and laws, that he may govern among them."

Thus he, acting as chief, was arranging the army. But they again rushed with tumult from the ships and tents to an assembly, as when the waves of the much-resounding sea roar against the lofty beach, and the deep resounds.

The others indeed sat down, and were kept to their respective seats. But Thersites alone, immediate in words, was wrangling; who to wit, knew in his mind expressions both unseemly and numerous, so as idly, and not according to discipline, to wrangle with the princes, but [to blurt out] whatever seemed to him to be matter of laughter to the Greeks. And he was the ugliest man who came to Ilium. He was bandy-legged,[25] and lame of one foot; his shoulders were crooked, and contracted toward his breast; and his head was peaked[26] toward the top, and thin woolly hair was scatteced over it. To Achilles and Ulysses he was particularly hostile, for these two he used to revile. But on this occasion, shouting out shrilly, he uttered bitter taunts against noble Agamemnon; but the Greeks were greatly irritated against him, and were indignant in their minds. But vociferating aloud, he reviled Agamemnon with words:

"Son of Atreus, of what dost thou now complain, or what dost thou want? Thy tents are full of brass, and many chosen women are in thy tents, whom we Greeks bestow on thee the first of all, whenever we capture a city. Dost thou still require gold, which some one of the horse-taming Trojans shall bring from Troy, as a ransom for his son, whom I, or some other of the Greeks, having bound, may lead away? Or a young maid, that thou mayest be mingled in dalliance, and whom thou for thyself mayest retain apart[27] [from the rest]? Indeed it becomes not a man who is chief in command, to lead the sons of Greeks into evil. O ye soft ones, vile disgraces, Grecian dames, no longer Grecian men,[28] let us return home, home![29] with our ships, and let us leave him here to digest his honors at Troy, that he may know whether we really aid him in any thing or not. He, who but just now has dishonored Achilles, a man much more valiant than himself; for, taking away, he retains his prize, he himself having seized it. But assuredly there is not much anger in the heart of Achilles; but he is forbearing; for truly, were it not so, O son of Atreus, thou wouldest have insulted now for the last time."

Thus spoke Thersites, reviling Agamemnon, the shepherd of the people. But godlike Ulysses immediately stood beside him, and eyeing him with scowling brow, reproached him with harsh language:

"Thersites, reckless babbler! noisy declaimer though thou be, refrain, nor be forward singly to strive with princes; for I affirm that there is not another mortal more base than thou, as many as came with the son of Atreus to Ilium. Wherefore do not harangue, having kings in thy mouth, nor cast reproaches against them, nor be on the watch for a return. Not as yet indeed do we certainly know how these matters will turn out, whether we sons of the Greeks shall return to our advantage or disadvantage. Wherefore, now thou sittest reviling Agamemnon, son of Atreus, the leader of the people, because the Grecian heroes give him very many gifts, while thou, insulting, dost harangue. But I declare to thee, which shall also be accomplished: if ever again I catch thee raving, as now thou art, no longer may the head of Ulysses rest upon his shoulders, and no longer may I be called the father of Telemachus, unless I seizing thee divest thee of thy very garments, thy coat, thy cloak, and those which cover thy loins; and send thyself weeping to the swift ships, having beaten thee out of the assembly with severe blows."

Thus he spoke, and smote him with the scepter upon the back and the shoulders; but he writhed, and plenteous tears fell from him, and a bloody weal arose under the, scepter upon his back. But he sat down and trembled; and grieving, looking foolish, he wiped away the tears. They, although chagrined, laughed heartily at him, and thus one would say, looking toward the person next him:

"O strange! surely ten thousand good deeds has Ulysses already performed, both originating good counsels, and arousing the war. But now has he done this by far the best deed among the Greeks, in that he has restrained this foul-mouthed reviler from his harangues. Surely his petulant mind will not again urge him to chide the kings with scurrilous language."

Thus spake the multitude; but Ulysses, the sacker of cities, arose, holding the scepter, and beside him azure-eyed Minerva, likened unto a herald, ordered the people to be silent, that at the same time the sons of the Greeks, both first and last, might hear his speech, and weigh his counsel. He wisely counseling, addressed them, and said:

"O son of Atreus, the Greeks wish to render thee now, O king, the meanest among articulately-speaking men; nor perform their promise to thee,[30] which they held forth, coming hither from steed-nourishing Argos, that thou shouldest return home, having destroyed well-fortified Ilium. For, like tender boys, or widowed women, they bewail unto one another to return home. And truly it is a hardship to return [so], having been grieved. For he is impatient who is absent even for a single month from his wife, remaining with his many-benched ships,[31] though wintery storms and the boisterous sea may be hemming in; [32] but to us it is [now] the ninth revolving year since we have been lingering here. Wherefore I am not indignant that the Greeks are growing impatient by their curved ships; but still it would be disgraceful both to remain here so long, and to return ineffectually. Endure, my friends, and remain yet awhile, that we may know whether Calchas prophecies truly or not. For this we well know, and ye are all witnesses, whom the Fates of death carried not off yesterday and the day before, when the ships of the Greeks were collected at Aulis, bearing evils to Priam and the Trojans, and we round about the fountain, at the sacred altars, offered perfect hecatombs to the immortals, beneath a beauteous plane-tree, whence flowed limpid water.[33] There a great prodigy appeared; a serpent, spotted on the back, horrible, which the Olympian himself had sent forth into the light, having glided out from beneath the altar, proceeded forthwith to the plane-tree. And there were the young of a sparrow, an infant offspring, on a topmost branch, covering among the foliage, eight in number; but the mother, which had brought forth the young ones, was the ninth. Thereupon he devoured them, twittering piteously, while the mother kept fluttering about, lamenting her dear young; but then, having turned himself about, he seized her by the wing, screaming around. But after he had devoured the young of the sparrow, and herself, the god who had displayed him rendered him very portentous, for the son of wily Saturn changed him into a stone; but we, standing by, were astonished at what happened. Thus, therefore, the dreadful portents of the gods approached the hecatombs. Calchas, then, immediately addressed us, revealing from the gods: 'Why are ye become silent, ye waving-crested Greeks? For us, indeed, provident Jove has shown a great sign, late, of late accomplishment, the renown of which shall never perish. As this [serpent] has devoured the young of the sparrow, eight in number, and herself, the mother which brought out the brood, was the ninth, so must we for as many years[34] wage war here, but in the tenth we shall take the wide-wayed city.' He indeed thus harangued: and all these things are now in course of accomplishment. But come, ye well-greaved Greeks, remain all here, until we shall take the great city of Priam."

Thus he [Ulysses] spoke, and the Greeks loudly shouted, applauding the speech of divine Ulysses; but all around the ships echoed fearfully, by reason of the Greeks shouting. Then the Gerenian[35] knight Nestor addressed them:

"O strange! assuredly now ye are talking like infant children, with whom warlike achievements are of no account. Whither then will your compacts and oaths depart? Into the fire now must the counsels and thoughts of men have sunk, and the unmixed libations, and the right hands in which we trusted; for in vain do we dispute with words, nor can we discover any resource, although we have been here for a long time. But do thou, O son of Atreus, maintaining, as before, thy purpose firm, command the Greeks in the hard-fought conflicts; and abandon those to perish, one and both,[36] who, separated from the Greeks, are meditating [but success shall not attend them] to return back to Argos, before they know whether the promise of ægis bearing Jove be false or not. For I say that the powerful son of Saturn assented on that day, when the Argives embarked in their swift ships, bearing death and fate to the Trojans, flashing,[37] his lightning on the right, and showing propitious signs. Let not any one, therefore, hasten to return home before each has slept with a Trojan wife, and has avenged the cares[38] and griefs of Helen. But if any one is extravagantly eager to return home, let him lay hands upon his well-benched black ships that he may draw on death and fate before others. But do thou thy self deliberate well, king, and attend to another; nor shall the advice which I am about to utter be discarded. Separate the troops, Agamemnon, according to their tribes and clans, that kindred may support kindred, and clan clan. If thou wilt thus act, and the Greeks obey, thou wilt then ascertain which of the generals and which of the soldiers is a dastard, and which of them may be brave, for they will fight their best, [39] and thou wilt likewise learn whether it is by the divine interposition that thou art destined not to dismantle the city, or by the cowardice of the troops, and their unskillfulness in war."

But him answering, king Agamemnon addressed: "Old man, now indeed, as at other times, dost thou excel the sons of the Greeks in council. For, would, O father Jove, Minerva, and Apollo, that I were possessed of ten such fellow-counselors among the Greeks! So should the city of Priam quickly fall, captured and destroyed by our hands. But upon me hath ægis-bearing Jove, the son of Saturn, sent sorrow, who casts me into unavailing strifes and contentions. For I and Achilles have quarreled on account of a maid with opposing words • but I began quarreling. But if ever we shall consult in common, no longer then shall there be a respite from evil to the Trojans, no, not for ever so short a time. Now go to your repast, that we may join battle. Let each one well sharpen his spear, and well prepare[40] his shield. Let him give fodder to his swift-footed steeds, and let each one, looking well to his chariot, get ready for war; that we may contend all day in the dreadful battle. Nor shall there be a cessation, not for ever so short a while, until night coming on shall part the wrath of the heroes. The belt of the man-protecting[41] shield shall be moist with sweat around the breasts of each one, and he shall weary his hand round his spear; and each one's, horse shall sweat, dragging the well-polished chariot. But whomsoever I shall perceive desirous to remain at the beaked ships, apart from the battle, it will not be possible for him afterward to escape the dogs and the birds."

Thus he spoke, but the Argives shouted aloud, as when a wave [roars] against the steep shore, when the south wind urges it, coming against an out-jutting rock; for this the billows from all kinds of winds never forsake, when they may be here or there. And rising up, the people hastened forth, scattered from ship to ship, and raised up smoke among the tents, and took repast. And one sacrificed to some one of the immortal gods, and [another to another,] praying to escape death and the slaughter of war. But king Agamemnon offered up a fat ox, of five years old, to the powerful son of Saturn, and summoned the elder chiefs of all the Greeks, Nestor first of all, and king Idomeneus, but next the two Ajaxes,[42] and the son of Tydeus, and sixth Ulysses, of equal weight with Jove in council. But Menelaus, valiant in the din[43] of war, came of his own accord,[44] for he knew his brother in his heart, how he was oppressed. Then they stood around the ox, and raised up the pounded barley cakes: and king Agamemnon, praying amid them, said:

"O Jove, most glorious, most great dark-cloud-collector, dwelling in the air, may not the sun set, nor darkness come on, before I have laid prostrate Priam's hall, blazing, and consumed its gates with the hostile fire; and cut away Hector's coat of mail around his breast, split asunder with the brass; and around him may many comrades, prone in the dust, seize the earth with their teeth."

Thus he spoke, nor as yet did the son of Saturn assent, but he accepted the offering, and increased abundant toil. But after they had prayed, and thrown forward the bruised barley, they first drew back [the neck of the victim,] slew it, and flayed it, then cut out the thighs, and covered them in the fat, having arranged it in a double fold, and then laid the raw flesh upon them. And they roasted them upon leafless billets. Next, having pierced the entrails with spits, they held them over the fire. But then, after the thighs were roasted, and they had tasted the entrails, they cut the rest of them into small pieces, and fixed them on spits, and roasted them skillfully, and drew them all off [the spits]. But when they had ceased from labor, and had prepared the banquet, they feasted; nor did their soul in anywise lack a due allowance of the feast. But when they had dismissed the desire of drink and food, them the Gerenian knight Nestor began to address:

"Most glorious son of Atreus, Agamemnon, king of men, let us now no longer sit prating[45] here; nor let us long defer the work which the deity now delivers into our hands. But come, let the heralds of the brazen-mailed Greeks, summoning the people, assemble them at the ships, and let us thus in a body pass through the wide army of the Greeks, that we may the sooner awaken keen warfare."

Thus he spoke, nor did Agamemnon, king of men, refuse compliance. Immediately he ordered the clear-voiced heralds to summon the waving-crested Greeks to battle. These

then gave the summons, and they were hastily assembled, and the Jove-nurtured kings, who were with the son of Atreus, kept hurrying about arranging them. But among them was azure-eyed Minerva, holding the inestimable ægis, which grows not old, and is immortal: from which one hundred golden fringes were suspended, all well woven, and each worth a hundred oxen in price. With this she, looking fiercely about,[46] traversed the host of the Greeks, inciting them to advance, and kindled strength in the breast of each to fight and contend unceasingly. Thus war became instantly sweeter to them than to return in the hollow ships to their dear native land.

As when a destructive[47] fire consumes an immense forest upon the tops of a mountain, and the gleam is seen from afar: so, as they advanced, the radiance from the beaming brass glittering on all sides reached heaven through the air.

And of these—like as the numerous nations of winged fowl, of geese, or cranes, or long-necked swans, on the Asian mead, by the waters of Cayster, fly on this side and on that, disporting with their wings, alighting beside each other clamorously, and the meadow resounds—so the numerous nations of these [the Greeks] from the ships and tents poured themselves forth into the plain of Scamander, countless as the flowers and leaves are produced in spring.

As the numerous swarms of clustering flies which congregate round the shepherd's pen in the spring season, when too the milk overflows the pails; so numerous stood the head-crested Greeks upon the plain against the Trojans, eager to break [their lines].

And these,[48] as goat-herds easily separate the broad flocks of the goats, when they are mingled in the pasture, so did the generals here and there marshal them to go to battle; and among them commander Agamemnon, resembling, as to his eyes and head, the thunder-delighting Jove, as to his middle, Mars, and as to his breast, Neptune.

As a bull in the herd, is greatly eminent above all, for he surpasses the collected cattle, such on that day did Jove render Agamemnon, distinguished among many, and conspicuous among heroes.

Tell me now, ye Muses, who possess the Olympian mansions (for ye are goddesses, and are [ever] present, and ken all things, while we hear but a rumor, nor know any thing[49]), who were the leaders and chiefs of the Greeks. For I could not recount nor tell the multitude, not even if ten tongues, and ten mouths were mine, [not though] a voice unwearied,[50] and a brazen heart were within me; unless the Olympic Muses, daughters of aegis-bearing Jove, reminded me of how many came to Ilium. However, I will rehearse the commanders of the ships, and all the ships.

THE CATALOGUE OF THE SHIPS.

Peneleus, and Leitus, and Arcesilaus, and Prothoënor, and Clonius, commanded the Bœotians; both those who tilled Hyrie, and rocky Aulis, and Schœnos, and Scholos, and hilly Eteonus, Thespia, Græa, and the ample plain of Mycalessus; and those who dwelt about Harma, and Ilesius, and Erythræ; and those who possessed Elion, Hyle, Peteon, Ocalea, and the well-built city Medeon, Copæ, Eutressis, and Thisbe abounding in doves; and those who possessed Coronæa, and grassy Haliartus, and Platæa; and those who inhabited Glissa, and those who dwelt in Hypothebæ, the well-built city, and in sacred Onchestus, the beauteous grove of Neptune; and those who inhabited grape-clustered Arne, and those [who inhabited] Midea, and divme Nissa, and remote Anthedon: fifty ships of these went to Troy, and in each embarked a hundred and twenty Bœotian youths.

Those who inhabited Aspledon, and Minyean Orchomenus, these Ascalaphus and lalmenus, the sons of Mars, led, whom Astyoche bore to powerful Mars in the house of Actor, son of Azis: a modest virgin, when she ascended the upper part of her father's house; but the god secretly embraced her. Of these thirty hollow ships went in order.

Moreover, Schedius and Epistrophus, sons of magnanimous Iphitus, the son of Naubolus, led the Phoceans, who possessed Cyparissus, and rocky Python, and divine Crissa, and Daulis, and Panopea; and those who dwelt round Anemoria and Hyampolis, and near the sacred river Cephissus, and those who possessed Lilaea, at the sources of Cephissus: with these forty dark ships followed. They indeed,[51] going round, arranged the lines of the Pheceans; and they were drawn up in array near the Bœotians, and toward the left wing.

Swift-footed Ajax, the son of Oileus, was leader of the Locrians; less in stature than, and not so tall as Ajax, the son of Telamon, but much less. He was small indeed, wearing a linen corselet, but in [the use of] the spear he surpassed all the Hellenes and Achæans, who inhabited Cynus, Opus, Calliarus, Bessa, Scarpha, and pleasant Augeia, and Tarpha, and Thronium, around the streams of Boagrius. But with him forty dark ships of the Locrians followed, who dwell beyond sacred Euboea.

The Abantes, breathing strength, who possessed Eubœa, and Chalcis, and Eretria, and grape-clustered Histiæa, and maritime Cerinthus, and the towering city of Dium, and those who inhabited Carystus and Styra; the leader of these was Elephenor, of the line of Mars, the son of Chalcodon, the magnanimous prince of the Abantes. With him the swift Abantes followed, with flowing locks behind, warriors skilled with pretended spears of ash, to break the corselets on the breasts of their enemies. With him forty dark ships followed.

Those besides who possessed Athens, the well-built city, the state of magnanimous Erechtheus, whom Minerva, the daughter of Jove, formerly nursed (but him the bounteous earth brought forth), and settled at Athens in her own rich temple: there the sons of the Athenians, in revolving years, appease her with [sacrifices of] bulls and lambs[52]—them Menestheus, son of Peteus, commanded. No man upon the earth was equal to him in marshaling steeds and shielded warriors in battle; Nestor alone vied with him, for he was elder. With him fifty dark ships followed.

But Ajax[53] led twelve ships from Salamis, and leading arranged them where the phalanxes of the Athenians were drawn up.

Those who possessed Argos, and well-fortified Tiryns, Hermione, and which encircle the Asine deep bay, Trœzene, and Eïonæ, and vine-planted Epidaurus, and those who possessed Ægina, and Mases, Achæan youths. Their leader then was Diomede, brave in war, and Sthenelus, the dear son of much-renowned Capaneus; and with these went Euryalus the third, god-like man, the son of king Mecisteus, Talaus' son; and all these Diomede brave in war commanded. With these eighty dark ships followed.

Those who possessed Mycenæ, the well-built city, and wealthy Corinth,[54] and well-built Cleonæ, and those who inhabited Ornia, and pleasant Aræthyrea, and Sicyon, where Adrastus first reigned: and those who possessed Hyperesia, and loftly Gonoessa, and Pellene, and those who [inhabited] Ægium, and all along the sea-coast,[55] and about spacious Helice. Of these, king Agamemnon, the son of Atreus, commanded a hundred ships: and with him by far the most and bravest troops followed; and he had clothed himself in dazzling brass, exulting in his glory, that he shone conspicuous among all heroes; for he was the most eminent, and led by far the most numerous troops.[56]

But those who possessed great Lacedæmon, full of clefts,[57] and Pharis and Sparta, snd dove-abounding Messa, and Brysiæ, and pleasant Augeiæ; and those who possessed Amyclæ, and Helos, a maritime city; and those who possessed Laas, and dwelt round Œtlus. Of these his brother Menelaus, brave in battle, commanded sixty ships, but they were armed apart [from Agamemnon's forces]. Amid them he himself went, confiding in his valor, inciting them to war; but especially he desired in his soul to avenge the remorse of Helen and her groans.

Those who inhabited Pylos and pleasant Arene, and Thryos, by the fords of Alphœus, and well-built Æpy, and Cyparesseis, and Amphigenia. and Pteleum, and Helos, and Dorium: and there it was the Muses, meeting the Thracian Thamyris, as he was coming from Œchalia, from Œchalian Eurytus, caused him to cease his song; for he averred, boasting, that he could obtain the victory,[58] even though the Muses themselves, the daughters of æis-bearing Jove, should sing. But they, enraged, made him blind, and moreover deprived him of his power of singing, and caused him to forget the minstrel art. These the Gerenian horseman Nestor commanded; and with him ninety hollow ships proceeded in order.

Those who possessed Arcadia, under the breezy[59] mountain of Cyllene, near the tomb of Æytus, where are close-fighting heroes; those who inhabited Pheneus, and sheep-abounding Orchomenus, and Ripe and Stratic, and wind-swept Enispe, and who possessed Tegea and pleasant Mantinea; and those who held Stymphalus, and dwelt in Parrhasie; of these king Agapenor, the son of Ancæus, commanded sixty ships; but aboard each ship went many Arcadian heroes skilled in war. But the son of Atreus, Agamemnon himself, the king of heroes, gave them the well-benched ships, to pass over the dark sea; since they had no care of naval works.

Those who inhabited Buprasium and noble Elis, as much as Hyrmine, and distant Myrsinus, and the Olenian rock, and Alisium, contain within; of these the leaders were four; but ten swift ships followed each hero, and many Epeans went aboard them. Amphimachus and Thalpius, sons, the one of Cteatus, the other of Eurytus, Actor's son, commanded some: brave Diores, son of Amarynceus, commanded others: and god-like Polyxenus son of Agasthenes, the son of king Augeas, commanded the fourth division.

Those from Dulicium, and the Echinades, sacred islands, which lie beyond the sea, facing Elis.[60] Over these presided Meges, son of Phyleus, equal to Mars, whom the knight Phyleus, beloved by Jove, begat, who, enraged against his father, once on a time removed to Dulichium. With him forty dark ships followed.

Moreover Ulysses led the magnanimous Cephallenians, those who possessed Ithaca and leaf-quivering Neritos, and who dwelt in Crocylea and rugged Ægilips, and those who possessed Zacynthus, and those who inhabited Samos, and those who possessed the continent, and dwelt in the places lying opposite; these Ulysses commanded, equal to Jove in council. With him followed twelve red-sided ships.

Thoas, son of Andræmon, led the Ætolians, those who inhabited Pleuron, and Olenus, and Pylene, and maritime Chalcis, and rocky Calydon. For the sons of magnanimous Œneus were no more, nor was he himself surviving; moreover, fair-haired Meleager was dead.[61] To him [Thoas,] therefore, was intrusted the chief command, to rule the Ætolians, and with him forty dark ships followed.

Spear-renowned Idomeneus commanded the Cretans, those who possessed Gnossus and well-walled Gortyna and Lyctos, and Miletus, and white Lycastus and Phæstus, and Rhytium, well-inhabitecd cities; and others who inhabited the hundred- towned Crete. These spear-famed Idonaeneus commanded, and Meriones, equal to man-slaying Mars: with these followed eighty dark ships.

But Tlepolemus, the brave and great descendant of Hercules, led from Rhodes nine ships of the haughty Rhodians, those who inhabited Rhodes, arranged in three bands, Lindus, and Ialyssus, and white Camirus. These spear-famed Tlepolemus led, he whom Astyochea brought forth to the might of Hercules,[62] whom [Astyochea] he [Hercules] carried out of Ephyre, from the river Selleis, after having laid waste many cities of nobly-descended youths. Now Tlepolemus, after he had been trained up in the well-built palaces, straightway slew the beloved uncle of his father, Licymnius, now grown old, a branch of Mars; and instantly he built a fleet; and having collected many troops, he departed,[63] flying over the ocean; for him the sons and grandsons of the might of Hercules had threatened. And he indeed came wandering to Rhodes, suffering woes. And they, divided into three parts, dwelt in tribes, and were beloved of Jove, who rules over gods and men: and on them the son of Saturn poured down immense wealth.

Nireus moreover led three equal ships from Syme, Nireus son of Aglaea, and king Charopus. Nireus, the fairest of men that came to Ilium, of all the other Greeks, next to the unblemished son of Peleus. But he was feeble, and few troops followed him.

But those who possessed Nisyrus, and Crapathus, and Casus, and Cos, the city of Eurypylus, and the Calydnæ isles, Phidippus and Antiphus, both sous of the Thessalian king, the son of Hercules, commanded. Thirty hollow ships of these went in order.

But now, [O muse, recount] those, as many as inhabited Pelasgian Argos, both those who dwelt in Alos and Alope, and Trechin, and those who possessed Phthia, and Hellas famous for fair dames. But they are called Myrmidons, and Hellenes, and Achæans: of fifty ships of these was Achilles chief! But they remembered not dire-sounding war, for there was no one who might lead them to their ranks. For swift-footed Achilles lay at the ships, enraged on account of the fair-haired maid Brisëis, whom he carried away from Lyrnessus, after having suffered many labors, and having laid waste Lyrnessus and the walls of Thebes; and he killed Mynetes and spear-killed Epistrophus, sons of king Evenus, the son of Selepius. On her account he lay grieving, but speedily was he about to be roused.

Those who possessed Phylace and flowery Pyrrhasus, the consecrated ground of Ceres, and Iton the mother of sheep, maritime Antron, and grassy Ptelon. These warlike Protesilaus, while he lived, commanded; but him the black earth then possessed. His wife, lacerated all around, had been left at Phylace, and his palace half finished. For a Trojan man slew him, as he leaped ashore from his ship much the first of the Greeks. Nor were they, however, without a leader, although they longed for their own leader; for gallant Podarces marshaled them, Podarces, son of sheep-abounding Iphiclus, the son of Phylacis, own brother of magnanimous Protesilaus, younger by birth; but the war-like hero Protesilaus was older and braver. His troops wanted not a leader, but lamented him, being brave; with him forty dark ships followed.

Those who inhabited Phære by the lake Bœbeïs, Bœbe, and Glaphyræ, and well-built Iaolcus; these Eumeles, the beloved son of Admetus, commanded in eleven ships, whom Alcestis, divine among women, most beautiful in form of the daughters of Pelias, brought forth by Admetus.

Those who inhabited Methone and Thaumacia, and possessed Melibœa, and rugged Olizon; these Philoctetes, well skilled in archery, commanded in seven ships. Fifty sailors, well skilled in archery, went on board each to fight valiantly. But he lay in an island enduring bitter pangs, in divine Lemnos, where the sons of the Greeks had left him suffering with the evil sting of a deadly serpent. There he lay grieving; but soon were the Argives at the ships destined to remember their king Philoctetes. Nor were they however without a leader, though they longed for their own leader; but Medon, the bastard son of Oileus, whom Rhina brought forth by city-wasting Oileus, marshaled them.

Those who possessed Tricca, and hilly Ithome, and those who possessed Œchalia, the city of Œchalian Eurytus; Podalirius and Machaon, two excellent physicians,[64] both sons of Æsculapius, led these. With them thirty hollow ships went in order.

Those who possessed Ormenium, and the fountain Hyperia, and those who possessed Asterium and the white tops of Titanus; these Eurypylus, the brave son of Evæmon, commanded. With him forty dark ships followed.

Those who possessed Argissa, and inhabited Gyrtone, and Orthe, and Elone, and the white city Oloosson: these the stout warrior Polypœtes, son of Pirithous, whom immortal Jove begat, commanded. Him renowned Hippodamia brought forth by Pirithous, on the day when he took vengeance on the shaggy Centaurs, and drove them from Mount Pelion, and chased them to the Æthiceans. He was not the only leader; with him commanded warlike Leonteus, son of magnanimous Coronus, the son of Cœneus. With these forty dark ships followed.

But Gyneus led two-and-twenty ships from Cyphus. Him the Enienes followed, and the Peræbi, stout warriors, who placed their habitations by chilly Dodona, and those who tilled the fields about delightful Titaresius, which pours its fair-flowing stream into the Peneus; nor is it mingled with silver-eddied Peneus, but flows on the surface of it like oil. For it is a streamlet of the Stygian wave, the dreadful [pledge of] oath.

Prothoiis, son of Tenthredon, commanded the Magnetes, who dwell about the Peneus, and leaf-quivering Pelion: these swift Prothoüs led: and with him forty dark ships followed.

These then were the leaders and chieftains of the Greeks. Do thou, then, O muse, tell me who was the most excellent of these, of the kings and their steeds, who followed the son of Atreus to Troy. The steeds of the descendant of Pheres were indeed by far the most excellent, which Eumelus drove, swift as birds, like in hair, like in age, and level in [height of] back by the plumb-line.[65] These, bearing with them the terror of Mars, both mares, silver-bowed Apollo fed in Pieria,[66] Of the heroes Telamonian Ajax was by far the best, while Achilles continued wrathful, for he was by far the bravest; and the steeds which bore the irreproachable son of Peleus surpassed those of Eumelus. But he on his part lay in his dark sea-traversing ships, breathing wrath against the son of Atreus, Agamemnon, the shepherd of the people. But his forces meantime amused themselves with quoits and javelins, hurling [them,] and with their bows; and their steeds stood, each near his chariot, feeding on lotus and lake-fed parsley. And the well-fastened chariots lay in the tents of their lords. But they, longing for their warlike chief, wandered hither and thither through the camp, and did not fight.

But they went along, as if the whole earth was being fed upon by fire,[67] and the earth groaned beneath, as in honor of thunder-rejoicing Jove when angry,[68] when he strikes the earth around Typhœus in Arimæ,[69] where they say is the tomb of Typhœus; thus indeed beneath their feet the earth groaned mightily, as they went, and very swift they passed over the plain.

But swift-footed Iris came from ægis-bearing Jove, a messenger to the Trojans, with a woeful announcement. They all, collected together, both young and old, were holding councils at the gates of Priam. But swift-footed Iris standing near, accosted them: and she likened herself in voice to Polites, son of Priam, who, trusting to the swiftness of his feet, sat at watch for the Trojans on the top of the tomb[70] of old Æsyetus, watching when the Greeks should set forth from the ships. To him having likened herself, swift-footed Iris addressed them:

"Old man, ever are injudicious words pleasing to thee, as formerly in time of peace: but now has an inevitable war arisen. Truly I have already very often been present at the conflicts of heroes, but never have I beheld such brave and numerous forces. For very like unto the leaves or the sand proceed they through the plain, about to fight for the city. Hector, for it is to thee in particular I give advice: and do you act thus; for many are the allies through the great city of Priam; and different are the languages[71] of the widely-spread men. Let then each hero command those of whom he is the chief: but do thou, marshaling the citizens, be leader of them."

Thus she said. But Hector was not ignorant of the voice of the goddess; and he instantly dismissed the council, and they rushed to arms. And the portals were opened, and the troops rushed out, both foot and horse; and much tumult arose.

Now there is a certain lofty mound before the city, far in the plain, that may be run round,[72] which men indeed call Batiea, but the immortals, the tomb of nimbly-springing Myrinna. There the Trojans and their allies were then marshaled separately.

The Trojans in the first place, great helmet-nodding Hector, son of Priam, commanded. With him far the most numerous and the bravest troops were armed, ardent with their spears.

The Dardanians, in the next place, Æneas, the gallant son of Anchises, commanded (him to Anchises the divine goddess Venus bore, couched with him a mortal on the tops of Ida): not alone, but with him the two sons of Antenor, Archelochus and Acamas, skilled in every kind of fight.

But the Trojans who inhabited Zeleia,[73] beneath the lowest foot of Ida, wealthy and drinking the dark water of Æsepus, these Pandarus, the valiant son of Lycaon, commanded, to whom even Apollo himself gave his bow.

Those who possessed Adrestæ, and the city of Apæsus, and possessed Pityea, and the lofty mountain Tereia; these Adrastus and linen-mailed Amphius commanded, the two sons of Percosian Merops, who was skilled in prophecy above all others; nor was he willing to suffer his sons to go into the man-destroying fight. But they did not obey him, for the fates of sable death impelled them.

Those who dwelled around Percote and Practius, and possessed Sestos and Abydos, and divine Arisbe; these Asius, son of Hyrtacus, prince of heroes, commanded: Asius, son of Hyrtacus, whom large and fiery steeds bore from Arisbe, from the river Selleïs.

Hippothoüs led the tribes of the spear-skilled Pelasgians, of those who inhabited fertile Larissa; Hippothoüs and Pylseus of the line of Mars, the two sons of Pelasgian Lethus, son of Teutamus, commanded these.

But Acamus and the hero Piroüs led the Thracians, all that the rapidly flowing Hellespont confines within.

Euphemus, son of heaven-descended Trœzenus, son of Ceas, was commander of the warlike Cicones.

But Pyræchmes led the Pæonians, who use darts fastened by a thong, far from Amydon, from wide-flowing Axius, from Axius, whose stream is diffused the fairest over the earth.

But the sturdy heart of Pylæmenes from the Eneti, whence is the race of wild mules, led the Paphlagonians, those who possessed Cytorus, and dwelt around Sesamus, and inhabited the famous dwellings around the river Parthenius, and Cromna, Ægialus, and the lofty Erythine hills.

But Hodius and Epistrophus, far from Alybe, whence is a rich product of silver, commanded the Halizonians.

Chromis and the augur Ennomus commanded the Mysians; but he avoided not sable death through his skill in augury, for he was laid low by the hands of Achilles in the river, where he made havoc of the other Trojans also.

Phorcys and godlike Ascanius far from Ascania, led the Phrygians, and they eagerly desired to engage in battle.

But Mesthles and Antiphus led the Mæonians, both sons of Talæmeneus, whom the lake Gygæa bore; these led the Mæonians, born beneath Mount Tmolus.

Nastes commanded the barbarous-voiced Carians, who possessed Miletus, and the leaf-topped mountain of Pethiri, and the streams of Mæander, and the lofty tops of Mycale. These indeed Amphimachus and Nastes commanded, Nastes and Amphimachus the famous sons of Nomion, who foolish went to battle decked with gold like a young girl;[74] nor did this by any means ward off bitter death; but he was laid low by the hands of the swift-footed son of Æacus at the river, and warlike Achilles took away the gold.

But Sarpedon and gallant Glaucus from Lycia afar, from the eddying Xanthus, led the Lycians.


  1. See Anthon, who observes that "fighting from on horseback was not practiced in the Homeric times."
  2. Some would personify Oneirus, as god of dreams.
  3. Observe the distinction, for the Abantes, verse 542, and the Thracians, iv. 533, wore their hair differently.
  4. κεν limits the assertion to probability, so that Jupiter does not utter a direct falsehood.
  5. In defense of this cheating conduct of Jove, at which Plato was much scandalized, Coleridge, p. 154, observes: "The οὖλος ὄνειρος was a lying spirit, which the father of gods and men had a supreme right to commission for the purpose of working out his ultimate will."
  6. ῥα appears to mark the regular transition from one event to another.
  7. Agamemnon.
  8. See on verse 11.
  9. The dative here implies direction, ἐπὶ increasing its force, according to Stadelmann and Kühner, who are followed by Anthon. I have restored the old interpretation, which is much less far-fetched, and is placed beyond doubt by Virgil's imitations—"per florea rura," Æn. i. 430; "floribus insidunt variis." ÆEn. vi. 708. "Among fresh dews and flowers, Fly to and fro."—Milton, Paradise Lost, i. 771.
  10. i. e., over the flowers in the spring-time, when bees first appear. See Virg. 1. c. Eurp. Hipp. 77, μέλισσα λειμῶν' ἠρινὸν διέρχεται—Nicias, Anthol. i. 31, ἔαρ ϕαίνουσα μέλισσα— Longus, i. 4.
  11. Observe the distributive use of {polytonic|κατά}}. Cf. Od. iii. 7.
  12. Mercury. Cf. Ovid. Met. i. 624, sqq.
  13. On the extended power of Agamemnon, see Thucyd. i. 9.
  14. On this scepter, the type of the wealth and influence of the house of the Atrides, see Grote, vol. i, p. 212.
  15. Ὅρκια is probably used as an adjective, understanding ἱερεῖα, the victims that were slain in order to ratify the oath. See however Buttm. Lexil. p. 439.
  16. The Greeks doubled the Trojans in number. See Anthon.
  17. Observe the change of construction in λέλυνται with the neuter plural. Apollon. de Syntaxi, iii. 11. Τὰ σπάρτα λέλυνται καταλληλότερον τοῦ δοῦρα σέσηπε.
  18. i e., his real object. Cf. vs. 75, sqq.
  19. Spitzner and the later editors unite in reading κινήσῃ for κινήσει from the Venice MS. See Arnold.
  20. ――――"As thick as when a field
    Of Ceres, ripe for harvest, waving bends
    Her bearded grove of ears, which way the wind
    Sways them."—Paradise Lost, iv. 980.

  21. i. e., rowed on both sides. But Rost and Liddell (s. v.) prefer "swaying, rocking on both sides."
  22. This is an instance of the σχῆμα Σικελικόν, as in H. O. 88, γίνεται δὲ παραλαμβανομένης δοτικῆς πτώσεως ἀντὶ γενικῆς καὶ κατὰ παράλειψιν τοῦ παρὰ προθέσεως.—Lesbonax, περὶ σχημ, p. 181, ed. Valck.
  23. See Aristot. Polit. iv. 4, and Cicer. de Off. i. 8. This true maxim has been often abused by tyrants, as by Dion (Corn. Nepos, Dion, § 6, 4), Caligula (Sueton. Cal. 22), and Domitian (id. 12).
  24. On the aristocratic character of Homer's poetry, see Müller, Gk. Lit. iv. § 2.
  25. See Buttm. Lexil. p. 540, § 8.
  26. See Buttm. p. 537, who derives ϕοξὺς from ϕώγειν, to dry, as if ϕοξός, warped by heat.
  27. Not being compelled to restore her, like the daughter of Chryses.
  28. Virg. Æn. ix. 617: "O vero Plirygiæ, neque enim Phryges!"
  29. This is Niigelsbach's spirited rendering of οἴκαδε περ.
  30. See Grote, vol. i. p. 392, n. 2.
  31. I have followed Wolf, taking σὺν νηῒ πολυζύγῳ in connection with μένων. Others most awkwardly make σὺν=παρά.
  32. Cf. Buttm. Lexil. s. v. εἰλεῖν.
  33. Pausanias, ix. 20, says that both the spring and the remains of the tree were shown in his time. The whole of this fable has been translated into verse by Cicero, de Div. ii. 30. Compare the following passage of Apuleius de Deo Socr. p. 52, ed. Elm. "Calchas longe præstabilis ariolari, siraul alites et arborem contemplatus est, actutum sua divinitate et tempestates flexit, et classem deduxit, et decennium prædixit.
  34. i. e., for nine. It is remarkable that so little notice has been taken of this story by the later poets. But the sacrifice of Iphigenia was a more attractive subject for tragedy or episode, and took the place of the Homeric legend.
  35. Nestor took this name from a city of Messena (Gerenium, a, or ia. See Arnold, and Pinedo on Steph. Byz. s. v. Γερηνια), where he was brought up, probably after Pylos had been destroyed by Hercules.
  36. Proverbially meaning a few, but probably referring to Achilles and Thersites. See the Scholiast.
  37. Observe this bold change of constructian, and compare Valck. ou Lesbonax, at the end of his edition of Ammonius, p. 188.
  38. Hesych. ορμήματα, μερίμναι Etym. M. ἐνθυμήματα, ϕροντίδες. See Buttm. Lexil. p. 440, sqq. Helen certainly shows some repentanco in iii. 176.
  39. "Pro virili parte," Wolf. Cf. i. 271.
  40. SchoL εὐτρεπισάτω.
  41. These shields were so large, that they covered nearly the whole person.
  42. One the son of Telamon, the other the son of Oileus.
  43. This translation is, I think, far bolder than "loud-voiced," or "good in the battle-shout." Βοὴ contains the whole idea of the tumultuous noise heard in the heat of battle, and thence the battle itself. Thus the Schol. ὁ ἐν τῷ πολέμῳ γενναῖος; and Hesych. κατὰ τὴν μάχην ἀνδρεῖος.
  44. Opposed to κλητὸς, as in Oppian, Hal. iii. 360, κλητοί τ' ἀυτό μολοί τε. See Plato Sympos. p. 315, G. Læm. Why Menelaus did so, is no matter to us, and probably was no mystery to his brother.
  45. See Buttm. Lexil. p. 398, Anthon, and Arnold.
  46. See Liddell and Scott.
  47. Literally "invisible." Hence "making invisible, destructive." Cf. Buttm. Lex. s. v. ἀιδηλος.
  48. In τοὺς δὲ there is an anacoluthon similar to the one in vs. 459.
  49. Cf. Æn. vii. 644:—
    "Et meministis enim, Divæ, et memorare potestis:
    Ad nos vix tenuis famæ perlabitur aura."

    Milton, Par. Lost, i. 27:—

    "Say first, for Heav'n hides nothing from thy view,
    Nor the deep tract of Hell――"
  50. Cf Æn. vi. 625 sqq.; Georg. ii. 42; Valor. Flace. vi. 36; Silius, iv. 527; Claudian, 6 Cons. Hon. 436. This hyperbolical mode of excusing poetic powers is ridiculed by Persius, Sat. vi.
  51. Schedius and Epistrophus.
  52. Grote, Hist. of Greece, vol. i. p. 75, observes, "Athene is locally identified with the soil and people of Athens, even in the Iliad: Erechtheus, the Athenian, is born of the earth, but Athene brings him up, nourishes him, and lodges him in her own temple, where the Athenians annually worship him with sacrifice and solemnities. It was altogether impossible to make Erechtheus son of Athene,—the type of the goddess forbade it; but the Athenian myth-creators, though they found this barrier impassable, strove to approach to it as near as they could." Compare also p. 262, where he considers Erechtheus "as a divine or heroic, certainly a superhuman person, and as identified with the primitive germination of Attic man."
  53. The son of Telamon.
  54. An anachronism, as Corinth, before its capture by the Dorians, was called Ephyra (as in II. vi. 152). "Neque est, quod miremur ab Homero nominari Corinthum, nam ex persona poetæ et hanc urbem, et quasdam Ionum colonias iis nominibus appellat, quibus vocabantur ætate ejus, multo post Illium captum conditæ."—Vell. Paterc. i. 3.
  55. i. e., the later Achaia.—Arnold.
  56. On the superior power of Agamemnon, see Grote, vol. i. p. 211, and compare II. ix. 69.
  57. See Buttm. Lexil. p. 382.
  58. Respecting the connection of this story with the early poetic contests, see Müller, Gk. Lit. iv. 2, whose interesting remarks are, unfortunately, too long for a note.
  59. i. e., lofty.
  60. This description of the Echinades has something equivocal in it, which is cleared up, if we suppose it addressed to the inhabitants of the Asiatic side of the Archipelago. But if, with Pope, we understand the words 'beyond the sea' to relate to Elis, I think we adopt an unnatural construction to come at a forced meaning; for the old Greek historians tell us that those islands are so close upon the coast of Elis, that in their time many of them had been joined to it by means of the Achelous."—Wood on Homer, p. 8, sq.
  61. Grote, Hist, of Greece, vol. i. p. 197, after referring to the Homeric legend respecting Meleager in II. xi. 525, sqq., remarks that "though his death is here indicated only indirectly, there seems little doubt that Homer must have conceived the death of the hero as brought about by the maternal curse; the unrelenting Erinnys executed to the letter the invocations of Althæa, though she herself must have been willing to retract them."
  62. As in the Odyssey, I prefer preserving the quaint simplicity of these antiquated periphrases.
  63. Grote, History of Greece, vol. i. p. 33, has collected the Homeric instances of exile "for private or involuntary homicide," observing, however, from the Schol. on II. xi. 690, "that Homer never once describes any of them to have either received or required purification for the crime."
  64. Grote, vol. i. p. 348, remarks that the "renown of Podalirius and Machaon was further prolonged in the subsequent poem of Arctinus, the Iliu-Persis, wherein the one was represented as unrivaled in surgical operations, the other as sagacious in detecting and appreciating morbid symptoms. It was Podalirius who first noticed the glaring eyes and disturbed deportment which preceded the suicide of Ajax."
  65. i. e., exactly equal in height, as if they had been measured.
  66. This degradation of Apollo used to be commemorated in the theoria in honor of the god. See Müller, Dor. vol. i. p. 233.
  67. Such was the glitter of their arms.
  68. See Arnold.
  69. A volcanic district of Mysia.
  70. On the height of the ancient tombs, see my note on Odyss. ii, p. 21, n. 35.
  71. Cf. iv. 437, where this variety of dialects is again mentioned, and Müller, Greek Lit. i. § 4.
  72. i. e., standing clear on all sides.
  73. Cf. iv. 119. "The inhabitants of Zeleia worshiped Apollo, and Zeleia was also called Lycia; facts which show that there was a real connection between tho name of Lycia and the worship of Apollo, and that it was the worship of Apollo which gave the name to this district of Troy, as it had douo to the country of the Solymi" — Müller, Dor. vol i. p. 248.
  74. It was customary for virgins to wear golden ornaments in great profusion. See Person on Eur. Hec. 153.