The New International Encyclopædia/Aguinaldo, Emilio

AGUINALDO, ägē̇-näl′dō̇, Emilio (1870—). The leader of Filipino insurrections against Spain and the United States. He was the youngest of three children, and was educated, first, in his native town, and afterward at the College of San Juan de Letrán in Manila. At this institution, which is conducted by Dominican friars, he remained for four years. In course of time he became gobernadorcillo, or mayor of Cavité Viejo, and was acting as such upon the outbreak of the insurrection in August, 1896. Owing to his prominent participation in this uprising, he went to Hong Kong, consenting to a permanent exile from the islands on condition of a large payment on the part of Spain. In 1898 he returned to Manila, for the avowed purpose, it was said, of aiding the United States in the war against Spain, and immediately after the battle of Manila organized an insurrection, which soon assumed proportions unparalleled in the history of the archipelago. In this movement he displayed great ability and extraordinary personal magnetism. Of the twenty-six province's of Luzon, nearly all were soon in open rebellion, and in the course of several months probably 15,000 Spaniards were captured and more than 2000 driven out of the islands. During the campaign Aguinaldo was engaged in considerable diplomatic fencing with the United States. In June, 1898, he organized a provisional government, consisting of officers of his staff, as well as several of his relatives and friends; and in August of the same year this body appointed him generalissimo of the Filipinos and president of the revolutionary government. In July he addressed an appeal to the Powers for the recognition of Filipino independence. In 1899 he assumed the offensive against the United States, beginning operations by an attack upon Manila, February 4-5, in which he was unsuccessful. During 1899 there were a number of severe engagements. Finally, the native troops were so hard pressed by the Americans that Aguinaldo, after repeatedly removing his capital, was compelled to flee to the mountains. Here the fighting was continued with varying success until March 23, 1901, when Aguinaldo was captured by Brigadier-General Frederick Funston at Palawan, province of Isabella, Luzon, and brought to Manila. On April 2, 1901, he formally took the oath of allegiance to the United States.