The Iliad of Homer (Buckley)/BOOK THE SEVENTH

The Iliad of Homer  (1860)  by Homer, translated by Theodore Alois Buckley
BOOK THE SEVENTH

BOOK THE SEVENTH.

ARGUMENT.

Hector challenges the bravest of the Greeks to single combat, and nine of the chiefs having cast lots, Ajax is appointed to meet him. Having protracted the contest till night, the combatants exchange gifts, and separate. A truce is then made for the purpose of burying the dead, and the Greeks fortify their camp.

Thus having said, illustrious Hector rushed forth from the gates, and with him went his brother Alexander, for both were eager in soul to wage war and to fight. As when the deity has given a prosperous wind to expecting mariners, after they have become weary, agitating the deep with well-polished oars, and their limbs are relaxed with toil; thus then did those two appear to the expecting Trojans. Then they slew, the one,[1] indeed, Menesthius, son of king Areithoüs, who dwelt in Arne, whom the club-bearer Areithoüs and large-eyed Philomedusa brought forth; but Hector smote Eïoneus with his sharp spear upon the neck, under his well-wrought brazen helmet,[2] and relaxed his limbs. And Glaucus, son of Hippolochus, leader of the Lycian heroes, in fierce engagement smote Iphinous, son of Dexias, upon the shoulder with his spear, as he vaulted on his swift mares. But he fell from his mares on the ground, and his limbs were relaxed.

But when the azure-eyed goddess Minerva saw them destroying the Greeks, in fierce engagement, she descended straightway, rushing down from the tops of Olympus to sacred Ilium. Then Apollo hastened to meet her, having perceived her from Pergamus, for he wished victory to the Trojans. And they met each other at the beech-tree. Her first king Apollo, the son of Jove, addressed:

"Why again dost thou, O daughter of mighty Jove, come ardently from Olympus, and why has thy mighty soul impelled thee? It is that thou mightest give to the Greeks the doubtful victory of battle, for thou dost not pity the Trojans perishing. But if thou obeyest me in aught, which indeed would be much better, let us now make the war and conflict to cease this day, afterward shall they fight until they find an end of Ilium; since it is pleasing to the mind of you goddesses to overthrow this city."[3]

But him in turn the azure-eyed goddess Minerva thus addressed: "Be it so. Far-darter; for I myself, meditating the same things, came down from Olympus to the Trojans and the Greeks. But come, how dost thou intend to make the battle of men to cease?"

Her then in turn king Apollo, the son of Jove, addressed: "Let us arouse the valiant spirit of horse-breaking Hector, if perchance he will challenge some one of the Greeks to fight against him singly opposed in grievous combat. And the well-greaved Greeks enraged will urge on some single man to fight with noble Hector."

Thus he spoke, nor did the azure-eyed goddess disobey. But Helenus, the dear son of Priam, perceived in his mind the counsel, which seemed good to the gods deliberating. He therefore went and stood near Hector, and thus accosted him :

"Hector, son of Priam, equal to Jove in wisdom, wilt thou obey me in aught? for I am thy brother. Cause all the rest of the Trojans and the Greeks to sit down, but do thou thyself challenge whoever is the bravest of the Greeks to fight against thee in grievous combat. For it is not yet thy fate to die, and draw on fate; for to this effect have I heard the voice of the immortal gods."

Thus he spoke. But Hector in turn rejoiced exceedingly, having heard his advice, and accordingly advancing into the midst, grasping his spear in the middle, he restrained the phalanxes of the Trojans; and they all sat down. Agamemnon also caused the well-greaved Greeks to sit down; and Minerva also and silver-bowed Apollo, sat like unto vulture birds, on a lofty beech-tree of their sire, the ægis-bearing Jove, delighted with the heroes; of these the ranks sat thick, horribly bristling with shields, and helmets, and spears. And as the ripple of the west wind, just risen, is poured over the ocean, and the sea begins to darken under it, such sat the ranks of the Greeks and the Trojans in the plain: but Hector thus spoke in the midst of both armies:

"Hear me, ye Trojans, and ye well-greaved Greeks, while I speak what the mind in my breast commands me. Saturnian Jove, indeed, sitting aloft, has not ratified the leagues, but devising evils against both sides, ordains them, till either ye take well-turreted Troy, or yourselves fall at your sea-traversing ships. Among you, indeed, there are the bravest of all the Greeks, of whom whomsoever his mind orders to fight with me, let him come hither from among all, to be a champion against noble Hector. This then do I propose, but let Jove be our witness; if, on the one hand, he shall slay me with his long-pointed spear, having stripped off my armor, let him bear it to the hollow ships, but send my body home, that the Trojans and the wives of the Trojans may make me, deceased, a partaker of the funeral pyre. But if, on the other hand, I shall slay him, and Apollo shall give me glory, having stripped off his armor, I will bear it to sacred Ilium, and I will hang it up on the temple of far-darting Apollo: but his body I will send back to the well-benched ships, that the long-haired Greeks may perform his exsequies, and pile up for him a tomb on the wide Hellespont. And hereafter will some one of future men say, as ho sails over the sea in his many-benched ship: 'This, indeed, is the tomb of a hero long since deceased, whom once, bearing himself doughtily, illustrious Hector slew.' Thus hereafter will some one say; but this my glory shall never perish."

Thus he said, but all became mute in silence. Ashamed indeed they were to refuse, and yet they dreaded to accept [the challenge]. At length, however, Menelaus stood up, and spoke among them, rebuking them with reproaches, and he groaned greatly in spirit:

"Alas! ye boasters! Greek dames! no longer Grecian men! certainly will these things be a disgrace, most grievously grievous, if none of the Greeks will now go against Hector. But may ye all become water and earth, sitting there each of you, faint-hearted; utterly inglorious: but I myself will be armed against him. But the issues of victory are rested in the immortal gods."

Thus having spoken, he put on his beautiful arms. Then, indeed, O Menelaus, would the end of life have befallen thee at the hands of Hector, since he was much the better man, had not the princes of the Greeks, starting up suddenly, restrained thee, and the son of Atreus himself, wide-ruling Agamemnon, seized thee by the right hand, and addressed thee, and spoke:

"Thou art mad, O Menelaus! offspring of Jove, nor hast thou any need of such madness: restrain thyself, although grieved, nor wish for the sake of contention to fight with a braver man than thyself, Hector, the son of Priam, whom others also dread. Nay, even Achilles, who is much braver than thou, dreads to meet him[4] in the glorious fight. But now, going to the troop of thy companions, sit down. Against him the Greeks will set up some other champion. Although he be intrepid and insatiable of battle, I think that he will gladly bend his knee,[5] if he shall escape from the hostile battle and the grievous fight."

Thus speaking, the hero dissuaded his brother's mind, advising him rightly; and he obeyed. His joyful attendants then stripped the armor from his shoulders. Then Nestor arose amid the Greeks, and said:

"O gods, surely great grief comes upon the Grecian land. Certainly the aged knight Peleus, the excellent counselor and adviser of the Myrmidons, will greatly lament, who formerly interrogated me, greatly rejoiced in his palace, inquiring the race and offspring of all the Greeks. If he now heard of them all crouching down under Hector, often indeed would he uplift his hands to the immortals, [praying] that his soul, [separated] from his limbs, might depart into the house of Pluto. For would, O father Jove, and Minerva, and Apollo, I were young, as when the assembled Pylians and the spear-skilled Arcadians fought by the rapid Celadon, at the walls of Phæa, about the streams of Jardan. With them Ereuthalion, god-like hero, stood in the van, bearing on his shoulders the armor of king Areïthous, of noble Areïthous, whom men and beauteous-girt women called by surname Corynetes, since he fought not with the bow, nor with a long spear, but used to break the phalanxes with an iron club. Him Lycurgus slew by stratagem, not by strength, in a narrow defile, where his iron club did not ward off destruction from him; for Lycurgus, anticipating, pierced him right through the waist with his spear, and he was dashed to the ground on his back; and he spoiled him of the armor which brazen Mars had given him, and he indeed afterward bore them himself in the battle of Mars. But when Lycurgus had grown old in his palaces, he gave them to his beloved attendant Ereuthalion, to be borne: and he, having his armor, challenged all the bravest: but these trembled and feared very much: nor did any one dare [to withstand him]. But my bold mind, by its confidence, urged me on to fight him: now I was the youngest of them all; and I fought with him, and Minerva gave me glory. And I slew this most mighty and valiant hero, for vast he lay stretched out on this side and on that. Would that [now] I were thus young, and my strength entire—so quickly should crest-tossing Hector meet with a contest. But those of you who are the bravest of all the Greeks, not even you promptly desire to go against Hector."

Thus did the old man upbraid them; and nine heroes in all arose. Much the first arose Agamemnon, the king of men; after him arose brave Diomede, son of Tydeus, and after them the Ajaces, clad in impetuous valor: after them Idomeneus, and Meriones, the armor-bearer of Idomeneus, equal to man-slaughtering Mars. After them Eurypylus, the gallant son of Evæmon. And there [also arose] Thoas, son of Andræmon, and divine Ulyssos. All these wished to fight with noble Hector. But these again the Gerenian knight Nestor addressed:

"Decide now, exclusively by lot, who shall obtain [the accepting of the challenge]; for he indeed will aid the well-greaved Greeks; and he will also delight his own soul, if he shall escape safe from the hostile war and the grievous fight."

Thus he spoke, and they marked each his own lot, and they cast them into the helmet of Agamemnon, the son of Atreus. The people supplicated, and raised their hands to the gods, and thus would one of them say, looking toward the wide heaven:

"O father Jove, grant that Ajax obtain the lot, or the son of Tydeus, or the king himself of rich Mycenæ."

Thus they spake, and the Gerenian knight Nestor shook [the lots], and the lot of Ajax, which indeed they wished for, leaped forth from the helmet. Then a herald bearing it around through the multitude, beginning at the right, showed it to all the chiefs of the Greeks. But they, not recognizing it, disclaimed it severally. But, when at last the herald, carrying it round through the multitude, came to him, illustrious Ajax, who had inscribed and cast it into the helmet, he [Ajax] stretched forth his hand, and the herald standing near, placed it in it. Having inspected it, he knew his own mark, and rejoiced in his soul. He cast it on the ground at his feet, and said:

"O friends, surely the lot is mine, and I myself rejoice in my soul, since I think that I shall conquer noble Hector. But come, while I put on my warlike arms, do ye meantime pray to Jove, the Saturnian king, silently within yourselves, that the Trojans may not hear; or even openly, since we fear no one at all. For no one willingly shall, by force, overcome me against my will, nor through my inexperience; since I hope I have not been so ignorantly[6] born and bred at Salamis."

Thus he spoke: but they prayed to Jove, the Saturnian king; and thus would one of them say, looking toward the wide heaven:

"O father Jove, ruling from Ida, most glorious, most mighty, grant to Ajax to bear away victory, and illustrious glory. But if thou lovest Hector also, and carest for him, grant equal might and glory to both."

Thus they spake, and Ajax was arming himself in splendid brass. But when he had put on all his armor around his body, then he rushed forward: as moves mighty Mars, who goes to war amid men, whom the son of Saturn has engaged to fight with the strength of soul-gnawing strife, such mighty Ajax advanced, the bulwark of the Greeks, smiling with grim countenance; but he advanced, taking long strides with his feet beneath, brandishing his long-shadowed spear. The Greeks on their part, rejoiced much on beholding him, but dire dismay seized the Trojans, each one as to his limbs, and the soul panted in the breast of Hector himself. But now he could not in any wise retract through fear, nor retire back into the crowd of the people, since he had challenged to the fight. But Ajax drew near, bearing a shield, like a tower, brazen, covered with seven ox-hides, which for him the artist Tychius laboring had wrought, dwelling at his home in Hyla, by far the most excellent of leather-cutters, who for him had made a movable shield, of seven hides of very fat bulls, and drawn over it an eighth [layer] of brass. Carrying this before his breast, Telamonian Ajax stood very near Hector, and menacing addressed him:

"O Hector, now thou, alone with me alone, shalt plainly know, what kind of chiefs are present with the Greeks, even besides Achilles, the breaker of ranks, the lion-hearted. But he, indeed, abides at his high-beaked sea-traversing ships, enraged against Agamemnon, the shepherd of the people. Yet we are such, even many of us, who can go against thee; but begin the battle and the strife."

Him then in turn the mighty crest-tossing Hector addressed: "Thou Jove-sprung Ajax, son of Telamon, ruler of forces, tamper not with me as with a weak boy, or a woman, who knows not warlike deeds. But I well know both battles and man-slaughterings. I know how to shift my dry shield to the right and to the left; wherefore to me it belongs to fight unwearied. I am also skilled to rush to the battle of swift steeds. I know too, how, in hostile array, to move skillfully in honor of glowing Mars. But I do not desire to wound thee, being such, watching stealthily, but openly, if haply I may strike thee."

He spoke, and brandishing hurled forth his long-shadowed spear, and smote the mighty seven-hided shield of Ajax on the outside brass, which was the eighth [layer] thereon. And the unwearied brass cutting through, penetrated six folds, and was stuck fast in the seventh hide. Next, Jove-sprung Ajax in turn sent forth his very long spear, and struck the all-equal shield of Priam's son. Through the shining shield passed the impetuous spear, and was fastened in his very ingeniously-wrought corselet, and from the opposite side the spear cut his tunic near the flank. But he inclined himself, and avoided black death. Then they both, having drawn out their long spears with their hands, joined battle, like unto raw-devouring lions, or wild boars, whose strength is not feeble. Then indeed the son of Priam struck the midst of his [Ajax's] shield with his spear; it broke not through the brass, but the point of it was bent. But Ajax, bounding forward, pierced his shield: and the spear went right through, and repelled him as he rushed on: it glanced over his neck, cutting it, and black gore gushed forth. But not even thus did crest-tossing Hector cease from the battle: but retiring back, he seized in his hand, a black, rough, huge stone, lying in the plain. With it he struck the mighty seven-hided shield of Ajax, in the midst of the boss, and the brass rang around. Ajax next taking up a much larger stone, whirling, discharged it, and applied immense strength. And he broke through the shield, having struck with a rock like unto a millstone, and he wounded him in the knee; and he was stretched supine, having come into violent contact with his shield; but Apollo quickly raised him. And now in close combat hand to hand, they would have wounded each other with their swords, had not the heralds, the messengers of gods and men, arrived, one of the Trojans, the other of the brazen-mailed Greeks, Talthybius and Idæus, both prudent men. And between both armies they held their scepters, but the herald Idæus, skilled in prudent counsels, said:

"No longer, my dear sons, war or fight, for cloud-collecting Jove loves you both: ye both are warriors, and this we all know. Night is now approaching, and it is good to obey night."[7]

But him Telamonian Ajax answering addressed: Idæus, order Hector to speak these words, for he challenged all the bravest [of our side] to battle. Let him begin, and I will entirely obey, if indeed he does so."

But him crest-tossing Hector addressed in turn: "Ajax, since some god has given thee size, and might, and prudence, and thou art the most excellent of the Greeks at the spear, let us now cease from battle and contest for this day; hereafter will we fight again, till the Deity shall separate us, and give the victory to either. Now night is approaching, and it is good to obey night, that thou mayest gladden all the Greeks at the ships, and chiefly those friends and companions which are thine; but I will gladden the Trojans and the train-bearing Trojan matrons, through the great city of king Priam, the dames who, praying for me, are entering the deities' temple.[8] But come, let us both mutually give very glorious gifts, that some one of the Greeks and Trojans may say thus: 'They certainly fought in a soul-gnawing strife, but then again being reconciled, they parted in friendship.' "

Thus then having spoken, he gave him a silver-studded sword, presenting it with the sheath and the well-wrought belt. But Ajax gave [to him] a belt, splendid with purple. Then they twain being separated, the one went to the people of the Greeks, and the other to the crowd of the Trojans: and they rejoiced when they saw him coming alive and safe, having escaped the strength and the invincible hands of Ajax; and led him to the city, not having had any hopes that he was safe. But the well-greaved Greeks, on the other hand, led away Ajax, rejoicing in victory, to divine Agamemnon. When now they were in the tents of the son of Atreus, then Agamemnon, king of men, sacrificed for them an ox, a male, five years old, to the most powerful son of Saturn This they flayed, and dressed it; made divisions of the whole of it, and skillfully divided these into smaller portions, and fixed them on spits, and roasted them very cleverly, and drew off all. But when they had ceased from labor, and had prepared the banquet, they feasted, nor did their soul in anywise lack a due proportion of the feast. The valiant son of Atreus, far-ruling Agamemnon, honored Ajax with an entire chine.[9] But when they had dismissed the desire of drink and of food, for them the aged man Nestor first of all began to frame advice, whose council before also had appeared the best, who, wisely counseling, harangued them, and said:

"Son of Atreus, and ye other chiefs of all the Greeks, many of the long-haired Achaæns have perished, whose black blood fierce Mars has now shed near fair-flowing Scamander, and their souls have descended to the shades! Therefore it behooves you to cause the battle of the Greeks to cease with the dawn, and let us, collected together, carry the bodies hither on chariots, with oxen and mules, and burn them at a little distance from the ships, that each may carry home the bones [of the deceased] to their children, when we return again to our father-land. And let us, going out, heap up in the plain one common tomb for all, round the pyre, and beside it let us speedily erect lofty towers, as a bulwark of our ships and of ourselves; and in it let us make a well-fitted gate, that through it there may be a passage for the chariots. But outside let us sink, near at hand, a deep trench, which, being circular, may serve as a defense to both steeds and men, lest at any time the war of the haughty Trojans should press sorely."

Thus he spoke, and all the princes approved of his counsel. But of the Trojans also was a panic-struck and turbulent council held in the lofty citadel of Ilium, at the gates of Priam; and to them wise Antenor thus began to harangue:

"Hear me, ye Trojans and Dardanians and allies, that I may tell you what the soul in my breast commands me. Come then, let us restore Argive Helen, and her treasures with her to the sons of Atreus to lead away; for now we are fightmg after having violated the faithful leagues. Wherefore I think that nothing better will he brought to pass by unless we act thus."

He, having thus said, sat down; but to them arose divine Alexander, the husband of fair-haired Helen, who answering him spoke winged words:

"O Antenor, thou no longer speakest these things grateful to me. Thou knowest how to devise another counsel better than this; but if, in truth, thou speakest this seriously, the gods themselves have now deprived thee of thy senses. But I will declare my opinion amid the horse-subduing Trojans; I openly declare I will not give up my wife: but the treasures, whatever I have brought home from Argos, all these I am willing to give, and even to add others from my own home."

Thus having spoken, he sat down; but to them arose Priam, son of Dardanus, a counselor equal to the gods; who thus wisely harangued them, and said:

"Hear me, ye Trojans, and Dardanians, and allies, that I may tell you what the soul in my breast commands. Now take repast through the army, as heretofore, and be attentive to the watch, and let each be mindful of guard. But in the morning let Idæus proceed to the hollow ships, to announce to the sons of Atreus, Agamemnon and Menelaus, the resolution of Alexander, on whose account the contention has arisen; and let him add this prudent request also, whether they wish to desist from horrid-sounding war, until we burn the dead; afterward will we fight again till fate separate us, and give the victory to one or other of us."

Thus he said: but they heard him very attentively, and obeyed. Then they took their repast throughout the city, by companies. In the morning Idæus went to the hollow ships. He found the Greeks, the servants of Mars, in council at the stern of[10] Agamemnon's ship: and the clear-voiced herald, standing in the midst of them, spoke thus:

"Ye sons of Atreus, and ye other chiefs of all the Greeks, Priam and the other illustrious Trojans command me to tell you, if it be agreeable and pleasing to you, the determination of Alexander, on whose account this contention has arisen. "Whatever treasures Alexander brought in the hollow ships to Troy (would that he first had perished), all these is he willing to give up, and even to add others from his own home: but he says that he will not restore the wedded spouse of glorious Menelaus: certainly the Trojans, at least, advise him. They also order me to make this proposal, to wit, whether we are willing to desist from dreadful-sounding war, until we shall burn the dead: afterward we shall fight again, till fate separate us, and give the victory to one of us."

Thus he said, but they all became mute in silence. At length Diomede, brave in the din of war, spoke thus among them:

"Let none now receive the treasures of Alexander, nor Helen: for it is plain, even [to him] who is a mere infant, that the issues of destruction inpend over the Trojans."

Thus he said, and all the sons of the Greeks shouted, admiring the words of horse-breaking Diomede: and then Agamemnon, king of men, thus addressed Idæus:

"Idæus, thou thyself hearest, indeed, the sentiments of the Greeks, how they answer thee; and such also pleases me. But concerning the dead, I grudge not that [you] should burn them; for there is no grudge toward the dead bodies, when they are dead, hastily to perform their obsequies with fire:[11] but let loud-resounding Jove, the husband of Juno, be witness of the treaties."

Thus having said, he raised his scepter to all the gods. But Idæus returned to sacred Ilium. And the Trojans and Dardanians all sat assembled in council, expecting when Idæus might return. He came, and declared his message, standing in the midst of them. But they prepared themselves very speedily for both purposes, some to carry away the bodies, and others to gather wood. The Greeks also on the other side hastened from their well-benched ships, some to carry away the bodies, and others to collect wood.

Then, indeed, the sun freshly struck the fields [with its rays], ascending heaven from the calmly-flowing, deep-moving ocean. But they met one another. Then was it difficult to distinguish each man [among the slain]; but washing off with water the bloody gore, and pouring over them warm tears, they placed them upon the chariots; nor did mighty Priam suffer them to give way to grief. In silence, therefore, they heaped the bodies on the pile, grieving at heart. But when they had burned them in the fire, they returned to sacred Ilium. In like manner, also, on the other side, the well-greaved Greeks heaped the bodies on the pile, grieving in their hearts; and having burned them with fire, they returned to the hollow ships. And when it was not yet morning, but still twilight, then a chosen band of Greeks arose about the pile; and going out from the plain, they made around it one common tomb, and near it they built a wall and lofty towers, a bulwark of their ships and of themselves. In them they made well-fitted gates, that through them there might be a passage for the chariots. Without they dug a deep ditch, near it, broad and large, and in it fixed palisades. Thus the long-haired Greeks on their part labored.

But the gods on the contrary sitting beside the thundering Jove, were admiring the mighty work of the brazen-mailed Greeks; but to them Neptune, the earth-shaker, thus began to speak:

"O father Jove, is there any mortal on the boundless earth, who will any more disclose his mind and counsel to the immortals? Dost thou not perceive how the long-haired Greeks have built a wall before their shipping, and have drawn a ditch all round, nor have they given splendid hecatombs to the gods? The fame of this [work] will certainly be wherever light is diffused: but they will forget that [wall] which I and Phœbus Apollo, toiling, built round the city for the hero Laomedon."[12]

Him, greatly enraged, the cloud-compelling Jove addressed: "Ha! thou far-ruling earth-shaker, what hast thou said? Another of the gods, who is much weaker than thou in hands and in might might have dreaded this idea; but thy glory shall assuredly extend as far as light is diffused. Howbeit, when the crest-waving Greeks shall have departed with their ships into their dear fatherland, do thou, overthrowing this wall, sink it all in the deep, and again cover the great shore with sand. Thus may this mighty rampart of the Greeks be wholly effaced."

Thus were they conversing on such matters among themselves. But the sun had set, and the work of the Greeks was finished. They slaughtered oxen through the tents, and took their repast. Many ships (which Euneüs, son of Jason, whom Hypsipyle bore to Jason, shepherd of the people, sent,) arrived from Lemnos, bringing wine. The son of Jason gave of wine a thousand measures, to be brought separately, as a gift to the sons of Atreus, Agamemnon and Menelaus. Thence the long-haired Greeks bought[13] wine, some for brass, some for shining iron, others for hides, some for the oxen themselves, and some for slaves; and they prepared an abundant feast. Through the whole night indeed, the long-haired Greeks feasted; and the Trojans too, and their allies, through the city. And all night thunderhig fearfully, provident Jove was devising evils for both parties; but pale fear seized them. And they poured wine from their cups on the earth, nor did any one dare to drink before he had made a libation to the supreme sun of Saturn. They then lay down, and enjoyed the boon of sleep.


  1. i. e., Paris. The construction is an instance of the σχῆμα καθ' ὅλον καὶ μέρος. See Jelf, Gk. Gr. § 478, and my note on Æsch. Prom. p. 8.
  2. Apollonius, Lex. p. 734, seems to regard the στεφάνη as a distinct kind of helmet, or cap. So, also, the Schol. and Hesych. t. ii. p. 186, and p. 1266. Others understand the rim of the helmet. Paschal. de Coronis, i. 2: "Eam galeæ partem quam Hesychius dicit habere ἐξοχὰς, id quod in galea eminentissimum est. Et vero apud Plutarchum distinguitur τὸ κράνος galea ἀπὸ τῆς στεφάνης, ab ejus parte quæ est in ipsius summitate."
  3. On the partisan deities for and against Troy, cf. Dionys. 817.

    Ἳλιον, ἣν ἐπόλισσε Ποσειδάων καὶ Ἀπόλλων,
    Ἳλιον, ἣν ἀλάπαξαν Ἀθηναίη τε καὶ Ἥρη

    See Grote's Hist. of Greece, vol. i. p. 68.
  4. Lesbonax, περὶ σχημ. p. 182, reads τοῦτον γεἀντιβολῆσαι, which Valckenaer, and with reason, thinks a more recherché and genuine reading than τούτῳ. Lesbonax compares the Attic phrase ἀρέσκει με for μοι. Cf. Aristoph. Ran. 103, with the Scholiast.
  5. i. e., sit down through fatigue, "do iis qui longo labore seu cursu fessi quiescunt et vires recipiunt."—Heyne.
  6. i. e., ignorant of arms.
  7. Cf. Æn. ii. 8:—

    ———"et jam nox humida cœlo
    Præcipitat, suadentque cadentia sidera somnos."

  8. Ἀγών is defined by Apollonius, p. 26, ὁ τόπος εἰς ὃν συνάγονται. Hesychius, p. 79, makes it equivalent to ἄθροισμα, and also calls it the place where combatants fight. Porphyry, Quæst. Hom. p. cvii. ed. Barnes, τὸν ταόν ἤτοι θεῖον τόπον ὄντα, ἢ θεῖον ἄθροισμα περιέχοντα. So, also, the Scholiast.
  9. The same honor is paid to Æneas in Virg. Æn. viii. 181. Cf. Xenoph. Rep. Lac. xv. 4.
  10. Dative for genitive, by the Schema Colophonium. See Lesbonax, p. 181, ed. Valck.
  11. Literally, "to appease [the dead]."
  12. Grote, Hist. p. 78. well observes that the "subsequent animosity of Neptune against Troy was greatly determined by the sentiment of tho injustice of Laomedon." On the discrepancy between this passage and xxi. 442, see Müller, Dor. vol. i. p. 249.
  13. Theophilus Jctus. iii, tit. xxiii. § 1. Καὶ τοῦτό ἐστι τὸ ἐν τῷ πλήθει θρυλλούμενον τῇ τῶν πραγμάτων ἐναλλαγῇ πρᾶσιν καὶ ἀγορασίαν συνίστασθαι, καὶ τοῦτο τὸ εἶδος πράσεως ἀρχαιότατον εἶναι. He then alleges these lines of Homer as the earliest known instance of barter.