The Iliad of Homer (Buckley)/BOOK THE SIXTEENTH
BOOK THE SIXTEENTH.
Thus, then, they were fighting for the well-benched ship. But Patroclus stood beside Achilles, the shepherd of the people, shedding warm tears; as a black-water fountain, which pours its sable tide down from a lofty rock. But swift-footed noble Achilles, seeing, pitied him, and addressing him, spoke winged words:
"Why weepest thou, O Patroclus, as an infant girl, who, running along with her mother, importunes to be taken up, catching her by the robe, and detains her hastening; and weeping, looks at her [mother] till she is taken up?—like unto her, O Patroclus, dost thou shed the tender tear. Dost thou bear any tidings to the Myrmidons, or to me myself? Or hast thou alone heard any news from Phthia? They say that, indeed, Menœtius, the son of Actor, still lives, and that Peleus, the son of Æacus, lives among the Myrmidons: for deeply should we lament for either of them dying. Or dost thou mourn for the Greeks, because they thus perish at their hollow ships, on account of their injustice? Speak out, nor conceal it in thy mind, that we both may know." But deeply sighing, O knight Patroclus, him thou didst address: "O Achilles, son of Peleus, by far the bravest of the Greeks, be not indignant; since a grief so heavy does oppress the Greeks: for now all they, as many as were formerly most valiant, lie in the ships, wounded or stricken. Brave Diomede, indeed, the son of Tydeus, is wounded, and spear-renowned Ulysses is stricken, as also Agamemnon; and Eurypylus is also wounded in the thigh with an arrow. About these, indeed, physicians skilled in many remedies are employed healing their wounds: but thou, O Achilles, art inexorable. Never may such anger seize me at least, as thee, O cruelly brave, dost preserve. What other after-born man will be defended by thee, if thou will not avert unworthy ruin from the Greeks? merciless one! Certainly the knight Peleus was not thy father, nor Thetis thy mother; but the gray Ocean produced thee, and the lofty rocks; for thy mind is cruel. But if thou wouldst avoid any oracle in thy mind, and thy venerable mother has told any to thee from Jove, at least send me quickly, and at the same time give me the rest of the army of the Myrmidons, if perchance I may become any aid to the Greeks. Grant me also to be armed on my shoulders with thy armor, if perchance the Trojans, likening me to thee, may cease from battle, and the warlike sons of the Greeks, now fatigued, breathe again; and there be a short respite from war. But we [who are] fresh, can easily repulse men worn out with battle from our ships and tents toward the city."
Thus he spoke, supplicating, very rash; for, assuredly, he was about to supplicate for himself evil death and fate. Whom, deeply sighing, swift-footed Achilles addressed:
"Alas! most noble Patroclus, what has thou said? I neither regard my oracle which I have heard, nor has my venerable mother told any thing to me from Jove. But this bitter grief comes upon my heart and soul, when a man who excels in power, wishes to deprive his equal of his portion, and to take back his reward because he excels in power. This to me is a bitter grief, since I have suffered sorrows in my mind. The maid whom the sons of the Greeks selected as a reward for me, and [whom] I won by my spear, having sacked a well-fortified city, her has king Agamemnon, son of Atreus, taken back out of my hands, as from some dishonored alien. But we shall allow these things to be among the things that were; nor is it right, indeed to be continually enraged in one's mind. Certainly I affirmed that I would not put a stop to my wrath, before that clamor and war should reach my ships. But do thou put on thy shoulders my famous armor, and lead on the war-loving Myrmidons to battle; since now a black cloud of Trojans hath strongly surrounded the ships, and the Greeks are hemmed in by the shore of the sea, possessing now but a small portion of land. And the whole city of the Trojans has rushed on, confident, because they behold not the front of my helmet gleaming near. Certainly, quickly flying, would they have filled the trenches with their bodies, if king Agamemnon had known mildness to me; but now they are fighting around the army. For the spear does not rage in the hands of Diomede, the son of Tydeus, to avert destruction from the Greeks: nor do I at all hear the voice of Agamemnon shouting from his odious head; but [the voice] of man-slaughtering Hector, animating the Trojans, resounds: while they with a shout possess the whole plain, conquering the Greeks in battle. Yet even thus, Patroclus, do thou fall on them bravely, warding off destruction from the ships; nor let them consume the vessels with blazing fire, and cut off thy own return. But obey, as I shall lay the sum of my advice in thy mind, in order that thou mayest obtain for me great honor and glory from all the Greeks; and they may send back to me the beautiful maid, and afford [me] besides rich presents. Having repulsed the enemy from the ships, return back: and if, indeed, the loud-thundering husband of Juno permit thee to obtain glory, do not be desirous of fighting with the warlike Trojans apart from me; for thou wouldst render me more dishonored; nor, exulting in the battle and havoc, lead on as far as Ilium, slaughtering the Trojans, lest some of the immortal gods come down from Olympus [against thee]; for far-darting Apollo greatly loves them. But return after thou hast given safety to the ships, and allow the others to contend through the plain. For would that, O father Jove, Minerva, and Apollo, not one of the Trojans, as many as there are, may escape death, nor any of the Greeks: while to us two it [may be granted] to avoid destruction, that we alone might overthrow the sacred bulwarks of Troy."
Thus they indeed discussed these matters with each other. But Ajax no longer remained firm, for he was pressed hard with weapons; because the counsel of Jove overpowered him, and the fierce Trojans hurling. And a dreadful clang did his glittering helmet round his temples emit, being struck, and he was constantly smitten upon the well-made studs of his casque. He was fatigued in the left shoulder, by always firmly holding his movable shield; nor could they, pressing him all around with their weapons, drive him [from his place]. Unceasingly afflicted was he with severe panting, and every where from his limbs poured copious perspiration, nor was he able to respire; for every where evil was heaped upon evil.
Declare now to me, ye Muses, possessing Olympic habitations, how first the fire fell upon the ships of the Greeks!
Hector, standing near, struck the ashen spear of Ajax with his great sword, at the socket of the blade behind, and cut it quite off; Telamonian Ajax indeed vainly brandished the mutilated spear in his hand; but the brazen blade rang, falling upon the earth at a distance from him. Then Ajax knew in his blameless soul, and shuddered at the deeds of the gods; because the lofty thundering Jove cut off his plans of war, and willed the victory to the Trojans. Wherefore he retired out of the reach of the weapons, and they hurled the indefatigable fire at the swift ships, the inextinguishable flame of which was immediately diffused around. Thus indeed the flame surrounded the stern; but Achilles, smiting his thighs, addressed Patroclus:
"Haste, O most noble steed-directing Patroclus (I perceive, indeed, the fury of the hostile fire at the ships), lest they now take the vessels, and there be not an opportunity of flying; put on thy armor very quickly, and I shall assemble the forces."
Thus he spoke; but Patroclus armed himself in glittering brass. First, indeed, he put the beautiful greaves around his legs, fitted with clasps; next he placed the corselet of the swift-footed descendant of Æacus upon his breast, variegated, and studded with stars: and suspended from his shoulders his silver-studded sword, brazen, and then the great and sturdy shield. But upon his gallant head he placed the well-made helmet, crested with horse-hair; and dreadfully the plume nodded from above. He took besides two strong spears, which well fitted his hands; but the spear alone of blameless Æacides, ponderous, large, and strong, he did not take; which, indeed, no other of the Greeks could brandish, but Achilles alone knew how to wield it; a Pelian ash which Chiron had given to his sire, [cut] from the tops of Pelion, about to be death to heroes. He also commanded Automedon quickly to yoke the steeds, whom, next to rank-breaking Achilles, he most honored, because he was most faithful to him in battle, to stand the charge. Wherefore Automedon yoked the fleet horses, Xanthus and Balius, which kept pace with the winds. Them the Harpy Podargé bore to Zephyrus, the wind, while feeding in the meadows by the stream of Oceanus. And in the outer harness he fastened illustrious Pedasus, whom Achilles led away long since, having sacked the city of Eëtion; and which [steed], though being mortal, accompanied immortal steeds. But Achilles, going about, armed all the Myrmidons through the tents with their armor; but they, like carnivorous wolves, in whose hearts is immente strength, and which, having slain a great horned stag in the mountains, tearing, devour it; but the jaws of all are red with blood: and then they rush in a pack, lapping with slender tongues the surface of the dark water from a black water fountain, vomiting forth clots of blood; but the courage in their breasts is dauntless, and their stomach is distended: so rushed the leaders and chiefs of the Myrmidons round the brave attendant of swift-footed Æacides, and among them stood warlike Achilles, animating both the steeds and the shield-bearing warriors.
Fifty were the swift galleys which Achilles, dear to Jove, led to Troy; and in each were fifty men, companions at the benches. But he had appointed five leaders, in whom he put trust, to command them; and he himself, being very powerful, governed. One troop indeed Menesthius, with flexible corselet, commanded, the son of Sperchius, a Jove-descended river; whom the daughter of Peleus, fair Polydora, bore to indefatigable Sperchius, a woman having been embraced by a god; although, according to report, to Borus, son of Perieres, who openly espoused her, giving infinite marriage gifts. But warlike Eudorus commanded another [company], clandestinely begotten, whom Polymela, the daughter of Phylas, graceful in the dance, bore. Her the powerful slayer of Argus loved, beholding her with his eyes among the dancers at a choir of golden-bowed Diana, huntress-maid; and immediately ascending to an upper chamber, pacific Mercury secretly lay with her: whence she bore to him a son, Eudorus, swift to run, and also a warrior. But after that birth-presiding Ilithyia had brought him into light, and he beheld the splendor of the sun, the mighty strength of Echecleus, son of Actor, led her to his house when he had given innumerable marriage-gifts; while aged Phylas carefully nurtured and educated him, tenderly loving him, as if being his own son. The third, warlike Pisander led, the son of Mæmalus, who, after the companion of the son of Peleus, surpassed all the Myrmidons in fighting with the spear. The fourth, the aged knight Phœnix commanded; and Alcimedon, the illustrious son of Laërceus, the fifth. But when Achilles, marshaling them well, had placed all with their leaders, he enjoined the strict command:
"Ye Myrmidons, let none of you be forgetful of the threats with which, at the swift ships, ye did threaten the Trojans, during all my indignation, and blamed me, each of you [in this manner]: 'O cruel son of Peleus! surely thy mother nurtured thee in wrath: relentless! thou who at the ships detainest thy companions against their will. Let us at least return home again in our sea-traversing barks, since pernicious wrath has thus fallen upon thy mind.' These things ye frequently said to me, when assembled; and now the great task of war appears, of which ye were hitherto desirous. Let each one here, having a valiant heart, fight against the Trojans."
Thus speaking, he aroused the might and spirit of each, and their ranks were condensed the more when they heard the king. As when a man constructs the wall of a lofty mansion with closely-joined stones, guarding against the violence of the winds, so closely were their helmets and bossed shields linked: then shield pressed upon shield, helmet upon helmet, and man upon man; and the horse-hair crests upon the shining cones of [their helmets] nodding, touched each other; so close stood they to each other. Before all were armed two warriors, Patroclus and Automedon, having one mind, to fight in the front of the Myrmidons. But Achilles hastened to go into his tent; and he opened the lid of a chest, beautiful, variously adorned, which silver-footed Thetis placed, to be carried in his ship, having filled it well with garments, and wind-resisting cloaks, and napped tapestry. And in it was a cup curiously wrought, nor did any other of men drink dark wine from it, nor did he pour out [from it] libations to any of the gods, except to father Jove. This then, taking from the coffer, he first purified with sulphur, and then washed in a crystal rivulet of water; but he himself washed his hands, and drew off the dark wine. Next, standing in the middle of the area, he prayed, and offered a libation of wine, looking up to heaven; nor did he escape the notice of thunder-rejoicing Jove:
"O king Jove, Dodonean, Pelasgian, dwelling afar off, presiding over wintery Dodona; but around dwell thy priests, the Selli, with unwashed feet, and sleeping upon the ground; certainly thou didst formerly hear my voice when praying: thou hast honored me, and hast greatly injured the people of the Greeks; wherefore now also accomplish this additional request for me; for I myself will remain in the assemblage of ships, but I am sending forth my companion with the numerous Myrmidons to battle; along with him, do thou send forth glory, O far-sounding Jove! embolden his heart within his breast, that even Hector may know whether my attendant, even when alone, knows how to wage war, or [only] when these invincible hands rage with him, when I likewise go forth to the slaughter of Mars. But after he has repelled the contest and the tumult from the ships, unscathed let him return to me, to the swift barks, with all his armor and his close-fighting companions."
Thus he spoke, praying; and provident Jove heard him. One part indeed the Sire granted him, and refused the other. He granted that he should repel the conflict and tumult from the ships, but he refused that he should return safe from the battle. He, on his part, having made a libation, and prayed to father Jove, again entered his tent, and replaced the cup in the chest. Then coming out, he stood before the tent, for he still wished in his mind to behold the grievous conflict of Trojans and Greeks.
But those that were armed at the same time with magnanimous Patroclus, marched orderly, till they rushed upon the Trojans, with high hopes. Immediately they were poured out, like unto wasps dwelling by the roadside, which silly boys are wont to irritate, incessantly harassing them, possessing cells by the wayside; and cause a common evil to many. And if by chance any traveler, passing by, unintentionally disturb them, then they, possessing a valiant heart, all fly forth, and fight for their young. The Myrmidons then, having the heart and courage of these, poured out from the ships, and an inextinguishable tumult arose. But Patroclus cheered on his companions, loudly shouting:
"Ye Myrmidons, companions of Achilles, the son of Peleus, be men, my friends, and be mindful of impetuous valor; that we, his close-fighting servants, may honor the son of Peleus, who is by far the bravest of the Greeks at the ships; and that the son of Atreus, wide-ruling Agamemnon, may know his fault, that he nothing honored the bravest of the Greeks."
Thus speaking, he aroused the might and spirits of each: and in dense array they fell upon the Trojans: but the ships re-echoed dreadfully around from the Greeks shouting. But the Trojans, when they beheld the brave son of Menœtius, himself and his attendant glittering in arms, the mind to all of them was disturbed, and the phalanxes were deranged, deeming that the swift-footed son of Peleus at the ships had cast away his wrath, and resumed friendship: then each one gazed about where he might escape utter destruction.
But Patroclus first took aim with his shining spear from the opposite side right into the midst, where they were huddled together in greatest numbers at the stern of the ship of magnanimous Protesilaus, and wounded Pyræchmes, who led the Pæonian equestrian warriors from Amydon, from the wide-flowing Axius. Him he smote upon the right shoulder, and he fell on his back in the dust groaning; but the Pæonians, his companions, were put to flight around him, for Patroclus caused fear to them all, having slain their leader, who was very brave to fight. And he drove them from the ships, and extinguished the blazing fire. But the ship was left there half-burnt, while the Trojans were routed with a prodigious tumult: and the Greeks were poured forth among the hollow ships; and mighty confusion was created. And as when, from the lofty summit of a great mountain, lightning-driving Jove dislodges a dense cloud, and all the eminences and highest ridges and glens appear, while the boundless ether is burst open throughout the heaven; so the Greeks respired for a little, having repelled the hostile fire from their vessels. But of battle there was no cessation: for the Trojans were by no means yet totally routed from the black ships by the warlike Greeks, but still resisted, and retreated from the ships from necessity. Then of the generals, man slew man, the fight being scattered; and first, the brave son of Menœtius forthwith with his sharp spear smote the thigh of Areïlochus when turned about, and drove the brass quite through: but the spear broke the bone, and he fell prone upon the earth. But warlike Menelaus then wounded Thoas in the breast, exposed near the shield, and relaxed his limbs. But Phylides, perceiving Amphiclus rushing against him, anticipated him, taking aim at the extremity of his leg, where the calf of a man is thickest; the tendons were severed all round by the point of the spear, and darkness overshadowed his eyes. Then the sons of Nestor, the one, Antilochus, struck Atymnius with his sharp spear, and drove the brazen lance through his flank; and he fell before him: but Maris, standing before the carcass, rushed upon Antilochus hand to hand with his spear, enraged on account of his brother; but godlike Thrasymedes, taking aim, anticipated him before he had wounded [Antilochus], nor did he miss him, [but wounded him] immediately near the shoulder; and the point of the spear cut off the extremity of the arm from the muscles, and completely tore away the bone. Falling, he made a crash, and darkness vailed his eyes. Thus to Erebus went these two, subdued by two brothers, the brave companions of Sarpedon, the spear-renowned sons of Amisodarus, who nourished the invincible Chimæra, a destruction to many men. But Ajax, the son of Oïleus, rushing upon Cleobulus, took him alive, impeded in the crowd; and there relaxed his strength, striking him upon the neck with his hilted sword. And the whole sword was warmed over with blood, and purple death and stern fate possessed his eyes.
Then Peneleus and Lycon engaged in close combat, for they had missed each other with their spears, and both had hurled in vain; therefore they ran on again with their swords; then Lycon on his part struck the cone of the horsehair-crested helmet, and the sword was broken at the hilt. But Peneleus smote him in the neck below the ear, and the whole sword entered, and the skin alone retained it: the head hung down, and his limbs were relaxed.
Meriones also, overtaking him with rapid feet, wounded Acamas in the right shoulder, as he was about to ascend his chariot; and he fell from his chariot, and darkness was poured over his eyes.
But Idomeneus struck Erymas in the mouth with the pitiless brass; and the brazen weapon passed right through from the opposite side down under the brain, and then cleft the white bones. And his teeth were dashed out, and both eyes were filled with gore, which, gaping, he forced out from his mouth and from his nostrils; and the black cloud of death enveloped him. Thus these leaders of the Greeks slew each a man. And as destructive wolves impetuously rush on lambs or kids, snatching them from the flocks, which are dispersed upon the mountains by the negligence of the shepherd; but they, perceiving them, immediately tear in pieces, them having an unwarlike heart: so did the Greeks rush upon the Trojans, but they were mindful of dire-sounding flight, and forgot resolute valor. But mighty Ajax ever longed to aim his javelin at brazen-armed Hector; but he, from his skill in war, covering himself as to his broad shoulders with a bull's-hide shield, watched the hissing of the arrows and the whizzing of the javelins. Already indeed he knew the victory of battle was inclining to the other side; yet even thus he remained, and saved his beloved companions.
And as when from Olympus comes a cloud into heaven, after a clear sky, when Jove stretches forth a whirlwind, thus was the clamor and rout of those [flying] from the ships. Nor did they repass [the trench] in seemly plight, but his fleet-footed steeds bore away Hector with his arms; and he deserted the Trojan people, whom against their will the deep trench detained. And many fleet car-drawing steeds left in the foss the chariots of their masters, broken at the extremity of the pole. But Patroclus pursued, vehemently cheered on the Greeks, and devising destruction for the Trojans; but they, with clamor and rout, filled all the ways after they were dispersed. A storm [of dust] was tossed up beneath the clouds, and the solid-hoofed horses pressed back toward the city, from the ships and tents. But Patroclus, wherever he perceived the army in greatest confusion, thither directed [his steeds], exclaiming in a threatening manner; while beneath his axles men fell prone from their chariots, and the chariots were overturned. Then, from the opposite side, the fleet immortal steeds, which the gods had given as splendid presents to Peleus, eagerly pressing on, bounded quite across the trench; for his mind urged him against Hector, for he longed to strike him, but his swift horses kept bearing him away.
And as beneath a whirlwind the whole dark earth is oppressed on an autumnal day, when Jove pours forth his most violent stream; when, forsooth, enraged he gives vent to his wrath against men, who by violence decree perverse judgments in the assembly, and drive out justice, not regarding the vengeance of the gods; and all their rivers are flooded as they flow, and the torrents sever asunder many mountains, and flowing headlong into the dark sea, roar mightily, and the husbandry-works of men are diminished; so loudly moaned the Trojan mares running along. But Patroclus, when he had cut off the first phalanxes, drove them back again toward the ships, and did not permit them, desiring it, to ascend toward the city; but, pressing on, he slew them between the ships, and the river, and the lofty wall, and he exacted revenge for many. Then indeed he smote with his shining spear Pronous first, bared as to his breast beside the shield, and relaxed his limbs: and falling, he gave a crash. But next, attacking Thestor, son of Enops (who indeed sat huddled in his well-polished chariot, for he was panic-struck in his mind, and the reins had then dropped from his hands), he standing near, smote him with his spear on the right cheek, and drove it through his teeth. Then catching the spear, he dragged him over the rim [of the chariot]; as when a man, sitting upon a jutting rock, [draws] with a line and shining brass a large fish entirely out of the sea; so he dragged from his chariot with his shining spear, him gaping. Then he hurled him upon his mouth, and life left him as he fell. Then next he struck with a stone on the middle of the head, Eryalus, rushing against him, and it was totally split asunder into two parts in his strong helmet. He therefore fell prone upon the earth, and fatal death was diffused around him. Afterward Erymas, and Amphoterus, Epaltes, and Tlepolemus, son of Damastor, Echius and Pyris, Icheus, Euippus, and Polymelus, son of Argeus, all one over the other he heaped upon the fertile earth.
But when Sarpedon perceived his loose-girt companions subdued by the hands of Patroclus, the son of Menœtius, exhorting, he shouted to the godlike Lycians:
"Oh shame! Lycians, where do ye fly? Now be strenuous: for I will oppose this man, that I may know who he is who is victorious: and certainly he has done many evils to the Trojans, since he has relaxed the limbs of many and brave men."
He spoke, and leaped from his chariot with his armor to the ground: but Patroclus, on the other side, when he beheld him, sprang from his car. Then they, as bent-taloned, crook-beaked vultures, loudly screaming, fight upon a lofty rock—so they, shouting, rushed against each other. But the son of the wily Saturn, beholding them, felt compassion, and addressed Juno, his sister and wife:
"O woe is me, because it is fated that Sarpedon, most dear to me of men, shall be subdued by Patroclus, the son of Menœtius. But to me, revolving it in my mind, my heart is impelled with a twofold anxiety, either that having snatched him alive from the mournful battle, I may place him among the rich people of Lycia, or now subdue him beneath the hands of the son of Menœtius."
Then the large-eyed, venerable Juno answered: "Most dread son of Saturn, what a word hast thou spoken? Whether dost thou wish to liberate from sad death a mortal man long since doomed to fate? Do so; but all we, the other gods, will not assent to it. But another thing I will tell thee, and do thou revolve it in thy mind. If indeed thou sendest this Sarpedon safe home, reflect whether some other of the gods may not also wish to send his beloved son [safe home] from the violent conflict; for many sons of immortals fight round the great city of Priam, upon whom thou wilt bring heavy wrath. If, however, he be dear to thee, and thy heart pities him, let him indeed be subdued in the violent conflict, beneath the hands of Patroclus, the son of Menœtius: but when his spirit and life shall have left him, send death and sweet sleep to bear him until they reach the people of expansive Lycia. There will his brethren and friends perform his obsequies with a tomb and a pillar; for this is the honor of the dead."
Thus she spoke, nor did the father of gods and men disobey; but he poured down upon the earth bloody dew-drops, honoring his beloved son, whom Patroclus was about to slay in fertile-soiled Troy, far away from his native land.
But when, advancing, they were now near each other, then indeed Patroclus [struck] illustrious Thrasymelus, who was the brave companion of king Sarpedon, him he struck upon the lower part of the belly, and relaxed his limbs. Then Sarpedon, attacking second, missed him with his splendid javelin; but he wounded his horse Pedasus, with his spear, in the right shoulder; but he groaned, breathing out his life, and fell in the dust, moaning, and his spirit fled from him. But the two [other steeds] leaped asunder, and the yoke crashed, and the reins were entangled about them, when the side-horse lay in the dust. But spear-renowned Automedon found an end of this. Drawing his long sword from his robust thigh, rising, he cut away the further horse, nor did he act slothfully. And the two [remaining horses] were set aright, and were directed by the reins; and they [the men] again engage in life-devouring combat.
Then again Sarpedon missed [him] with his shining spear, and the point of the weapon passed over the left shoulder of Patroclus, nor did it wound him. But Patroclus rushed on with his javelin, and the weapon did not escape in vain from his hand, for he struck him where the midriff incloses the compact heart. And he fell, as when falls some oak, or poplar, or lofty pine, which the workmen fell in the mountains with newly-sharpened axes, to be a naval timber: so he lay stretched out before his horses and chariot, gnashing with his teeth, grasping the bloody dust. As a lion slays a bull, coming among a herd, tawny, noble-spirited, among the stamping oxen, and he perishes, bellowing, beneath the jaws of the lion; so the leader of the shielded Lycians was indignant, being slain by Patroclus, and addressed his dear companion by name:
"Glaucus, dear friend, warrior among heroes, now it greatly behooves thee to be a hero and a bold warrior; now if thou art impetuous, let destructive battle be thy desire. First indeed, going in every direction, exhort the leaders of the Lycians to fight around Sarpedon, and do thou thyself also fight for me with thy spear. For I will hereafter be a cause of shame and disgrace to thee, all thy days, throughout, if indeed the Greeks despoil me of my armor, falling in the conflict at the ships. But persevere, and animate all the army."
While he was thus speaking, the end of death covered him as to his eyes and nostrils; but Patroclus, trampling with his heel upon his breast, drew out the spear from his body, and the midriff followed with it; and he drew out at the same time his life and the point of the weapon. But the Myrmidons there held his panting steeds, eager to fly along, since they had quitted the chariots of their lords. Then bitter grief arose to Glaucus, hearing the voice [of his friend], and his heart was grieved because he could not aid him. But grasping his own arm in his hand, he compressed it; for grievously the wound pained him, which Teucer, with an arrow, had inflicted upon him, as he was rushing against the lofty wall, warding off the battle from his companions. Wherefore, praying, he addressed far-darting Apollo:
"Hear, O King, thou who art somewhere in the rich state of Lycia, or in Troy; for thou canst every where hear a man afflicted, as sorrow now comes upon me. For indeed I have this grievous wound, and my hand is penetrated on every side with acute pains, nor can the blood be stanched, but my shoulder is oppressed with it. For neither can I firmly hold my spear, nor, advancing, fight with the enemy; moreover a very brave hero has fallen, Sarpedon, the son of Jove; but he aids not even his own son. But heal for me this severe wound, O king; assuage my pains, and grant me strength, that, cheering on my companions, the Lycians, I may urge them to fight; and may myself fight for the dead body."
Thus he spoke praying; but Phœbus Apollo heard him. Immediately he allayed the pains, and dried the black gore from the grievous wound, and instilled strength into his soul. But Glaucus knew in his mind, and rejoiced because the mighty god had quickly heard him praying. First then, going about in all directions, he aroused the heroes, leaders of the Lycians, to fight for Sarpedon; and then he went to the Trojans, advancing with long strides to Polydamas, son of Panthous, and noble Agenor. He also went after Æneas and brazen-armed Hector, and, standing near, addressed to him winged words:
"O Hector, now hast thou altogether neglected thine allies, who are losing their lives for thy sake, far away from their friends and fatherland; but thou dost not wish to aid them. Sarpedon lies low, the leader of the shield-bearing Lycians, who protected Lycia by his justice and his valor. Him hath brazen Mars subdued with a spear at the hands of Patroclus. But stand near, my friends, and be indignant in your minds, lest the Myrmidons spoil his armor, and unworthily treat the body, enraged on account of the Greeks, as many as have perished, whom we have slain with our spears at the ships."
Thus he spoke; but intolerable, unyielding grief wholly possessed the Trojans, for he had been a pillar of their city, though being a foreigner; for many forces followed along with him, among whom he himself was the most valiant in battle. They therefore advanced eagerly straight against the Greeks, ardent with desire; but Hector led the way, enraged on account of Sarpedon. But the valiant heart of Patroclus, son of Menœtius, aroused the Greeks. First he addressed the Ajaces, though they themselves were also eager:
"O Ajaces, now let it be a delightful thing to you both to repel [the foe]; be ye such as of old ye were among heroes, or even braver. Sarpedon lies low, the man who first broke through the wall of the Greeks. But oh! that taking him, we could treat him with indignity, and spoil the armor from his shoulders, and subdue with the cruel brass some one of his companions keeping [us] off from him."
Thus he spoke; but they also themselves were ready to repel [the foe]. But when they had strengthened their phalanxes on both sides, the Trojans and Lycians, as well as the Myrmidons and Achæans, they closed to fight round the dead body, shouting dreadfully, and loudly rattled the arms of men. But Jove stretched pernicious night over the violent contest, that there might be a destructive toil of battle around his dear son. The Trojans first drove back the rolling-eyed Greeks; for a man was smitten, by no means the most inferior among the Myrmidons, noble Epigeus, son of magnanimous Agacles, who formerly ruled in well-inhabited Budium; but then having slain a noble kinsman, he came as a suppliant to Peleus and silver-footed Thetis: they sent him to follow with the rank-breaker Achilles, to steed-renowned Ilium, that he might fight with the Trojans. Him, then, while seizing the body, illustrious Hector struck upon the head with a stone; and it was entirely split in two in his strong helmet; and he fell prone upon the corpse, and soul-destroying death was diffused around him. Then to Patroclus grief arose, on account of his companion slain; and he rushed right through the foremost warriors, like unto a swift hawk, which has put to flight jackdaws or starlings; so, O equestrian Patroclus, didst thou rush right against the Lycians and Trojans; for thou wert enraged in thine heart for thy companion. And he struck Sthenelaus, the beloved son of Ithæmeneus, on the neck with a stone, and broke his tendons: and the foremost warriors and illustrious Hector gave back. And as far as is the the cast of a long javelin, which a man may have sent forth striving either in the game, or even in war, on account of life-destroying enemies; so far did the Trojans retire, and the Greeks repelled them. But Glaucus, the leader of the shield-bearing Lycians, first turned, and slew magnanimous Bathycles, the beloved son of Chalcon, who, inhabiting dwellings in Hellas, was conspicuous among the Myrmidons for his riches and wealth. Him then Glaucus, turning suddenly round, wounded in the middle of the breast with his spear, when, pursuing, he had overtaken him. But he made a crash as he fell; and deep grief possessed the Greeks, because a brave warrior had thus fallen; but the Trojans greatly rejoiced, and, advancing in crowds, stood round him; nor were the Greeks forgetful of valor, but they directed their strength straight against them. Then again Meriones slew a hero of the Trojans, the warrior Laogonus, the gallant son of Onetor, who was the priest of Idæan Jove, and was honored like a god by the people. He smote him under the jaw and ear, and his soul immediately departed from his limbs, and dreadful darkness overshadowed him. But Æneas hurled a brazen spear at Meriones, for he hoped to hit him, advancing under protection of his shield. He, however, observing it in front, avoided the brazen spear; for he stooped forward, and the long javelin was fixed in the ground behind him, and the nether point of the spear was shaken; then the rapid weapon spent its force. Thus the javelin of Æneas, quivering entered the earth, for it had fled in vain from his strong hand. Then Æneas was enraged in his mind, and said:
"Meriones, quickly indeed, although being a dancer, would my spear have made thee cease forever, if I had struck thee."
But him then in turn spear-renowned Meriones answered: "Æneas, it were difficult for thee, although being brave, to extinguish the valor of all men, whosoever may come against thee about to repulse thee; for thou too art mortal. And if I, taking aim, should strike thee in the middle with my sharp spear, although being brave, and confiding in thy might, thou wouldst give glory to me, but thy soul to steed-famed Pluto."
Thus he spoke; but him the brave son of Menœtius rebuked: "Meriones, why dost thou, although being brave harangue thus? O, my friend, the Trojans will not retire from the corse by opprobrious words: first will the earth possess some of them; for the emergency of battle is placed in the hands, but of counsel in words; wherefore it is by no means necessary to multiply words, but to fight."
So saying, he on his part led the way, and along with him the godlike hero followed. And as the crash of wood-cutting men arises in the dells of a mountain, and the sound is heard from afar; so the noise of these, smitten with swords and two-edged spears, arose from the wide-extended plain, from brass, from leather, and from well-prepared bull's-hide shields. Nor would a man, although very discerning, have recognized noble Sarpedon, since he was totally involved, from his head to the soles of his feet, with weapons, and blood, and dust. But they still crowded round the corse, as when flies in the stall hum around the pails full of milk, during the spring season, when the milk makes moist the vessel. So they still crowded round the body: nor did Jove ever turn his bright eyes from the violent conflict; but he ever beheld them, and meditated many evil things in his mind concerning the death of Patroclus, anxiously deliberating whether now illustrious Hector should kill him with his spear in the brave battle, over godlike Sarpedon, and spoil the armor from his shoulders, or whether he should still increase the severe labor to the multitude. To him, thus reflecting, it appeared better that the brave servant of Achilles, the son of Peleus, should repulse the Trojans and brazen-armed Hector, toward the city, and take away the life of many. Into Hector, therefore, first [of all], he sent unwarlike fright, and ascending his chariot, he turned himself to flight, and advised the other Trojans to fly, for he recognized the sacred scales of Jove. Then not even the brave Lycians remained, but were all turned in flight, when they beheld their king wounded to the heart, lying in the heap of dead; for many had fallen over him, while the son of Saturn stretched on the violent strife. But after they had taken from the shoulders of Sarpedon the brazen and glittering armor, the gallant son of Menœtius gave them to his companions to carry to the hollow ships; and then cloud-compelling Jove addressed Apollo:
"Come now, dear Phœbus, going, cleanse Sarpedon, [withdrawn] from among the heap of weapons, of sable gore, and afterward bearing him far away, lave him in the stream of the river, and anoint him with ambrosia, and put around him immortal garments, then give him in charge to the twin-brothers, Sleep and Death, swift conductors, to be borne away, who will quickly place him in the rich state of wide Lycia. There will his brethren and kindred perform his obsequies with a tomb and a pillar, for this is the honor of the dead."
Thus he spoke; nor was Apollo inattentive to bis father, but he descended from the Idæan mountains to the grievous conflict. Immediately removing noble Sarpedon out of [the reach of] weapons, and bearing him far away, he laved him in the stream of the river, anointed him with ambrosia, and placed around him immortal garments, then gave him in charge to the twin-brothers, Sleep and Death, swift conductors, to be borne away with them, who accordingly quickly placed him in the rich state of wide Lycia.
In the mean time Patroclus, cheering on his steeds, and Automedon, followed upon the Trojans and Lycians, and came to great harm—infatuate one!—but if he had observed the direction of the son of Peleus, he had certainly escaped the evil fate of black death. But the counsel of Jove is ever better than that of men, who puts to flight even the valiant man, and easily deprives him of victory, even when he himself has impelled him to fight; who then also excited courage in his breast. Then whom first, and whom last, didst thou slay, O Patroclus, when the gods now called thee on to death? Adrastus indeed first, Autonous and Echeclus, and Perimus, son of Megas, and Epistor and Melanippus; but then Elasus, and Mulius, and Pylartes. These he slew, but the others were, each of them, mindful of flight. Then indeed had the sons of the Greeks taken lofty-gated Troy, by the hands of Patroclus, for he raged greatly beyond [others] with his spear, had not Phœbus Apollo stood upon a well-built tower, meditating destructive things to him, and assisting the Trojans. Thrice indeed Patroclus mounted a buttress of the lofty wall, and thrice did Apollo repel him with violence, striking his glittering shield with his immortal hands. But when now, godlike, he rushed on the fourth time, far-casting Apollo, threatening fearfully, addressed him:
"Retire, thou Jove-sprung Patroclus; by no means is it destined that the city of the magnanimous Trojans should be destroyed by thy spear, nor by Achilles, who is much better than thou."
Thus he spoke, but Patroclus retired far back, avoiding the wrath of far-darting Apollo. But Hector detained his steeds at the Scæan gates; for he doubted whether, having driven again into the crowd, he should fight, or should loudly command the people to be collected within the walls. To him then, meditating these things, Phœbus Apollo stood near, having assimilated himself to a hero youthful and brave, to Asius, who was the maternal uncle of horse-breaking Hector, own brother of Hecuba, and the son of Dymas, who dwelt in Phrygia, by the streams of the Sangarius: to him Phœbus Apollo, assimilating himself, spoke:
"Hector, why dost thou cease from battle? Nor does it at all become thee. Would that I were so much superior to thee as I am inferior; then indeed wouldst thou quickly have retired from the battle to thy loss. But come, direct thy solid-hoofed steeds against Patroclus, if perchance thou mayest slay him, and Apollo may give thee glory." So saying, the god on his part went again through the labor of men; but illustrious Hector on his part commanded warlike Cebriones to lash on his steeds to the battle, while Apollo, proceeding, entered the throng; and sent an evil tumult among the Greeks; but gave glory to the Trojans and Hector. Then indeed did Hector neglect the other Greeks, nor slew them; but directed his solid-hoofed horses against Patroclus. But Patroclus, on the other side, leaped from his chariot to the ground, in his left hand holding his spear; but in the other he seized a stone, white, rugged, which his hand embraced around. Putting his force to it, he hurled it; nor did it err far from the man, nor was the weapon hurled in vain, for in the forehead with the sharp stone he smote the charioteer of Hector, Cebriones, the illegitimate son of illustrious Priam, while holding the reins of the horses. But the stone crushed both his eyebrows, nor did the bone sustain it, and his eyes fell amid the dust upon the ground before his feet. But he then, like unto a diver, fell from the well-formed chariot-seat, and life left his bones. But him insulting, thou didst address, O equestrian Patroclus:
"O gods! truly he is a very active man! how nimbly he
dives! if indeed he were any where in the fishy sea, this man, groping for oysters, might have satisfied many, plunging from his ship, although it might be stormy; so easily now in the plain does he dive from his chariot! Without doubt there are divers among the Trojans."
So saying, he advanced against the hero Cebriones, having the force of a lion, which, ravaging the folds, is wounded in the breast, and his own courage destroys him; thus, O Patroclus, ardent, didst thou spring upon Cebriones; while Hector, on the other side, leaped from his chariot to the ground. These two, as lions, fought for Cebriones, when both being hungry fight with utmost courage for a slaughtered stag in mountain tops. So, for Cebriones, these two masters of the fight, Patroclus, son of Menœtius, and illustrious Hector, wished to rend each other's body with the pitiless brass, Hector indeed, after he seized him by the head, did not let him go; but Patroclus, on the other side, held [him by the] foot; and now the rest of the Trojans and Greeks engaged in the violent conflict.
And as the East and South winds strive with each other, in the dells of a mountain, to shake a deep wood, beech, ash, and rugged cornel, but they strike their long-extended boughs against each other with an immense sound, and a crash of them breaking [arises]; thus the Trojans and Greeks, leaping upon each other, slaughtered, but neither were mindful of pernicious flight. And many sharp spears were fixed round Cebriones, and winged arrows bounding from the string; and many huge stones smote the shields of those fighting round him; but he, mighty over mighty space, lay in a whirlwind of dust, forgetful of his equestrian skill.
As long indeed as the sun was ascending the middle heaven, so long did the weapons reach both sides effectually, and the people kept falling. But when the sun had passed over toward the west, then indeed the Greeks were superior, contrary to fate. They drew the hero Cebriones from the weapons, out of the tumult of Trojans, and took the armor from his shoulders. But Patroclus, devising evils against the Trojans, rushed on. Thrice then he charged, equal to swift Mars, shouting horribly, and thrice he slew nine heroes. But when, like unto a god, he made the attack for the fourth time, then indeed, O Patroclus, was the end of thy life manifest; for Phœbus, terrible in the dire battle, met thee. He did not indeed perceive him coming through the crowd, for he advanced against him covered with much darkness; but he stood behind, and smote him with his flat hand upon the back and broad shoulders, and his eyes were seized with giddiness. And from his head Phœbus Apollo struck the helmet, and the oblong helmet rattled, rolled under the horses' feet, and the crest was defiled with blood and dust; although before this it was not permitted that [this] helmet, crested with horse-hair, should be contaminated by the dust; for it protected the head of a godlike hero, even the venerable forehead of Achilles; but Jove then gave it to Hector to wear upon his head; but his destruction was near. But the long-shadowed spear, great, sturdy, pointed [with brass], was utterly shattered in his hands; while the shield, which reached to his heels, with its belt, fell to the ground; and king Apollo, the son of Jove, unbound his corselet. But stupor seized his brain, and his fair limbs were relaxed under him, and he stood astounded. But a Trojan hero, Euphorbus, the son of Panthous, who excelled those of his own age in the spear, in horsemanship, and in swiftness of foot, smote him close at hand with his sharp spear, in the back between the shoulders. For even before this he had hurled twenty men from their horses, at first coming with his chariot, learning [the art] of war. He [it was] who first hurled a weapon at thee, O knight Patroclus, nor did he subdue thee; for he ran back, and was mingled with the crowd, having plucked the ashen spear out of thy body; nor did he await Patroclus, though being unarmed, in the fight. Patroclus, however, subdued by the blow of the god, and by the spear, retired into the crowd of his companions, avoiding death. But Hector, when he perceived magnanimous Patroclus retiring, wounded with a sharp spear, went through the ranks near him, and smote him with his javelin in the lowest part of the groin, and drove the brass quite through. Falling, he gave a crash, and greatly grieved the people of the Greeks. As when a lion presses on an unwearied boar in fight, and they twain, high-spirited, contend upon the mountain tops for a small rill, for they both desire to drink, but the lion subdues him by force, panting much; so Hector, the son of Priam, in close fight with his spear, deprived the gallant son of Menœtius of life, having slain many; and, boasting over him, spoke winged words:
"Patroclus, doubtless thou didst think to waste our city, and to carry off in thy ships the Trojan women to thy dear fatherland, having taken away their day of freedom—infatuated one! But in defense of these, the fleet steeds of Hector hasten with their feet to war, and I myself, who avert the day of slavery from them, am conspicuous among the war-loving Trojans in [the use of] the spear. But the vultures shall devour thee here. Unhappy man! Nor indeed did Achilles, although being brave, aid thee, who remaining behind, doubtless enjoined many things to thee, going forth: 'Do not return to me, O equestrian Patroclus, to the hollow barks, before thou rendest the blood-stained garment around the breast of man-slaughtering Hector.' Thus, doubtless, he addressed thee, and persuaded the mind of foolish thee."
But him, O knight Patroclus, breathing faintly, thou didst address: "Even now, Hector, vaunt greatly, for Jove, the son of Saturn, and Apollo, have given thee the victory, who subdued me easily; for they stripped the armor from my shoulders. But if even twenty such [as thou] had opposed me, they had all perished here, subdued by my spear. But destructive fate, and the son of Latona, have slain me, and of men, Euphorbus; whilst thou, the third, dost despoil me slain. Another thing will I tell thee, and do thou ponder it in thy soul. Not long, indeed, shalt thou thyself advance in life, but death and violent fate already stand near thee, subdued by the hands of Achilles, the blameless descendant of Æacus."
Him then, having thus spoken, the end of death then overshadowed. But his soul flying from his members, departed to Hades, bewailing its lot, relinquishing manliness and youth. But him dead illustrious Hector addressed:
"Why now, Patroclus, dost thou prophesy cruel destruction to me? Who knows whether Achilles, the son of fair-haired Thetis, stricken by my spear, may not be the first to lose his life?"
Thus having spoken, he extracted the brazen spear from the wound, pressing on him with his heel; and thrust him prostrate from the spear. Then immediately, with the spear, he went against Automedon, the godlike servant of swift-footed Æacides, for he was anxious to strike him. But the fleet immortal steeds, which the gods bestowed on Peleus, splendid gifts, bore him away.
- Longus, iv. 7: Δάκρυα ἦν ἐπὶ τούτοις θερμότερα, which Mollus, referring to Homer, thus explains: "Lacrymæ, quæ ex magno impetu, et animi affectu quasi calido, neutiquam simulatæ prosiliebant."
- Alluding to the color of the ocean when ruffled by a storm. With the following passage compare Theocrit. iii. 15, sqq.; Eurip. Bacch. 971, sqq.; Virg. Æn. iv. 365, sqq.; Ecl. viii, 43, sqq., with Macrob. Sat. v. 11.
- Cf. xi. 800, with the note.
- i. e., in dignity.
- i. e., "Let bygones be bygones."—Dublin ed.
- Compare the splendid description in Ennius apud Macrob. Sat. vi. 3:
"Undique conveniunt, vel imber, tela Tribuno.
Configunt parmam, tinnit hastilibus umbo,
Æratæ sonitant galcæ: sed nec pote quisquam
Undique nitendo corpus discerpere ferro.
Semper abundanteis hastas frangitque, quatitque,
Totum sudor habet corpus, multumque laborat:
Nee respirandi fit copia præpete ferro."
Cf. Virg. Æn. ix. 806, sqq.; Stat. Theb, ii. 668, eqq.
- So θεῖον ἀγῶνα, vi. 298. Tho Scholiast interprets it ἐν ναυστάθμῳ.
- Milton, Paradise Lost, ii. 488:
"As when from mountain tops the dusky clouds
Ascending, while the north wind sleeps, o'er-spread
Heav'n's cheerful face, the lowring element
Scowls o'er the darkened landskip snow, or shower;
If chance the radiant sun with farewell sweet
Extend his evening beam, the fields revive,
The birds their notes renew and bleating herds
Attest their joy, that hill and valley rings."
- Virg. Æn. i. 591:
"Vix ea fatus erat, cum circumfusa repente
Scindit se nubes, et in æthera purgat apertum."
Cf. Drakenb. on Silius, iii. 196; Kuinoel on Matth. iii. 16; Acts vii. 55.
- Heyne would construe αἰχμῇ with περὶ, referring to viii. 86; xiii. 441, 570; Pind. Nem. viii. 40.
- On the adjective ἀμαιμακέτην, see intpp. on Soph. Œd. R. 176; Œd. Col. 127.
- i. e., "atra mors," Tibull. i. 3, 5. Cf. vs. 370: Θανάτον μέλαν νέφος.
- On μέλεος, see Kennedy. Suidas: Ὁ μὲν Ποιητὴς (i, e., Homer) ἐπὶ τοῦ ματαίου ἐνδέχεται τὸ Μέλεος οἱ δὲ τραγικοὶ, ἐπὶ τοῦ οἰκτροῦ. So Hesych. μέλεος· μάταιος.
- Made to rush with a bubbling noise, the verb here "expressing the violent streaming of a liquid." See Buttm. Lexil. p. 484; and compare my note on Æsch. Ag. p. 137, n. 2, ed.
- Heaven is here distinguished from Olympus, as in i. 597, aud Tibull. iv. i. 131:—
"Jupiter ipse levi vectus per inania curru
Adfuit, et cœlo vicinum liquit Olympum."
- From this sense of κελεύω arises its nautical meaning, also κελευστὴς, the man who gives the signal and cheers on the rowers. See Mollus on Long. Past. iii. 14. So Athenæus, xii. p. 535: Χρυσόγονος μὲν ἤυλει τὸ τριηρικόν. Καλλιπίδης δὲ ὁ τραγῳδός ἐκέλευε.
- For this agricultural use of ἔργα cf. Oppian, Cyn. ii. 151: Πάντη δ' ἔργα βοῶν. Nicander, Ther. 473: ἔργα νομέων. Virg. Georg. i. 325: "Et pluvia ingenti sata læta, boumque labores diluit."
- i. e., the hook. So "ære," "the brass cutwater," Virg. Æn. i. 35.
- Τοὺς μὴ ὑποζοννουμένους μίτρας τοῖς χιτῶσιν.—Eustath.
- Tzetzes on Hesiod, Opp. 184, reads ἐστόν, observing that it is τὸ δυικὸν ἀντὶ τοῦ πληθυντικοῦ.
- Virg. Æn. i. 50: "Jovisque et soror et conjux." Hor. Od. iii. 3, 64: "Conjuge me Jovis et sorore." Auson. 343, 4: "Et soror et conjux fratris regina dearum."
- Cf. Virg. Æn. iv. 285:
"Atque animum nunc hue celerem, nunc dividit illuc,
In partesque rapit varias, perque omnia versat."
x. 680. Ter. Andr. i. 5, 25. Ovid, Met. vii. 19; x. 373. Plato. Rep. iii. p. 433, B. ed. Læm. finds great fault with Homer for thus debasing the character of Jove. His remarks are reiterated by Clemens Alexandr. Protr. p. 16, 50, and Minucius Felix, § 22.
- There is a similar prodigy in Hesiod, Scut. Herc. 384: Κάδδ' ἄρ' ἀπ' οὐρανόθεν ψιάδας βάλεν αἱματοέσσας, Σῆμα τιθεὶς πολέμοιο ἕῷ μεγαθαρσέϊ παιδί. Tzetzes there refers to the present passage, regarding it as ominous of the death of Sarpedon. Cf. Lomeier, De Lustrationibus, xii. p. 143.
- "By comparing the different uses of ἀδινὸς together, one thing is clear, that all the meanings which can occur in them proceed from one, which is that in the epithet of the heart, dense or compact, which physical idea the work retains, according to the Homeric usage, in Od. τ. 516, as a fixed epithet of the heart, although there its physical state has nothing to do with the context." Buttm. Lexil. p. 33.
- See Buttm. Lexil. p. 267.
- "Indignata anima gemebat"—Heyne, comparing Æn. xii. ult. "Vitaque cum gemitu fugit indignata sub umbras."
- Probably the pericardium is meant.
- We must understand him as having done so in company with Hector, otherwise this passage would be at variance with xii. 290, 437.
- It has been well observed that Homer never describes a wound as mortal, except when it is inflicted in a part really vital.
- The οὐρίαχος was the same as the σαυρωτὴρ. See Glossæ Herodoteæ, and Hesych. p. 820.
- A probable allusion to the Pyrrhic dance, which was in use among the Cretans, from whose country Meriones had come. See the Scholiast, and Müller, Dorians, vol. ii. p. 349.
- i. e., he perceived that the fortune of the battle was changed by the will of Jove.
- i. e., a cippus, or column reared upon the tomb. See Pollux, viii. 14, and the Scriptures Rei Agrim. p. 88, ed. Goes.
- Schneider on Nicander, Ther. 264–9, p. 229, observes: "In Homerica Iliade fuerunt olim qui Σκαιὰς πύλας, quæ alibi Dardaniæ dicuntur, interpretabantur obliquas, teste Hesychio: ἢ διὰ τὸ σκολιὰς εἶναι κατὰ τὴν εἰσβολήν. Plane uti Servius ad Æn. iii. 351: 'Scæa porta dicta est—nec ab itinere ingressis scævo id est sinistro, quod ingressi non recto sed sinistro eunt itinere, sed a cadavero Laomedontis, hoc est scæomate, quod in ejus fuerit superliminio.' Ita Yitruvius, i. 5, 2; unde vides, quomodo notio sinistri et obliqui in hac voce coaluerit. Notio ipsa serius tandem invaluisse videtur: antiquiorem enim Nicandreo locum ignoro."
- See Kennedy. Others make βέλος the accusative, and take ἁλίωσε transitively.
- Swam round, probably from exhaustion. Celsus, i. 3: "Si quando insuetus aliquis laboravit, aut si multo plus, quam solet, etiam is qui assuevit. . . . . . oculi caligant." The affection is well described by Cælius Aurol. Chron. i. 2: "Repentina visus tenebratio, atque nebula, cum capitis vertigine."
- So ἐλεύθερον ἦμαρ in ver. 830. Thus ἀνάγκη ἀμφίπτολις, "slavery caused by the capture of a city," Æsch. Choeph. 75.
- This prophecy of the dying Patroclus seems to have attracted the notice of Aristotle, if we may believe Sextus, Empir. adv. Phys. ix. p. 553: Ὅταν γάρ, φησίν, ἐν τῷ ὑπνοῦν καθ' ἑαυτὴν γίνεται ἡ ψυχή, τότε τὴν ἴδιον ἀπολαβοῦσα φύσιν προμαντεύεται τε καὶ προαγορεύει τὰ μέλλοντα· τοιαύτη δέ ἐστι καὶ ἐν τῷ θάνατον χωρίζεσθαι τῶν σωμάτων. He then refers to the similar example of Hector prophesying the death of Achilles, xxiii. 358, sqq.
- See my note on προΐαψεν, Il. i. 3, and Heyne.