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The New International Encyclopædia/Marbeau, Jean Baptiste

MARBEAU, mȧrbō̇′, Jean Baptiste (1798-1875). A French philanthropist, born at Brives. In 1841, while a city official at Paris, in making some investigations of the charitable institutions, he was struck with the lack of provision for the care of babies under two years of age whose mothers were compelled to go out to work. He wrote a book, Des crèches, advocating the establishment of day nurseries. The first was established at Chaillot November 11, 1844. An association of crèches was formed in 1846. Throughout the rest of his life, while specially interested in crèches, he took an active part in furthering various charities. Among his writings are: Etudes sur l'économie sociale (1844; 2d ed. 1875); Des crèches, ou le moyen de diminuer la misère en augmentant la population (1845; many later editions); Du paupérisme en France et des moyens d'y remédier (1847); De l'indigence et des secours (1850). He died at Saint Cloud, October 10, 1875.