The Intersexes: A History of Similisexualism as a Problem in Social Life/Chapter VI


The Uraniad, or Feminine Complement of the Uranian: Her General Physical and Psychological Diagnosis: Types and Biographies.

The Uranian

In reaching the second of the intersexes, sometimes termed the Third Sex, our first inquiry is for its clear general definition, as in the case of the Uranian. Such definition follows closely the phraseology of the description of the Uranian. For the Uraniad is a human being more or less perfectly, even distinctively, feminine as to physique, and often of superior sensibilities, intellectual, moral and aesthetic, and psychically most feminine in a long series of aspects'; but who by either an inborn or an acquired preference feels the passion of sexual love only for the female type. She desires sexually that sex to which she seems to belong by so many aspects, but to which she does not absolutely belong.

Such is the outline of this mysterious and third Intersex; one presenting, in its turn, strange problems; being feminine, yet not adequately woman, according to the great determinative of sex, the instincts of sexual love. The more we study this curious product of human nature, we realize more amazedly into what a further demesne of intersexual singularities we have entered.

The present book is not intended as so full a study of Uraniadism as of Uranian humanity. Outside of this chapter, what will be said of the Uraniad, must be restricted, under various classified headings, to supplements to the chapters that deal with male similisexualism. By other works in psychiatry of Uraniadism the reader easily can gain a completer intimacy with the problems and types involved in feminine similisexualism.

The Uraniad
Physically, etc.

As is the Uranian continually in externals "perfect man", so also is the Uraniad, incessantly a "perfect woman", in her physical appearance, her manner, and all that is not intimately sexual. There is no necessary question of hermaphroditism, or of imperfect sexual organic developments. Often a perfect Uraniad is a veritable Venus, realizing the fullest feminine loveliness and grace. But there is to be admitted in the Uraniad class a tendency toward imperfect sexual organization and functions; to divergences from the delicacy of the female anatomy. The Uranian is likely to have nothing saliently feminine as to his general physique and personality, and to possess most perfectly male organs. On the contrary, the Uraniad is often obviously "boyish" when a girl, has unfeminine proportions, bizarre muscular strength, and activity; and shows preference for boy-companions and for a boy's sports. Also as she matures she frequently coarsens in body. When this occurs (not at all necessarily the case) we have the heavy-set, "mannish" woman, with a masculine walk and carriage, with a male timbre of voice; not seldom a woman-type who is malely athletic by instinct and practice. The Uraniad's features can be in due female proportion, but often of hirsute tendency, even to her showing a beard or mustache. Almost all "bearded women" are more or less Uraniad, and of "contrary" sexualism. Such also are those rather repellant musical artists, the "female tenors", "female baritones" and "woman-basses", such as are occasionally heard. But although the Uraniad is likely to enter upon what may be her troubled life with outward sex-signs of it, still she may be born, may live and may die by one's side, friend and neighbour, without showing these outward hints. We must especially beware of confusing with the Uraniad a woman of strong physique and of manly intellectuality, but who is sexually quite normal. In fact, within a few decades, the strong-minded and strong-bodied woman has gained such social emancipations that she is a confusing product for the psychiater.

Classes of
Uraniads. Geo-
graphical Distri-

The Uraniad differs in her similisexualism from the Uranian in other traits. She is less likely to revert to normal sexual passion, and her interest in aesthetic masculine externals is less. The Uranian as we have seen, is frequently bisexual in impulses; now heterosexual and now similisexual. The Uraniad temperament tends to strict exclusion of the male. When accepting him, she is likely to be attracted to rather a weaker, less vibrant even effeminate sort of man, who frequently lives in complete subordination as her husband or lover. There is a marked proportion of the Uraniad sex in the Philarrenic Zone, following the general topographic distribution of the Uranian. But the Uraniad is not so diffused as a distinctive type in the North-West of Europe. Apparently, too, she is not so numerous in North America; she comes less often under direct psychiatric study in Anglo-Saxon civilizations. In France, Italy, Germany and Russia, she is common, with a tendency to be more numerous in less aristocratic life. In Spain and Portugal the Uraniad sex is in considerable proportion, by imperfect statistics, as she is in all the Latin South America. In the East the proportion is large, by all accounts.

Classic, Biblical
and Historic

Feminine "contrary sexualism" is as natural a tendency as male homosexuality. It is ever lurking in barbaric races. The Mosaic Code does not speak of it, though that code has particular injunctions against a woman's committing bestiality. One can infer that female similisexuality was among "all those things" which Jehovah declares as common among the Egyptian and Caananitish peoples, vices to be avoided by the Hebrew fugitives. In ancient Greece, where the impulse appears to have been widely distributed, though our data is relatively obscure when contrasted with that for Uranism, one brilliant woman of genius mysteriously connected with it has given two familiar terms to it—the poetess Sappho and her Lesbos. Sappho while she was of normal sexual emotions, even to a tragic passion for the youth Phaon, was also similisexual; and "sapphism" and "lesbianism" have passed into psychiatric language. Confused in use with male similisexualism, the expression "Greek love" also pertains to Uraniad-love. In Rome, under the Empire, it flourished. But of it less was spoken, less written, than masculine relationships. Juvenal speaks of the "infamous complaisances" for each other of "Taedia, Cluvia, Flora and Catulla". The Apostle Paul refers to it as a Roman vice. In classic days, as now, it was not taken so seriously as a moral or immoral problem. It was counted a feminine peccadillo, a faute de mieux that could easily be forgiven in a woman. We have already seen how largely it has been and is yet overlooked, by modern criminal law.

Under successive chapters of this study, we shall present the Uraniad's temperamental, social and professional relations to life and history. The following are general observation.

General Psycho-
logy of the

The Uraniad is met in almost all social situations that show superiour moral, intellectual and social traits. She can be highly receptive as to aesthetics. Under the latter type, let us remark her intense susceptibility to music,, which susceptibility can be blent into merely high nervosity, without any intellectual sense of the art. The Uraniad frequently enters with absorbing earnestness into severe professions of the masculine order. She exhibits more success in meeting their abstract sides than the Uranian does. The Uraniad also is likely to be rather undomestic, and to care relatively little for the personal concerns, for the minutiae of feminine dress, ornament, and so on. She does not seek to attract the man as a lover, but as a comrade and friend. She shrinks from maternity, often with intense repulsion. Many Uraniads are incapable of maternity when the sexual organs otherwise seem wholly normal. Altruism, courage, perseverance, judgment, belong to her moral or intellectual furniture; just as are met rugged male attributes, relish for man's work, man's dress, male amusements, in peasant Uraniads, and other crude types. The Uraniad is unlikely to be a good diplomate; not even of the degree of the normal woman. Her mannish bluntness of speech and of plan disaccord. She lacks intuitions. The Uraniad shows her vaguer, inherent femininity by interesting minor traits, such as the fact that she is not distinguished in inventive processes more than is her normal sister. In literature she is constantly successful. She is a good executive, especially when she has at her side, as in royal and official instances, the physical aid of man. If we pass to the Uraniad who is of the lowest grade of social humanity, whether we meet her in a brothel or prison, she is depravity in the abstract; an épave complete, if fallen into the uttermost social pits.

General Aspects
of the Uraniad's

To depict Uraniad love, we can best employ the process by which the student of male similisexuality advances to understanding it; viz., a "translation", taking phases of normal love and contrasting the similisexual emotions. In the Uraniad-love we meet again sudden passions, excited by the mere beauty of another woman; or the more gradual growth of desire. We find the blending of intellectual and moral admirations. We observe the amorous wish for physical possession, with the instinct for the surrender of self, as the only possible completion of the Ego. We find the indifference to male beauty as a sexual feeling, and a coldness or horror as to the man's sexual embraces. There are the jealousies, the struggles, the despairs, the vengeances, the emotional nuances, social dramas of every kind. The physical rapports of Uraniadism, as contrasted with male similisexual relations, do not allow the bodily satisfactions of the Uraniad to be organically so vivid as the man's. Man's seminal system and its ejaculative process make his pleasure more acutely physical. Again, the Uranian embraces are not necessarily at all dangerous to his nervous system. But the nervous demands on the Uraniad frequently make the gratification of her desires pernicious; disturbing gravely her intellectual and nervous poise.

The Uraniad
Mask: Neither so
Elaborate nor Ne-
cessary as the
Uranian One.

As the law and society, concern themselves so much less, hardly at all, with feminine similisexualism than with the masculine, the Uraniad need not be so solicitous about the hiding of her nature. Men are not curious. Normal women are not aware or keen. Even daily undercurrents of such a sexual instinct escape observation, far more than Can the Uranian's predicaments and practices. Indeed, similisexuality is the unseen basis of hundreds of close friendships among women around us. Marriage often intervenes to end it. The Uraniad shows here a distinction of her nature. For unless "inborn" to her unfortunate instinct, she is much more likely to lose it with maturity and marriage than is the Uranian to lose his. Her abnormalism often declines, even if it has been extremely vehement, after she marries. She ceases to be of the Third Sex. The man is her best physician, in such fortunate cases of "cure". But there must not be the too-confident notion that she can be so transformed and normalized. For her marriage can be as dark a tragedy, as melancholy a failure, as for her brother in misfortune, the Uranian. For the Uraniad of high nature and pure life, not given to professional sexuality, it can be often a perfect renovator.

The Uraniad In-
tersex inferior to
the Uranian One
as a Secondary
Sex, when Both
are Contrasted.

We are led to the conclnsion, however unwillingly, as we contemplate the Uraniad closely, that she is by no means so finely-endowed, so ethereal, so interesting an intersex as is the Uranian. Her inherently feminine shortcomings are pronounced. The Uranian stands above her as a secondary sex, when both "races" are compared at their best. He refers back more eloquently to a vigorous, well-balanced human type; not to speak of higher suggestions. The Uraniad, while she often excites admiration and enthusiasm, leaves a more unsatisfactory physical, moral, intellectual and social impression on us.

The following are some general examples of this curious between-sex. They are from the memoranda of various pathologists. The first one is given by an American physician, from his personal acquaintance.

Instance of In-
born Uraniadism
Fine Moral, Intel-
lectual and Æsthe-
Type, but no
Outward Evi-

"Miss A— an American, thirty years of age, by profession teacher of the pianoforte, but not now in active professional life, was referred to me by her family-physician in M— where she resides most of the year, when not traveling, visiting etc. Miss A— in type is a blonde, of middle height, figure wholly feminine, has much elegance of form and movements, and a beautiful face. Nothing suggests masculinity' unless it be a certain rapid firmness of her walk, a long step, and her rather heavy timbre of voice in speaking. She sings a contralto, not specially deep. Anatomical examination of more particular sort betrays nothing abnormal. Full bust and feminine contours of limbs, genitalia normal; rather unusual development of clitoris. But Miss A— is much disturbed as to her vita sexualis, and so seeks medical advice".

"She has no knowledge of abnormality of temperament in her family except that one uncle was mixed-up, directly or indirectly, in a blackmailing affair in Paris, many years ago, which matter Miss A— now indicates as of a pederastic sort. Miss A— was however often told by her mother that before she was born the mother "had prayed and hoped from morning till night that she would have a boy"; as two girls had already been born. Both these sisters died in infancy. The parents still live. Miss A— was a quick-minded child. She has had excellent educational advantages, of which she has made the most. Was a good scholar, except as to mathematics and chemistry, developed early fine musical gifts, took special courses and prizes. As a little girl, was highly sensitive to female beauty, and cared little or nothing about a boy's looks, or a man's. Remembers strong sexual feelings as to theatrical posters giving portraits of a beautiful actress. When about nine, she stole the picture of a lady, personally unknown to her, from a photographer's shop, and slept with it "on her bosom often", with indistinct sexual feelings for it. At dances, and so on among young people, she felt either indifference or repugnance to dancing with a youth, to being kissed by him, etc; while to dance with a girl, and to be embraced by one whom she admired gave her pleasure, "making her quiver all over with delight". Her dreams of embracing other girls were frequent. She had many strong sentimental attachments, and was often morbidly jealous, as to her own sex. Between 12 and 13 her sexual maturity was emphatic. She used to masturbate with either an "ideal" female image in mind, or looking at the portrait of one special friend, her senior. Her emotions now centered on women older than herself, At seventeen, she began a regular sexual relation with a schoolmate, who was like herself. (Masturb. mut.) Another affair came about this date, as the preceding one cooled, and the former friend, then about eighteen, fell in love with the son of a neighbour. The second relation lasted about a year and a half, when the young woman confessed to Miss A— that she had a similar sentiment for a female cousin, and so wished to maintain much less intimate relations with Miss. A— This declaration cost Miss A— grief, jealous despair, morbid sense of injury and loss, and affected her nervous organization seriously. At this same time, she became the object of a strong sentiment on the part of a young man, who was much admired by all her girl-friends. She discouraged him entirely. Miss A— never was coquettish nor vain; in the case of several discarded lovers she has continued to retain their friendship and even intimacy".

"When about twenty years old, Miss A— fell deeply in love with a well-known young actress, who had a similar passion for her. So began an affair of more intense similisexualism than anything preceding (Masturb. mut., sapphism, mut.) This lasted several months, till the actress went on a professional tour. But the two friends have never lost sight of each other, and occasionally meet in one or another European city, and on the former terms. Miss A— has several times been the object of similisexual "addresses" from other women, sometimes favourably received sometimes not. Her professional work has been successful, not merely as to teaching, but in connection with private musicales, and as accompanist in public concerts. But she has suffered much when in active career as a teacher from her tendency to sexual interest in attractive female pupils. This she has always earnestly "fought-off", for she feels, most conscientiously, her personal responsability to her pupils and also has a strong regard for the innocence of youth. She slowly became aware of her abnormality but has never had clear idea of the matter, and has thought only of hiding it from those not likely to understand it. She went out into social life much in past years, but chiefly to see other women. Miss A— has never had any desire to wear male attire, her own beauty is a pleasure to her, in so far as it attracts to her women whom she admires. She dresses handsomely and takes pleasure in her toilettes, though she does not study them as do many of her friends. She is a fine dancer, and a brilliant conversationalist. She has always attracted men, and has declined three offers of marriage. Her continuing in single life has perplexed her relatives and made "family trouble". When she was twenty-five, one offer of marriage, specially persistent, was from a young physician, of attractive personality, successful, etc. Miss A— admired him, and valued him as a friend. She was held back from accepting him simply by horror of sexual intercourse with a man. "If he had been a woman, I would have been the happiest being in the world". After much reflection, she decided to confess her secret to him. Naturally, he begged her to try their marriage as a remedy, and promised all degrees of sexual reserve with her, "till she should become more normal in sentiments". But he knew something of homosexualism, and he "could not promise" Miss. A— that her instincts would disapear. She therefore broke off the intimacy. The episode enlightened her somewhat as to her psychologic status. She was frightened and bewildered and again thought of suicide. At this time, a death in the family made Miss A— independent of her profession. She laid it aside, and. though ardently fond of it, she now rather avoids music as a recreation. In course of last year, Miss A— has been in homosexual relations with a lady of high social standing, some years her senior, married but living in platonic relations only, with her husband, who is believed to be homosexual. Miss A— lately has become despairing of a normal vita sexualis. She dreads especially the increase, or non-decrease, of her feelings as she grows older, and (as she frankly remarked) becomes less attractive. Insomnia, hysterical tendencies and so on, are becoming more pronounced. She has again turned to the idea of marriage, the more as an excellent offer has been repeated. But even in thinking seriously of this her horror corporis as to a man is extreme".

"Miss A— takes interest in belles-lettres, is a great novel-reader, but of good fiction only. She likes the theater and says that she is fond of fancying herself as the heroine, oftener however as the hero, of a drama. She is frequently excited sexually by descriptions of female loveliness, by depictions of how a man feels in sexual excitement, and the like, as it offers "just what she feels" when with a woman that she sexually loves. Miss A— impresses me as having a fine moral nature, as a person who instinctively loves truth, unselfishness, modesty, refinement, dignity of character in general. She does not know exactly how far she is wanting in domestic tastes, for though she has orderly habits, is practical in various affairs and sometimes assists her relatives or friends in domestic duties, still she has lived chiefly in boardinghouses and hotels, and has not much experience of routine feminine work. But she dislikes all sewing and fancywork, knows little of cookery, and does not like to make use of what little she knows".

"Miss A— thinks that during sexual intercourse with women she feels herself wholly "active", and "quite as if she were the man", and she "usually gives that impression" to a partner".

Another instance of adult uraniadism that is appropriate is the following, which I cite from Dr. Krafft-Ebing, with some condensation. The subject is not of the "amazonian" type at all, and is of an intellectual and social class that may be called superiour.


"S. J—, thirty-eight years old, a governess, seeks medical advice on account of nervous disorder. Her father was mentally unsound and died of a brain disease. The patient was an only child, and suffered in her early years from headaches, painful emotions, excess of conscience, morbid interest in death, etc. In her earliest years the patient was sexually excitable. By instinct, masturb. till nine years old. She has never felt any sexual inclinations toward a person of the other sex. If she ever has thought at all of marriage, it has been in view of practical life. On the other hand she feels powerful sexual inclinations toward young women. She supposed that such inclination was only warm friendship, but came to learn the nature of the feeling; by an excited "longing" in it felt that it was more than mere friendship … The patient finds it incomprehensible that a girl can love a man, but well "understands how" it is that a man loves a girl. For beautiful women and girls she has always had a lively interest, and constantly has been sexually excited by the sight of them. Her longing has always been toward kissing and embracing them. She has never dreamed sexually of men, but only of girls. Her delight has been giving up herself to the sight of such. Partings from such friends made her "desperate". The patient whose outward appearance is thoroughly womanly and in the highest degree decent, has no special sense of her being "active" or "passive", even in her dreams. No traces of a masculine physique".

Instance: Physi
que Not Quite
Normal: Ethical-
Mental Grade
Not High.

The following example, supplied to me by a French physician and neuropathologist is of use in presenting the type of Uraniad who is of relatively low grade as to ethical and intellectual nature, while not a criminal.

"R. E—, thirty-two years old, French parents and ancestry on all sides, profession (nominal) has been advised by another patient to consult me. She resides in Paris. Miss E. suffers from general nervousness and from what seems to be the milder epilepsy, attacking her but very occasionally. Parents (living) have some marked nervous disorders; one brother insane at S—, is semi-violent at times. Miss E—, from extreme youth, has always felt herself sexually interested in beautiful women, and has wished to embrace them, concumbere eis, etcetera; but on the contrary has never had any desire for masculine caresses, or the least interest in masculine beauty, male personal charms, etc., except of a calm, platonic sort. Her antipathy to corporeal intimacy with a man amounts to horror corpor. hominis, in fact. The patient says she feels it the more intelligently, compared with her pleasure in embracing, kissing, masturb. mut. and occasional sapphism with women, because she was the victim of a kind of rape some years ago. She insists that she then experienced ample proofs of her being congenitally unsympathetic to male relationships. During a walk with a young man whom she admired as a friend, and who was of distinguished personal beauty, he ravished her, or rather he succeeded partly by force and partly by what she vaguely calls "very vehement persuasions", in having sexual intercourse with her. She was not in any way conscious of the least sexual sympathy, but is sure that fear or moral aversion had nothing to do with her antipathy. E— now has two sexual intimacies with women; a middle-aged married woman being the more intimate friend, the other one, a young lady employed in a banking-establishment. (Sapph. mut. et masturb.) R. E— shows emphatically signs of secondary mental and, to some extent, moral individuality. She "has no religious convictions" and calls herself an agnostic. She had good educational advantages in youth, but disliked study and was never proficient in even ordinary matters, such as reading, simple mathematics, geography and history. She writes a clear but unformed hand, and spells uncertainly. She has never cared to read anything except the newspapers, and novels by Xavier de Montépin, Gyp, Eugène Sue and Paul de Kock. She likes the kind of theatrical pieces that are given at such theaters as the Palais-Royal, and, so far as I infer, the broader the humour the more acceptable. She often goes to the Folies-Bergères, with a male friend, and even to the Moulin-Rouge now and then. In the latter place, she sat down one evening, near to a young, pretty prostitute of similisexual tastes. In the absence of the gentleman who accompanied her, she made enough of an acquaintance with this person to give her male escort the slip, and went for the night to the apartment of the woman; but only, as she insists, in a mad sort of freak, "just as a man would do". Of such women as a class, she has what is apparently a proper aversion. She is exceedingly fond of dress and jewellery, and I learn that she has a poor sense of the moral obligation of a debt. At least, she has not hesitated to open accounts with tradesmen, to order costly articles of dress, etc., that she could not pay for, and did not expect to pay for; in one or two cases suits having been brought. She confesses to being almost devoid of jealousy, in her relations with women; "if she is not loved in return or if her friends are untrue", she seeks others, and is "as well satisfied with one pleasant person as with another". She appears to lack any constancy in her emotional life, and professes that she has no sympathetic feeling toward her relatives, "though they are a very good sort of people". From certain incidents, not directly of her vita sexualis, I am inclined to think that R. E— has small respect for truth, when subterfuges, not to say falsehoods, are convenient. She told me, on her second consultation with me, an incident involving her deliberate theft of a private journal of a friend, to learn how the pecuniary affairs of the lady stood, and also to try to discover a detail in regard to a Bourse speculation. R. E— says that she is passionately fond of all games of chance, and has visited Ostend and the Riviera for the purpose of gambling there".

"R. E— is a fine-looking blonde, in type. She has no signs of masculine physique externally that the ordinary observer would note, except that of a slight growth of hair on the lips and chin, for which she has taken an electrical treatment with partial success. Manner and voice wholly feminine. Hips normal size. The genitalia, however, are abnormal; the patient having a pseudo-penis which is almost of the dimensions of the organ of a boy of ten years, with a nearly complete glans; vagina is imperfectly developed, etc. The breast-development of the patient is not normal. She has always had very irregular periods, and lately they have ceased entirely".

Instance: comple-
te Uranianism
but with unusual
Feminine Temp-
Tastes, etc.

From a distinguished Hungarian specialist in neuropathic disorders, the authour receives the following memorandum of interest as illustrating the Uraniad whose feminine nature is in many respects perfectly normal; only the decisive factor, her sexual instinct, setting her apart from women.

"Mrs. K—, twenty-seven years of age, Hungarian by birth and of both Hungarian and Russian descent, has been under my care at the Baths of X— this summer, for the sake of a recently developed tendency to insomnia. Otherwise the patient is in excellent health, accompanying her husband to the Baths, he being rheumatic. The confidence of the patient was sufficient to disclose gradually to me the following facts. Mrs. K— was from childhood perfectly indifferent to the other sex, but strongly susceptible to female beauty. It has always acted upon her sexually. She has never had anything except "complete indifference" or aversion to male beauty of person, to physical contact with men; and kissing, embracing, etc., by youths and men have been repugnant to her in the extreme. On the other hand, passionate pleasure in contact with female beauty; warm friendships, always tending to be "like love affairs", and in some cases such, (masturb. mut. et cunniling.) She was "in sickening terror" at the idea of marriage to her husband, which event family-circumstances made necessary. Her husband, however, soon made her understand that he was not disposed to insist on conjugal rights; having no mind to give up a mistress in the same city. Mrs. K— was glad to be so released; has never made any dissent from the other ménage that her husband continues. She had no pleasure in the rare coitus, that her husband soon gave up entirely; though she managed to subdue her horror hominis enough to deceive him as to her real instincts. These he has never known. She has lived in a constant homosexual relationship with one or another friend, during many years; and takes intense pleasure in the sexual acts. (Mast, mut., cunniling. and so on.) The most intimate of these intimacies, that with a cousin, has been broken, within some months, by death. The shock and the physical deprivation together have worked severely on the patient's nervous system. Hence the insomnia. Her husband has not suspected the sexual abnormalism of his wife; at least he has never intimated such a suspicion, the less because he is an army-officer, obliged to be a great deal of the year absent from the city; and when there he passes his nights with his mistress. Hence he is always glad if his wife has one or another relative or friend with her. He has never shown jealousy, having perfect confidence in Mrs. K—s integrity and "coldness". Mrs. K— goes much into society".

"Respecting her outward and other physique, Mrs. K— has nothing unfeminine. She is a woman of elegant female figure; full bosom, and hips; posteriors female in size and contours. She has a charming face (very expressive) and the grace of a woman of the world. She dresses handsomely, and tells me that she "takes great interest in the matter". She is also interested in housekeeping; fond of the finer sorts of cookery. She has much pleasure in sewing and embroiders beautifully; has lately presented a handsome piece of such work to a church. She is fond of light reading and of the theater; a brilliant pianist, and sings very well, with rather a high soprano voice. She seems to he of sincere and superiour character. She once worried much, and suffered greatly on account of her sexual abnormality, as to which a friend early informed her. Little by little, she has given up thinking it morally or physically wrong, being so innate and complete. The patient has no abnormality of the genitalia that I could discover; certain details of minor importance are plainly the result of her homosexual intercourse. She has never been a mother, probably could not be; though my examination as to this was not conclusive … She speaks of herself as having great libido when with a woman that she loves. She also thinks that her "rôle" is by natural instinct decidedly the "active" one in such intercourse, and says that she "knows she feels exactly as a man does". Menstruation irregular, and very scanty at times".

The "Amazon-
ian" Uraniad.

Of the "amazonian" or "viraginous" Uraniad, the really man-like type, at its farthest physical advance, will occur examples elsewhere in this book. But aside from the Uraniad who has a physique robust enough for rudely muscular labours, who becomes mechanic, sailor, soldier, or what else, let us glance here at a grade so decided that living as a man among men, and even marriage with a woman have been a part of the vita sexualis and social life. A particularly large sequence of these cases is set forthin the "Jahrbuch für Sexuelle Zwischenstufen", annually published in Leipzig (Max Spohr) and in the studies of Moll, Krafft-Ebing and others. The last-named psychiater can be cited as to the following:

Instance of Vira-
ginous Uraniad.

"Miss X— thirty-eight old, came to me in the autumn of 1881, on account of serious spinal irritation and obstinate sleeplessness, in struggling with which she had become a morphinist and also took chloral. The mother and a sister in the family were nervous invalids, the rest normal … With the very first meeting, the patient impressed me as striking, by her peculiarities of dress, her features, etc. She wore a man's hat, had her hair cut short, wore a man's eyeglasses, a man's cravat, a frock cut like a long, wide masculine coat, and men's boots. She had a set of harsh, mannish features, a rough and rather low voice, and made the impression of a man in woman's petticoats, rather than of a lady, [unless one observed her female contour of bosom and feminine breadth of hips. The patient offered no signs of erotism in a long diagnosis. When asked about her clothing, she answered that such wear was better for her than another sort. Gradually she stated that as a little girl, she had preferred horses and masculine occupation, and had never been interested in feminine work. She had, later, taken to reading with much pleasure, and had become a teacher. She has never liked to dance, and has thought it "nonsense". She has never been interested in ballets. The circus, however, has always been her greatest enjoyment. Until her sickness in the year 1872, she had felt no sexual inclination, either for man or woman. But from that time on, strong friendships with female persons, especially young women, and also the wish felt and gratified to wear clothes of masculine cut". [The physician here states that the patient's sexual instincts for women alluded to, though mostly psychic, in one instance had not been wholly platonic. The patient later entered an institution for the cure of mental ailments, and died there. The fact is noted that there was no hermaphroditism, but that there were indications of abnormalism as to the genitalia].

Instance: Semi-
Viraginous Ura-
niad, Good Social
Grade; Complete

An advanced type of the "viraginous" Uraniad, in no particular professional life, but of good social standing, occurs m this example, from a Chicago physician:

"Some two months ago, I was called to a hotel of this city to treat (for peritonitis) a guest registered in the house, and known as Mr. L. Z—, of Boston. I found the patient in bed. The patient was of rather undersize, somewhat more delicate of extremities and generally frailer in osseous structure (as far a passing glance would indicate this) than is the average man, but not really markedly so; a smooth face, plain features not distinctively feminine; short greyish hair abundant. Various articles of exclusively masculine clothing were lying about the room. There were cigarettes and liqueurs on a table. The patient was seriously ill, and spoke asthmatically in a low, masculine voice. As I began to make some examinations, I was requested, perfectly calmly, "Not to be surprised at anything". I was however a good deal disconcerted to become convinced in a few minutes that my patient was not a man, but a woman. This concealment of sex the supposed "Mr. Z—" promptly admitted, at the same time requesting me to observe the closest secrecy as to the matter. The patient's attack of peritonitis was warded off, so that "Mr. Z—" soon was able to proceed on her journey to New Orleans; but not till she had reposed enough confidence in me to gratify my curiosity as to such a masquerade and to allow me some professional examination of as singular a type, which advanced far toward full masculinity".

"The facts in the case are as follows. "Mr. Z—" who is really Mrs. X—, a widow (after a married life of only five months) is of American-Scandinavian birth. The family has several times included members of weak, or worse, nervous constitution. One grandfather died insane, and an aunt was of such masculine traits, and so eccentric that she was "the talk" of the community. Afterwards this aunt died in an asylum. The parents died in the patient's infancy, and "Mr. Z—" was brought up by other relatives and educated in a convent in a Southern city. She has always disliked female work, female society, female clothing; preferring the life and society, of boys and men in every way. She has always wished that she were "really a man", the more as her physique has become increasingly masculine with her maturing. In the convent she was much the object of remarks on account of her mannish features and figure, and because of strongly expressed desires to be as unfeminine as possible. She made up her mind that as soon at she could do so, she would "try to be a man". She took great pains to observe carefully the ways of masculinity in general and even has taken lessons in manly deportment from an actor, under a pretext of turning to the stage. She grew up, aside from school and the convent, much alone; has few relatives, and so has always been rather on a free footing toward society. She came into a considerable fortune from her parents, on her majority; and during visits to friends, at hotels, in the summers, and so on, she became set on the idea of completely transforming her outward life to that of a man. A friend of hers had done this same thing with perfect success, and now lives in an English city as a man, not suspected to be anything else. But just when "Mr. Z—" was preparing to make such a change, including a residence abroad, she met a gentleman whom she very greatly admired intellectually; and as to his moral character, and who was also of considerable wealth. He fell in love with her, and she decided to marry. But she frankly told me that she not had the least physical attraction to her betrothed though she could not say that she had had distinct horror corporis. She was in fact rather curious of what, would be her physical emotionality toward married life. Of her vita sexualis I will make some further note, presently as it is of importance in so strange a case. She accordingly married Mr. K—, and though herself indifferent (she found herself quite unmoved by sexual intercourse, such as it was, between them) their relations in this respect were "happy and satisfactory" to her husband. He was always travelling commercially; they had no settled home; she was wholly free from domestic life. For some time—during her first weeks of marriage—she lost much of her masculinity of tastes, and, forgot that she would rather be of the other sex. But this retrogression in feeling was wholly apart from the sexual effect on her of her new relationship; so she insists. Also the feelings of repugnance were returning, just when her husband suddenly died while they were in a Mexican city. This left her again to herself. She decided that she "would be a man now, for all and for good". Her relatives were so situated that she need not fear any obstacle or even interest from them. She assumed male attire. From the first, she has wholly deceived everybody, has travelled and lived in the United States, England and the Continent with perfect freedom, and never with detection; the more readily as she passes for a man of invalid constitution and suffers from asthma. She smokes, drinks light liquors temperately, plays billiards, rides horseback, fences, and goes into considerable general society all as a man, and undetected. She has a confidential lawyer who manages her property, which is considerable, and who does not disclose what he knows of her transformation. She went to Boston, and (rather nominally) resides there, because she had no acquaintances there to betray her sex, and there could start out in a new life as a man". She passes much time in England, with the man-woman friend indicated. I have not mentioned that the patient is forty-seven years old, though looking younger; an only child".

The vita sexualis of "Mr. Z—," is completely homosexual, the marriage-episode having made no change in it. As a young child, she was passionately interested in exclusively female beauty, dreamed of sleeping with women, sexually, at an early age, and had no sense of the opposite sex. When in school, she had intense friendships, and was always "falling in love" with other girls. One such friendship in the convent-school became sexual; but (despite the confessional) it was a secret never betrayed by her or by the other party to it, a young nun, who calmed any scruples of conscience. She has often had, later, sexual relations with young women, and once or twice she has kept a regular mistress! She has now a young friend in such a relation. They often travel together, at "Mr. Z—'s" expense, as man and wife. The English friend, by the by, is also from birth wholly homosexual, and has an intense horror hominis as to sexual matters. After some hesitation, one day, Mr. Z— permitted me to make a close anatomical examination, with the following results"…

The memorandum (which I here condense) established a quite abnormal development of the patient's clitoris and the presence of a more than rudimentary scrotum, with one testicle plainly to be felt, though there seminal secretion, nor related system; along with a normal vagina, etc. In short, a near approach to actual hermaphroditism of the genitalia. There was hardly any feminine development of the bosom, the hips were narrow, the thighs concave, the general muscular development was masculine in externals. Other particularities of the sexual system are given. It is of interest to notice that the patient had no clear ideas that she. was organically abnormal until her husband explained the fact. There was no complaint on the part of the husband as to any obstacles to coitus, nor as to indifference etc. on the part of patient: but there seems ground for supposing certain organic defects on the husband's part.

Instance: Virile
Disguise, Male
Externals, Stren-
gth, etc. in Ura-
niad of Humble

Lately in a London police-court, was arraigned a defendant that proved to be an interesting case of masculine, viraginous, external uraniadism, lower middle-class life. Brought before the Marylebone police-justice, was a certain Catherine Coome, aged sixty-six, dressed as a man. She was charged with obtaining money on false pretenses, in various small sums, from a woman in the same house where she was lodging. She had shared a room with a person of the other sex, without detection. For forty years, as it transpired, Catherine Coome aggressively had personated a man, with entire success; even to marrying a young woman in England. The defendant had been first married (as a woman) at about fifteen years of age. She well enough educated to take a post as a schoolmistress. When in Birmingham, she decided that she would personate a man henceforth, as she could "get on better so". She took up the trade of a painter and decorator, on board the Peninsular and Oriental Line steamers, and also was employed in London by several excellent West-End firms as a skilled decorator. She was also for two years at sea, in service as a head-cook, always in male disguise, on a steamer of the Line named. She gave that up, and after returning to England married a female servant in the family of Lady Campbell, at Hampton Court; and so lived for not less than fourteen years at Huddersfield. After this, circumstances brought her to London. Here she fell into poverty, had accidents, illnesses etc., and so was obliged to lead a precarious sort of life, even to being in a workhouse as a male pauper. The prisoner looked thoroughly masculine, and in voice and manner was so manlike that there was no wonder in her identity being unguessed. She was shrewd in her dishonesty, and availed herself of her education in such deceptions; but did not seem to be really of criminal preferences or lacking conscience. She had lived honestly as long as she could do so, it appeared.

Unfortunately the medical analysis of this case has not reached the writer, nor does he know how far there was organic abnormalism. But the wife in Huddersfield "had never suspected" that her partner was not sexually masculine.

Instance: Johan-
ma Buchbinder:
Strong Viragi-
nity. Entire

Typic is the history of a well-known Austrian Uraniad, Johanna Buchbinder. Of relatively low-class family, she was born in Vienna, and from youth was masculine in her physical type, even to being vigorously muscular. She decided early to personate a man, from reasons of convenience and innate masculinity of feeling; her vita sexualis included. She secured the legitimation-documents of a brother who had died, and she became a mechanic. She was of great bodily strength, and of a coarse temperament. She smoked, drank freely, was obliged to shave herself daily, and rode restive horses like a man. She entered into politics, having a talent for speaking and a male voice, and became active in the Social Democratic party. She was sexually interested only in women. Her sexual system was somewhat abnormal, but not hermaphroditic. In consequence of a quarrel with a woman with whom she had lived maritally, the "wife" being perfectly deceived, Johanna was involved in a stabbing-affair, and in a hospital her sex was disclosed. The remainder of her history seems lost.

Countess V—.

In London, 1901, occurred an aristocratic suicide, that of Countess V—, a foreigner by birth, but long identified with English social life. Her death had some connection, sedulously concealed, with the uranistic nature of the deceased. Countess V— an Hungarian lady of high family, well-known in political and social affairs in its time, had been from first youth an Uraniad. She was also robust to virility, though not amazonian or coarse. She had been allowed in childhood an almost boyish liberty of tastes, amusements, dress, and so on. She was a hunter of large game and an expert boxer and fencer, when other young women are thinking of dances, toilettes and domestic duties, and was passionately fond of horses. She was obliged to marry from reasons of family-convenience: but though she became a mother, her vita sexualis was totally averse to such a normal union, and presently the marriage was dissolved. Countess V— therewith settled in England. She became much engrossed in sporting life, and was a steady patron of the turf, was constantly at racing-meetings, and so on. It was a near collateral member of the family of this lady who is the hero of an Uranian tragedy, given in another chapter of this study.

ness of College
Theatricals &
Athletics for
Young Women.

The Remark may be made here, that exactly as certain forms of college-theatricals for young men develop their similisexual instincts, and much as react, if in less direct degree, athletics in university life for men, so comes with the theatrical and athletic interests of women's colleges a tendency to abnormal sexualism of young women. It sometimes confirms the instinct in the "born" Uraniad. The question of athletic work and sport for young women is too little regarded by parents and by physicians, in its relations to sexual life. Further consideration of this topic will be met in the next chapter.

Three Instances
of Viraginous and
Concealed Ura-

In Riga, some time age occurred one of those distinctive cases of concealed uraniadism that are so constantly spoken of as being "unique", and "unexampled" and the like, when really not such at all. The widow of a man of standing in Riga presented a petition to the authorities to be allowed to resume her maiden-name; the more justifiably as her deceased husband had been a woman. With the latter she had lived happily, and as it appeared with satisfactory sexual relations between them (the deceased partner being in the masculine rôle) during about nineteen years. On being asked why she had not disclosed the matter earlier, she said that she had been "afraid and ashamed" to do so.

Another case of simulation of a man, recorded in Vienna, is that of a certain Anna Drexelberger, middle-aged, and dressed as a man during about thirty years, ever since girlhood; detected as being feminine through a charge in a police-court of falsifying facts. Her case excited sympathy, as it was made clear that she had played the part of a man so long because of the difficulty of finding feminine employment. She had even been a house-porter and general man-of-work. She was exonerated of the charge of perverting her identification, etc., and was presently offered a position of companion, by an elderly lady; which post she accepted. There was every reason to suppose that Anna Drexelberger was sexually more or less abnormal, from various facts in her career. She went to England, and died soon after in London, leaving a estate of considerable value in cash to a young woman in Vienna with whom she had lived sexually and most happily, and who "had never known" that Anna was not a man. The will, by the by, was contested, but was fully sustained.

A pertinent case occurred lately in the city of St. Louis, in the United States of North America. Through the statement of a local physician, a type-setter in the town was taken into custody, when employed in the office of a local journal, on a charge of abduction and as being a woman, though known as "Johann Bürger". The facts soon were clear. Anna Mattersteig was her real name. She was thirty years old. She was living matrimonially with another young woman, Martha Gammater, the daughter of a Leipzig jeweller, and had so lived before they came from Germany. Then, but apparently not earlier, Martha Gammater had discovered that she was the partner of a woman, not of a veritable man. The shock had made the wife insane. At the time of the arrest, she was in an asylum. Anna Matterstieg appeared in court in full male attire, and looked like a fine-appearing man. She disclaimed any intention of contravening the law, in respect of her impersonation and of the abdication (for such it had been) of her companion. She declared that she had assumed the role simply because she "felt herself wholly like a man" and was sure that only by a mistake of Nature had she come into the world at all otherwise. She "would suffer any penalty" rather than wear women's apparel.

To an astonishing case of successful imposture of masculinity by an uraniad, that of Margaret Erb, known as "Prince Egon", which came before the courts of Vienna in March 1908, reference will be made in the tenth chapter of this study, where the morally degenerate type is particularized.

Another Instance:
Viraginous and
Concealed Ura-
niadism; Coarse
Type: Associates.

A noteworthy example of extreme masculinism, coincident with the merely feminine physique as being otherwise almost lost, came to notice in a hospital in Buffalo, in the United States, in 1903. A certain "Harry Gorman", an employé of the New York Central Railway, a robust, athletic, heavily built "man-cook" of about forty, was discovered to be a woman, so far as sexual organization committed one to the conclusion. Nothing else in Gorman could bear out such a sexual classification. For more than twenty years she had concealed her sex, with perfect ease. All the atmosphere of femininity was not only unsympathetic but impossible to her. She did heavy work, drank liquors moderately, and not as an alcoholic, smoked strong cigars, frequented saloons and dance-houses every night, and was untrammelled by any feminine conditions of existence. She swore that "nothing would hire" her to wear women's habiliments. When in the hospital (on account of a broken limb) a clergyman, with pressing views of decorum—if less psychologic sense—came to visit the patient. The visitor wished to argue ä relapse toward female apparel and demeanour. "Harry Gorman" refused to grant the well-meaning gentleman any more interviews. She had voted as a man in several elections—of course illegally. More than this. "Harry Gorman" (the real name was not published in notices of the case) declared that she knew of "at least ten other women", who dressed as men, appeared wholly manlike, and were never suspected of being otherwise, also employed in the same railway-company; some of these being porters, train-agents, switchmen and so on. They often met together and made themselves not a little merry over the success of their transference from one class of humanity to another. The medical examination of Gorman in anatomical detail, is not at the writer's hand: nor did "Harry Gorman" communicate anything as to the similsexual intercourse between the members of this curious confraternity—or sorosis. But that most of the group were similisexual is to be inferred, probably with some organic abnormalities, in one case or another.

The proportion of German Uraniads of virile physique is considerable. In some German cities, Berlin especially, where the "Emancipation" of feminine interests has obtained certain balls and assemblies have illustrated the undercurrents and the uppercurrents of similisexual instincts in women. An entertaining account of an artist-ball, so called, in which only women-workers in the fine arts, literature, and so on were permitted attendance on the dancing-floor, to the exclusion of male guests, is given in the "Jahrbuch für Sexuelle Zwischenstufen", for 1901; copied from a Berlin newspaper, with the descriptive title, "Ein Fest Ohne Männer". The best element of female esthetic life in the German capital, and male costumes were much affected, especially by the large contingent of similisexual women present. This ball is an annual affair at present. With "The Uraniad in Æsthetic Professions" we shall refer to such matters more appropriately than in the present chapter of general study of types.