Open main menu

The Native Religions of Mexico and Peru

THE HIBBERT LECTURES, 1884.



LECTURES

ON THE

ORIGIN AND GROWTH OF RELIGION

AS ILLUSTRATED BY THE

NATIVE RELIGIONS OF MEXICO AND PERU.

DELIVERED AT OXFORD AND LONDON,

In APRIL and MAY, 1884.


BY

ALBERT RÉVILLE, D.D.
PROFESSOR OF THE SCIENCE OF RELIGIONS AT THE COLLÈGE DE FRANCE.


Translated by PHILIP H. WICKSTEED, M.A.





WILLIAMS AND NORGATE,

14, HENRIETTA STREET, COVENT GARDEN, LONDON;
And 20, SOUTH FREDERICK STREET, EDINBURGH.


1884

[All Rights reserved.]



LONDON:
PRINTED BY C. GREEN AND SON,
178, STRAND.



CONTENTS.
 
———
 
Lecture I.
INTRODUCTION.—CENTRAL AMERICA AND MEXICO. THEIR COMMON BASES OF CIVILIZATION AND RELIGION.
  PAGE
Importance of the history of Religion 1
The religions of Mexico and Peru, and the special importance of studying them 7
Journey to another planet 8
Parallelism of religious history in the New World and in the Old 9
Central America and Mexico, and the authorities as to their history and religion 14
Area and general character of this civilization 18
The Mayas 20
Toltecs, Chichimecs and Aztecs 24
The Aztec empire 29
Character of the religious conceptions common to Central America and Mexico 35
The serpent-god and the American cross 38
Estimate of the character and significance of the parallelisms observed 39
 
Lecture II.
THE DEITIES AND MYTHS OF MEXICO.
The Sun and Moon 45
The pyramidal Mexican temples 47
The great temple of the city of Mexico 48
The narrative of Bernal Diaz; and the two great Aztec deities, Uitzilopochtli and Tezcatlipoca 51
Mythical significance of Uitzilopochtli 54
Significance of Tezcatlipoca 60
The serpent-god Quetzalcoatl, god of the east wind 62
Netzalhuatcoyotl, the philosopher-king of Tezcuco 69
Number of Mexican deities 70
Tlaloc, god of rain 71
Centeotl, goddess of maize 72
Xiuhtecutli, god of fire 74
The Mexican Venus 75
Other deities 76
The Tepitoton 77
Mictlan, god of the dead 78
Summary and reflections 79
 
Lecture III.
THE SACRIFICES, SACERDOTAL AND MONASTIC INSTITUTIONS, ESCHATOLOGY AND COSMOGONY OF MEXICO.
Recapitulation 85
Original meaning of sacrifice 86
Human sacrifices and cannibalism 87
Importance attached to the suffering of the victims 90
Tragic and cruel character of the Mexican sacrifices 91
The victims of Tezcatlipoca and Centeotl 93
The children of Tlaloc 96
The roasted victims of the god of fire 97
Mexican asceticism 99
Mexican "communion" 101
Religious ethics 102
The priesthood 106
Convents, monks and nuns of ancient Mexico 109
Mexican cosmogonies 112
The great jubilee 116
The future life 118
Conversion of the Mexicans 121
The Inquisition 122
Conclusion 123
 
Lecture IV.
PERU.—ITS CIVILIZATION AND CONSTITUTION.—THE LEGEND OF THE INCAS: THEIR POLICY AND HISTORY.
The Peru of the Incas 127
Cortes and Pizarro 131
The Inca hierocracy 132
The Quipos 134
Authorities for the history and religion of Peru 136
Garcilasso el Inca de la Vega 137
Peruvian civilization 139
Huayna Capac's taxation 142
Social, political and military organization of Peru 143
Education 152
Material well-being 153
The legend of the Incas: Manco Capac and Mama Ogllo 156
Were the Incas really the sole civilizers of Peru? 159
Succession of the Incas and character of their rule 160
Free-thinking Incas 161
Huayna Capac's departure from traditional maxims 166
 
Lecture V.
THE FALL OF THE INCAS.—PERUVIAN MYTHOLOGY. PRIESTHOOD.
Recapitulation 171
Atahualpa and Pizarro 172
Father Valverde's discourse 174
Atahualpa's imprisonment and death 176
Inca pretenders 179
Worship of the Sun and Moon 182
Viracocha, god of fertilizing showers 184
His consort, Mama Cocha 186
Old Peruvian hymn 187
Pachacamac, god of internal fire 188
The myth of Pacari Tambo 191
Cuycha, the rainbow 194
Chasca, the planet Venus 194
Worship of fire 195
Worship of the thunder 196
Worship of esculent plants 197
Worship of animals 198
The Huacas 199
Peruvian priesthood 202
The Virgins of the Sun 204
Punishment of faithless nuns 206
Independent parallelisms, illustrated by the "couvade" 208
 
Lecture VI.
PERUVIAN CULTUS AND FESTIVALS.—MORALS AND THE FUTURE LIFE.—CONCLUSIONS.
Peruvian temples 215
Sacrifices 218
Columns of the Sun 222
Hymns 223
Religious dances 224
The four great festivals 225
Chasing the evil spirit 227
Occasional and minor festivals 229
Eclipses 230
Sorcerers and priests 230
Moral significance of the Peruvian religion 232
Communion, baptism and sacerdotal confession 233
Various ideas as to the future life 235
Supay, the god of the departed 237
Conversion of the Peruvians 239
Are the origins of the American civilizations to be sought in the Old World? 241
Real significance and importance of analogies observed 243
Sacrifice 245
Three stages of religious faith: animistic nature-worship, anthropomorphic polytheism and spiritual monotheism 246
The genesis of the temple 249
Primitive independence and subsequent mutual interpenetration of religion and morals 250
Human nature invincibly religious 252
The guiding principle 254
Farewell 255
 
ADDENDA ET CORRIGENDA.
 
———
 
P. 16, note, under Acosta, add, "E[dward] G[rimstone]'s translation was edited, with notes, for the Hakluyt Society, by Clements R. Markham, in 1880."
P. 17, note, lines 4 and 5, to "English translation" add "in epitome."
lines 8 and 9, for "Ixtilxochitl" read " Ixtlilxochitl."
line 7 from below, for "note" read "notes."
P. 32, line 10 from below, for "bases" read "basis."
P. 34, line 1, for "lama" read "llama."
P. 35, last line, insert "and" after "America."
P. 77, note, last line, for "caps." read "capp."
P. 92, line 9 from below, omit "to" before "which."
P. 113, note, last line, for "Chichemeca" read "Chichimeca. "
P. 129, line 3, for "East to West" read "West to East."
P. 224, note, for "Rivero y Tschudi, l.c." read "Rivero y Tschudi: Antigüedades Peruanas: Viena, 1851." N.B. An English translation of this work by F. L. Hawks appeared at New York in 1853.



Copyright.svg PD-icon.svg This work is a translation and has a separate copyright status to the applicable copyright protections of the original content.
Original:

This work was published before January 1, 1924, and is in the public domain worldwide because the author died at least 100 years ago.

 
Translation:

This work is in the public domain in the United States because it was published before January 1, 1924.


The author died in 1927, so this work is also in the public domain in countries and areas where the copyright term is the author's life plus 80 years or less. This work may also be in the public domain in countries and areas with longer native copyright terms that apply the rule of the shorter term to foreign works.