The Iliad of Homer (Buckley)/BOOK THE TWENTIETH

The Iliad of Homer  (1860)  by Homer, translated by Theodore Alois Buckley
BOOK THE TWENTIETH

BOOK THE TWENTIETH.

ARGUMENT.

Jove permits the gods to join in the battle, and they take their respective places on either side. Æneas engages Achilles, but is rescued by Neptune. Hector, in revenge for the death of his brother Polydorus, also attacks Achilles, and is only saved from death by the intervention of Apollo. Achilles then slays many Trojans.

Thus around thee, O son of Peleus, were the Achæans armed, insatiable in fight, beside their crooked ships; and the Trojans, on the other side, on the acclivity[1] of the plain. But Jove ordered Themis to summon the gods to an assembly, from the top of many-valleyed Olympus, and she, going round, ordered them to proceed to the palace of Jove. Nor was any one of the rivers absent, save Oceanus, nor of the nymphs who inhabit the pleasant groves and springs of rivers, and the grassy meads. Then, coming to the habitation of cloud-compelling Jove, they sat down upon shining polished benches, which Vulcan with cunning skill had made for father Jove. Thus were they assembled within the palace of Jove: nor did Neptune disobey the goddess, but he came to them from the sea. Then he sat in the midst, and inquired the design of Jove:

"Why again, O hurler of the glowing lightning, hast thou summoned the gods to an assembly? Dost thou deliberate any thing respecting the Trojans and Greeks? For now their combat and the battle are on the point of being kindled."

But him cloud-compelling Jove answering, addressed:

"Thou knowest, O earth-shaker, my design within my breast, [and] for whose sake I have assembled you; for though about to perish, they are a care to me. I will, however, remain sitting on the top of Olympus, whence looking, I shall delight my soul; but depart the rest of you, that ye may go to the Trojans and Greeks. Give aid to both, according as is the inclination of each. For if Achilles alone shall fight against the Trojans, they will not even for a little sustain the swift-footed son of Peleus. Formerly even beholding him, they fled terrified; but now when he is grievously enraged in his mind on account of his companion, I fear lest he overthrow the wall, even contrary to fate."

Thus spoke Saturnian Jove, and he stirred up the unyielding[2] contest; and the gods hastened to proceed to the battle, having discordant minds. Juno, indeed, and Pallas Minerva [went] to the assemblage of the ships, as well as earth-shaking Neptune, and useful Mercury, who excelled in a prudent mind, with whom went Vulcan, looking savage in his might, limping, and under him his weak limbs moved with all their force. But to the Trojans [went] crest-tossing Mars, and with him unshorn Phœbus,[3] and Diana, delighting in archery, Latona, Xanthus, and laughter-loving Venus. As long as the gods were apart from mortal men, so long the Greeks were greatly elated, because Achilles appeared, for he had long abstained from the dire battle; and a violent tremor came upon the Trojans, upon each of them as to their limbs, fearing because they beheld the swift-footed son of Peleus glittering in arms, equal to man-slaughtering Mars. But after the Olympians had come to the crowd of men, then arose fierce Contention, the exciter of the people, and Minerva shouted, sometimes standing beside the trench, outside the wall, at other times she loudly shouted along the echoing shores. But Mars yelled aloud on the other side, like unto a dark whirlwind, keenly animating the Trojans from the lofty city, at other times running along the Simoïs over Callicolone.[4]

Thus the blessed gods, inciting both sides, engaged, and among them made severe contention to break out. But dreadfully from above thundered the father of gods and men; while beneath Neptune shook the boundless earth and the lofty summits of the mountains. The roots and all the summits of many-rilled Ida were shaken, and the city of the Trojans, and the ships of the Greeks. Pluto himself, king of the nether world, trembled beneath, and leaped up from his throne, terrified, and shouted aloud, lest earth-shaking Neptune should rend asunder the earth over him, and disclose to mortals and immortals his mansions, terrible, squalid, which even the gods loathe. So great a tumult arose from the gods engaging in combat. Against king Neptune, indeed, stood Phœbus Apollo, having his winged shafts, and against Mars the azure-eyed goddess Minerva. Opposed to Juno stood the goddess of the golden bow, huntress Diana, rejoicing in archery, the sister of Apollo; and opposite Latona, the preserver,[5] useful Mercury. Against Vulcan also was the great deep-eddying river, which the gods called Xanthus, and men the Scamander.

Thus indeed gods went against gods; but Achilles chiefly longed to penetrate through the crowd against Hector, the son of Priam; for with his blood his mind particularly ordered him to satiate Mars, the invincible warrior. But Apollo, exciter of troops, immediately aroused Æneas against the son of Peleus, and infused into him strong courage. And he likened himself in voice to Lycaon, the son of Priam, and having likened himself to him, Apollo, the son of Jove, said:

"O Æneas, counselor of the Trojans, where are thy threats which, while carousing, thou didst promise to the leaders of the Trojans, that thou wouldst fight against Achilles, the son of Peleus?"

But him Æneas, answering, addressed in turn:

"Son of Priam, why dost thou order me, not wishing it,

these things to fight against magnanimous Pelides? For shall I not now for the first time stand against swift-footed Achilles, but already, on another occasion, he chased me with his spear from Ida, when he attacked our cattle, and laid waste Lyrnessus and Pedasus: but Jove preserved me, who excited my strength and nimble limbs. Certainly I should have been subdued beneath the hands of Achilles, and Minerva, who, preceding, gave him victory, and encouraged him to slay the Lelegans and Trojans with his brazen spear. Wherefore it is not possible that a man should fight against Achilles, because one of the gods is ever beside him, who averts destruction. Besides, also, his weapon flies direct, nor stops before it has pierced through human flesh; though if the deity would extend an equal scale of victory, not very easily would he conquer me, although he boasts himself to be all brazen."

But him again king Apollo, the son of Jove, addressed:

"But do thou also pray, O hero, to the immortal gods, for they say that thou too art sprung from Venus, the daughter of Jove, but he from an inferior goddess; for the one is from Jove, and the other from the aged sea-god. But direct thy invincible brass right against him, nor let him at all avert thee by haughty words and threats."

Thus saying, he breathed great courage into the shepherd of the people; and he advanced through the front ranks, accoutered in shining brass. Nor did the son of Anchises escape the notice of white-armed Juno, going against the son of Peleus through the ranks of men; but, calling the gods together, she addressed them:

"Consider now, both Neptune and Minerva, in your minds, how these things shall be. This Æneas, accoutered in shining brass, has advanced against the son of Peleus; and Phœbus Apollo has urged him on. But come, let us, however, turn him back again; or let some one of us stand by Achilles, and give him great strength, nor let him at all be wanting in courage; that he may know that the mightiest of the immortals love him; and that those, on the contrary, are vain, who hitherto avert war and slaughter from the Trojans. But we have all come down from Olympus, about to participate in this battle, lest he should suffer any thing among the Trojans to-day; but hereafter he shall suffer those things, as many as Fate at his birth wove in his thread [of destiny],[6] to him, what time his mother brought him forth. But if Achilles shall not learn these things from the voice of a god, he will afterward be afraid when any god comes against him in battle; for the gods, when made manifest, are terrible to be seen manifestly."[7]

But her then earth-shaking Neptune answered:

"Juno, be not beyond reason enraged; nor is it at all necessary. I, indeed, would not desire that we should engage the other gods in a battle, since we are much more powerful.[8] Rather let us, going out of the way, sit down upon a place of observation,[9] but the war shall be a care to mortals. But if Mars shall begin the combat, or Apollo, or shall restrain Achilles, and not suffer him to fight, then immediately shall the strife of contention there arise to us; and I think that they, having very speedily decided it, will return to Olympus, and mix with the assembly of other gods, violently subdued by necessity under our hands."

Thus then having spoken, the azure-haired [god] led the way to the lofty mound-raised wall of divine Hercules, which the Trojans and Pallas Minerva had made, that, flying, he might escape from the sea-monster, when pursued from the shore to the plain. There then Neptune sat down, and the other gods, and drew an indissoluble cloud around their shoulders; while on the other side they sat upon the tops of Callicolone, around thee, O archer Apollo, and Mars, the sacker of cities. Thus they sat on both sides, planning designs, yet both were unwilling to commence grievous war; but Jove, sitting aloft, cheered them on. All the plain, however, was filled with them, and glittered with the brass of men and horses, and the earth echoed under the feet of them rushing together. But two heroes, by far the most valiant, advanced toward [each other] into the midst of both armies, eager to fight—Æneas, the son of Anchises, and noble Achilles. And first Æneas, threatening, advanced, nodding with his strong casque; and before his breast he held his impetuous shield, and shook his brazen spear. But on the other side Pelides rushed against him like a destructive lion, which men assembled together, a whole village, are anxious to kill. He, however, at first despising them, proceeds; but when some one of vigorous youths has wounded him with a dart, yawning, he collects himself [for a spring],[10] and the foam arises round his teeth, and his valiant soul groans within his breast, and he lashes his sides and thighs on both sides with his tail, and rouses himself to battle; then, grimly glaring, he is borne straight on by his strength, if he can kill some of the men, or is himself destroyed in the first crowd. Thus did his might and noble soul urge Achilles to go against magnanimous Æneas. But when now, advancing, they approached each other, swift-footed, noble Achilles first addressed the other:

"Why, O Æneas, coming through so great a length of crowd, dost thou stand against me? Does then thy soul urge thee to fight with me, hoping that thou wilt govern the horse-breaking Trojans in the place[11] of Priam? Yet even if thou shalt slay me, not thus will Priam place this reward in thy hand; for he has sons; and he is himself steady, nor inconstant. Or, if thou slayest me, have the Trojans cut off for thee an inclosure[12] of soil surpassing others, suited to vines and the plow, that thou mayest cultivate it? Still I hope thou wilt effect it with difficulty. For I think I have at some other time put thee to flight with my spear. Dost thou not remember when I impetuously drove thee, when alone, from the oxen, with rapid feet, down the Idæan mountains? Then indeed thou didst never turn round while flying, but didst escape thence into Lyrnessus; but I wasted it, having attacked it with the aid of Minerva and father Jove. The women also I led away captives, having taken away their day of freedom; but Jove and the other gods preserved thee. However, I do not think they will protect thee now, as thou castest in thy mind; but I exhort thee, retiring, to go into the crowd, nor stand against me, before thou suffer some evil; but [it is] a fool [who] knows a thing [only] when it is done."

But him Æneas answered in turn, and said:

"Do not think, O son of Peleus, to affright me, like an infant boy, with words; since I also well know how to utter both threats and reproaches. But we know each other's race, and we know our parents, hearing the words of mortal men long since uttered; although by sight, indeed, neither dost thou know mine, nor I thine. They say, indeed, that thou art the offspring of renowned Peleus, and of thy mother Thetis, the fair-haired sea-nymph; whereas I boast myself to be sprung from magnanimous Anchises, and Venus is my mother. Of these the one or the other shall this day lament their beloved son; for I think we shall not return from the battle thus separated by childish words. But if thou desirest to be taught these matters, that thou mayest well know our race (for many men know it), cloud-compelling Jove indeed first begat Dardanus.[13] And he built Dardania, for sacred Ilium, the city of articulate-speaking men, was not as yet built in the plain, and they still dwelt at the foot of many -rilled Ida. Dardanus again begat a son, king Erichthonius, who was then the richest of mortal men; whose three thousand mares pastured through the marsh, rejoicing in their tender foals. Boreas, however, was enamored of some of these when pasturing, and having likened himself to an azure-maned steed, covered them; and they becoming pregnant, brought forth twelve female foals; which when they bounded upon the fruitful earth, ran over the highest fruit of the stalks of corn, nor did they break them:[14] but when they sported over the broad back of the ocean, they ran along the surface of the ridge of the hoary sea. But Erichthonius begat Tros, king of the Trojans. From Tros again were descended three illustrious sons, Ilus, Assaracus, and godlike Ganymede, who indeed was the handsomest of mortal men; and whom the gods caught up into heaven, to pour out wine for Jove,[15] that, on account of his beauty, he might be with the immortals. Ilus again begat his renowned son Laomedon; but Laomedon begat Tithonus and Priam, Lampus, Clytius, and Hicetaon, a branch of Mars; and Assaracus Capys, who also begat his son Anchises. But Anchises begat me, and Priam noble Hector. Of this race and blood do I boast myself to be. But Jove increases and diminishes valor to men, as he pleases; for he is the most powerful of all. But come, let us no longer talk of these things, like little boys, standing in the middle combat of the strife. For it is possible for both to utter very many reproaches, so that a hundred-oared galley[16] would not contain the burthen; for the language of mortals is voluble,[17] and the discourses in it numerous and varied: and vast is the distribution[18] of words here and there. Whatsoever word thou mayest speak, such also wilt thou hear. But what need is there to us of disputes and railing, that we should quarrel with each other like women, who, being angry with a soul-destroying strife, proceeding into the middle of the way, chide each other with many things true and not true: for rage also suggests those things?[19] With words, however, thou shalt not turn me, courageous, from my valor, before thou fightest against me with thy brass; but come, quickly let us make trial of each other with brazen spears."

He spoke, and hurled his brazen spear against the dreadful shield, terrible [to be seen], and the huge buckler resounded with the stroke of the javelin. But the son of Peleus, alarmed, held the shield from him with his strong hand, for he supposed that the long spear of great-hearted Æneas would easily penetrate: foolish! nor did he reflect in his mind and soul, that the glorious gifts of the gods are not easy to be subdued by mortal men, nor to yield. Nor then did the heavy spear of warlike Æneas penetrate the shield; but the gold stopped it, the gift of the god. It penetrated, however, through two folds, but there were still three; since Vulcan had drawn five folds over it, two brazen, two inside of tin, and one golden; in which the brazen spear was stopped. But Achilles next sent forth his long-shadowed spear, and struck against the shield of Æneas, equal on all sides, at the outside edge, where the thinnest brass ran round it, and the ox-hide was thinnest upon it; but the Pelian ash broke through, and the shield was crushed by it. But Æneas crouched,[20] and being terrified, held the shield from him; while the spear [passing] over his back, stuck in the earth, eager [to go on], for it had burst through both orbs of the mighty[21] shield. But he, having escaped the long spear, stood still, but immoderate sadness was poured over his eyes, terrified, because the weapon had stuck so near him. But Achilles eagerly sprang upon him, drawing his sharp sword, and shouting dreadfully. Then Æneas seized in his hand a stone, a great weight, which not two men could bear, such as men now are; but he, though alone, easily wielded it. Then indeed had Æneas smitten him, rushing on, with the stone, either upon the helmet or the shield, which kept off grievous destruction from him; and Pelides, in close fight, had taken away his life with the sword, had not earth-shaking Neptune quickly perceived it, and immediately addressed this speech to the immortal gods:

"Ye gods! certainly there now is grief to me, on account of magnanimous Æneas,[22] who will quickly descend to Hades, subdued by the son of Peleus, foolish, being persuaded by the words of far-darting Apollo; nor can he by any means avert[23] sad destruction from him. But why now should this guiltless[24] man suffer evils gratuitously, on account of sorrows due to others, for he always presents gifts agreeable to the gods who inhabit the wide heaven? But come, let us withdraw him from death, lest even the son of Saturn be angry, if indeed Achilles slay this man: moreover, it is fated that he should escape, that the race of Dardanus, whom Jove loved above all the children that were descended from him and mortal women, may not perish without offspring, and become extinct. For already hath the son of Saturn hated the race of Priam, and the might of Æneas shall now rule over the Trojans, and the sons of his sons, who may be born in aftertimes."

But him large-eyed, venerable Juno then answered:

"O earth-shaker! do thou thyself reflect within thy mind with respect to Æneas, whether thou wilt withdraw him, or suffer him, being brave, to be subdued by Achilles, the son of Peleus. For already we two, I and Pallas Minerva, have sworn many oaths among all the immortals, that we will never help to avert the evil day from the Trojans, not even when all Troy, fired, shall burn with consuming flame, and the warlike sons of the Greeks fire it."

But when earth-shaking Neptune heard this, he hastened to go through the battle and the clash of spears; and came where were Æneas and renowned Achilles. And immediately he shed a darkness upon the eyes of Achilles, son of Peleus, and he drew out the ashen spear, well guarded with brass, from the shield of magnanimous Æneas; and laid it before the feet of Achilles, and pushed on Æneas, lifting him high up from the ground. But Æneas leaped over many ranks of men and many of horses, impelled by the hand of the god, and came to the rear of the troubled fight, where the Caucones were arrayed for war. But very near him came earth-shaking Neptune, and addressing him, spoke winged words:

"O Æneas, which of the gods commanded thee, thus mad, to combat against Achilles, who is at once more valiant than thou, and more dear to the immortals? But retire whenever thou shalt be opposed to him, lest, even contrary to fate, thou arrive at the habitation of Pluto. But when Achilles shall have attained his death and destiny, then again, being confident, fight among the front ranks, because no other of the Greeks shall slay thee."

So saying, he left him there, when he had told him all, and immediately afterward dissipated the thick darkness from the eyes of Achilles, and he then saw very clearly with his eves; whereupon groaning, he addressed his magnanimous soul:

"Ye gods! certainly I behold this, a great marvel with mine eyes. The spear indeed lies upon the ground, nor do I at all perceive the man at whom I hurled it, desiring to kill him. Undoubtedly Æneas, too, was dear to the immortal gods, although I supposed that he boasted thus idly. Let him go; there will be no spirit in him hereafter to make trial of me, who even now rejoicing, has escaped from death. But come, having encouraged the warlike Greeks, I will make trial of the other Trojans, going against them."

He spoke, and sprang into the ranks, and cheered on every man:

"No longer now stand off from the Trojans, O noble Greeks, but on! let man advance against man, and let him be eager to engage. Difficult is it for me, although being valiant, to attack so many warriors, and to fight with them all. Not even Mars, who is an immortal god, nor yet Minerva, could charge and toil against the force of such a conflict. Yet whatever I can do with hands, with feet, and with strength, I declare that I will no longer be remiss, not ever so little; but I will go right through their line, nor do I think that any Trojan will rejoice, whoever may come near my javelin."

Thus he spoke, encouraging them; but illustrious Hector, upbraiding, animated the Trojans, and said that he would go against Achilles:

"Ye magnanimous Trojans, fear not the son of Peleus. I too, could fight with words even with the immortals, but with the spear it is difficult, for they are far more powerful. Nor shall Achilles give effect to all his words; but one part he shall fulfill, and the other leave half imperfect. Against him will I go, even though he were like to fire as to his hands; and to shining iron, as to his might."

Thus he spoke, inciting them; but the Trojans opposite quickly raised their spears; their strength was mingled together, and a shout arose. Then also Phœbus Apollo, standing near, addressed Hector:

"Hector, do not at all fight in the van with Achilles, but receive him in the crowd, and from the tumult, lest by any chance he hit thee, or strike thee with the sword in close combat."

Thus he spoke, and Hector sunk back again into the thick body of men, dismayed when he heard the voice of the god speaking. But Achilles leaped among the Trojans, clad with courage as to his soul, shouting dreadfully; and first slew gallant Iphition, son of Otrynteus, the leader of many people, whom the nymph Naïs bore to Otrynteus, the sacker of cities, under snowy Tmolus, in the rich district of Hyda.[25] Him, eagerly rushing straight forward, noble Achilles struck with his javelin in the middle of the head; and it was entirely split in two. He gave a crash as he fell, and noble Achilles boasted over him:

"O son of Otrynteus, most terrible of all men, thou liest; death is here upon thee. Thy birth, however, is at the Gygæan lake, where is thy paternal land, beside fishy Hyllus, and eddying Hermus."

Thus he spoke, boasting; but darkness covered his (Iphition's) eyes, but the horses of the Greeks tore him with the tires of the wheels in the front ranks. After him Achilles smote Demoleon, son of Antenor, a brave repeller of the fight, in the temples, through his brazen-cheeked helmet. Nor indeed did the brazen casque resist it, but through it the eager javelin broke the bone, and the whole brain within was defiled; and he subdued him, ardent. Next he wounded with his spear in the back, Hippodamas, as he was leaping down from his chariot, while flying before him. But he breathed out his soul, and groaned, like as when a bull, dragged round the Heliconian king,[26] bellows, as the youths drag him; and the earth-shaker is delighted with them: so, as he moaned, his fierce soul left his bones. But he went with his spear against godlike Polydorus,[27] the son of Priam; but him his father did not permit to fight, because he was the youngest among all, and dearest to him, and surpassed all in speed. Then, indeed, through youthful folly, exhibiting the excellence of his speed, he ran among the front ranks till he lost his life. Him noble swift-footed Achilles smote rushing by, in the middle of the back, where the golden rings of his belt clasped together, and the doubled corselet met. Right through at the navel pierced the point of the spear, and uttering a groan, he fell upon his knees; a black cloud enveloped him, and stooping down, he gathered his intestines in his hands. But when Hector perceived his brother Polydorus holding his intestines in his hands, and rolled on the earth, a darkness was immediately poured over his eyes, nor could he any longer be employed afar off, but advanced toward Achilles, like unto a flame, brandishing his sharp spear. On the other hand, Achilles, as soon as he saw him, leaped up, and boasting, spoke:

"Near is the man who has most stung my soul, who has slain my cherished companion; no longer indeed let us dread each other through the bridges[28] of war."

He spoke, and sternly regarding [him], addressed noble Hector:

"Come, nearer, that thou mayest the sooner reach the end of death."

But him, not daunted, crest-tossing Hector addressed:

"O son of Peleus, do not expect to terrify me now like a little boy, at least with words; since I myself also well know how to speak both revilings and reproaches. I know that thou indeed art brave, and that I am inferior to thee. But these things indeed are placed at the knees of the gods, whether, although being inferior, I shall take away thy

life, striking thee with my spear, since my weapon also is sharp at the point."

He spoke, and, brandishing, sent forth his spear; and Minerva with a breath turned it back from glorious Achilles, having breathed very gently; but it came back to noble Hector, and lay before his feet. But Achilles, eager to slay him, rushed furiously on, shouting dreadfully; but Apollo, as a god, very easily snatched him away, and covered him with abundant haze. Thrice indeed swift-footed noble Achilles rushed on with his brazen spear, and thrice he smote the deep haze. But when he rushed on the fourth time, like unto a god, he, dreadfully chiding, addressed to him winged words:

"Dog, now again hast thou escaped death. Assuredly evil came very near thee, but Phœbus Apollo has now again preserved thee, to whom thou art wont to pray, when going into the clang of spears. Yet will I certainly finish thee, meeting thee hereafter, if indeed any of the gods be an ally to me also. At present, however, I will go after others of the Trojans, whomsoever I can."

So saying, he struck Dryops with his spear in the middle of the neck, and he fell before his feet. Him then he left, and then detained Demuchus, son of Philetor, brave and great, wounding [him] in the knee, with his spear, whom then striking with his great sword, he deprived of life. But attacking both, he pushed Laogonus and Dardanus, the sons of Bias, from their chariot to the ground, wounding one with his spear, and striking the other in close combat with his sword. Also Tros, the son of Alastor, who came toward him, taking him by the knees, if on any terms he would spare him, and dismiss him alive, nor slay him, taking pity on their equal age: fool! who knew not that he would not be persuaded. For he was by no means a tender-minded nor gentle man, but very ferocious. He (Tros) indeed clasped his knees with his hands, desiring to supplicate him, but he (Achilles) wounded him in the liver with his sword; and his liver fell out, and the black blood from it filled his bosom, and darkness vailed his eyes, wanting life. But standing near Mulius, he smote him with his javelin on the ear, and immediately the brazen blade went through the other ear. Then, with his large-hilted sword, he smote Echeclus, son of Antenor, in the center of the head, and the whole sword became tepid with blood; but purple Death and violent Fate seized his eyes. Then Deucalion, where the tendons of the elbow unite, there he pierced him through his hand with his brazen spear; but he, weighed down as to his hand, awaited him, perceiving death before him. But he (Achilles) smiting his neck with his sword, knocked the head off afar with its helmet, and the marrow sprang forth from the spine; and Deucalion lay extended on the ground. Then he hastened to go toward Rigmus, the renowned son of Pireus, who had come from fertile Thrace; whom he smote in the middle with his javelin, and the brass was fixed in his stomach; and he fell from his chariot: and Achilles wounded in the back, with his sharp javelin, Areïthoüs, the attendant, while turning back the steeds, and threw him from the chariot: and the horses were thrown into confusion. And as the blazing fire burns through the deep dells of a dry mountain, and the dense forest is consumed, and the wind agitating, turns round the flame on all sides; thus he raged in every direction with his spear, like unto a deity, following those that were to be slain; and the black earth flowed with blood. As when any one yokes broad fore-headed bulls to trample out white barley on the well-leveled floor, and it easily becomes small beneath the feet of the bellowing oxen; so the solid-hoofed horses, driven by magnanimous Achilles, trod down together both corpses and shields. And the whole axletree beneath was polluted with gore, and the rings which were round the chariot seat, which the drops from the horses' hoofs spattered, as well as from the felloes. But the son of Peleus was eager to bear away glory, and was polluted with gore as to his invincible hands.


  1. See x. 160; xi. 56.
  2. Buttm. Lexil. p. 406, 3: "The adjective ἀλίαστος, literally unbending, unyielding, not to he turned, became the epithet of a violent, uncontrollable, incessant tumult, battle, lamentation, etc., as at Il. M. 471; B. 797; Ω. 760; and as an adverb at Ω. 549."
  3. Hor. Od. i. xxii. 2: "Intonsum, pueri, dicite Cynthium." Tibull. i. 4, 37: "Solis æterna est Phœbo, Bacchoque juventa: hanc decet intonsus crinis utrumque Deum." Various reasons are assigned for this; such as, "quia occidendo et renascendo semper est juvenior," Fulgent. Myth. i. 17; or, "quod ipse sit sol, et sol ignis est, qui nunquam senescit," Lutat. on Stat. Theb. i. 694. The inhabitants of Hieropolis, however, worshiped a bearded Apollo.—Macr. Sat. i. 17.
  4. A rising ground which lay on the road from Troy toward the sea- coast, on the other side of the Simoïs, commanding the entire plain. Hence it is the rendezvous of the gods who favored the Trojans.
  5. We find a collateral verb σωκεῖν=valere, in Æsch. Eum. 36. Apollon. Lex. p. 752; Hesych. t. ii. p. 1334, derive σῶκως from σωσίοικος, the former connecting it with ἐριούνιος, ὁ μεγάλως ὀνίσκων, τοῦτ' ἔστι ὀφελῶν.
  6. See Duport, p. 114. On the web woven by the Fates for man's life, see Virg. Ecl. iv. 46; Catullus, lxiv. 328. But this passage of Homer seems to imply the ancient notion, that the Fates might be delayed, but never set aside. Cf. Nemes. de Nat. Hom. i. 36; Censorin. de die Nat. xiv.; Serv. on Æn. vii. 398.
  7. "Deos manifesto in lumine vidi."—Virg. Æn. iv. 358. On the belief that the sight of a god was attended with danger, cf. Liv. i. xvi., where Proculus beseeches the apparition of Romulus "ut contra intueri fas esset." See intpp. on Exod. xxxiii. 20; Judges xiii. 22.
  8. I am half inclined to condemn this verse as spurious, with Ernesti. It is wanting in MS. Lips. and ed. Rom., and does not appear to have been read by Eustathius.
  9. Compare the "Contemplantes" of Lucan, sub init., where the gods seek a similar place of observation.
  10. So ἀλεὶς in xv. 403. "It is also used in the same way of a warrior, who, while he is preparing to rush on his enemy, or expecting his attack, draws himself up together, or, as we say, puts himself in an attitude of attack or defense."—Buttm. Lexil. p. 258.
  11. Ἀντὶ τὴς βασιλείας is Gaza's correct paraphrase.
  12. Cf. vi. 194.
  13. On Dardanus, the eponymus of Dardania, see Grote, vol. i. p. 387, where the whole legend of Troy is admirably discussed. Cf. Virg. Æn. i. 292; iii. 167, where the Roman poet has made use of Homer in tracing the pedigree of Æneas to Jove.
  14. This hyperbole has been emulated by numberless poets. Cf. Oppian, Cyn. i. 231; Apollon. Rh. i. 183; Quintus Calab. viii. 156; Virg. Æn. vii. 808; Claudian in 3d Cons. Hon. i. 97.
  15. Cf. Pindar, Ol. i. 69, and Serv. on Æn. i. 32.
  16. Compare the Latin phrase, "plaustra convitiorum," and Duport, p. 116.
  17. Στρεπτὴ—ὑγρὰ καὶ εὐλύγιστος.—Eustath.
  18. Νομὸς, ἐπινέμησις ἐφ' ἑκάτερα.—Eustath. See Kennedy.
  19. i. e., "prompts to utter all sorts of things, true and false."—Oxf. Tr.
  20. See on verse 168.
  21. Cf. Buttm. Lexil. p. 83. The Schol. and Hesych. t. i. p. 296, interpret it "man-encircling."
  22. The remarks of Grote, vol. i. p. 428, sqq., on the character and position of Æneas throughout the Iliad, deserve much attention.
  23. "The examples of χραισμεῖν are frequent enough in Homer to enable us safely to assert, from a comparison of them, that it never has (at least in his writings) the more general meaning of to be useful, to help, but, without an exception, the more definite sense of to ward off. . . . . . by examining passages we find, that even where no accusative is expressed, the evil to be warded off may always be inferred from the context."—Buttm. Lexil. p. 542.
  24. He had wished to restore Helen. See Liv. i. 1.
  25. A town of Mæonia in Lydia. See Steph. Byz. s. v.
  26. Neptune was a favorite god among the Ionians (cf. Müller, Dor. vol. i. p. 417), but derived this name from Helice, a town in the northern coast of the Peloponnese, out of which the principal Achæan families were driven by Tisamenus, whose tomb was shown there. See Müller, id. p. 74.
  27. This is not the Polydorus of Virgil and Euripides, but the son of Laothoe, daughter of Altas, king of the Lelegans.
  28. See iv. 371.