The New International Encyclopædia/Navies

NAVIES (OF. navie, from Lat. navia, ship, variant of navis, Gk. ναῦς, naus, Skt. nāu, OIcel. nōr, ship, naust, naval station; connected with Gk. νεῖν, nein, to swim). The term navy is applied to the armed force of a country which operates on the water or in coast and harbor defense. The history of navies goes back to the earliest days of ships, for no sooner were such craft built than their value as weapons of war was at once seen. The Chinese were among the earliest of navigators, but little is known concerning their ancient fighting craft. The most ancient war vessels of which the details are known were those of the Egyptians, and the date assigned to them is B.C. 3000. At the same time it is evident that there were many other peoples that possessed fighting vessels, and that the Egyptians were far from paramount; for they had repeated naval combats with the Mysians, Phocæans, and Phœnicians, and probably also with the Pelasgians, Daunians, Oscans, Cretans, and Sicilians. It is therefore impossible to fix any sort of priority to the possession of naval defense. Herodotus says: “These Phocæans were the first of all the Greeks who undertook long voyages, and they are the people who discovered the Adriatic and Tyrrhenian seas, and Iberia and Tartessus (a part of modern Spain). They made their voyages in fifty-oared galleys and not in merchant ships.” At this time, and for a long time subsequent and anterior, the shapes of merchant and war vessels were quite different, the former being broad and suitable for carrying cargo and the latter narrow and sharp so as to make speed. In addition, the war vessels were built with rams and other warlike appurtenances, while the merchant vessels made a much greater use of sails.

The command of the sea, so far as the Mediterranean was concerned, finally passed to the Phœnicians. Of their cities, Tyre soon took the lead in wealth and power, reaching its zenith about B.C. 1000, when the expression ‘a Tyrian sea’ became “a proverbial expression for a sea whose navigation was prohibited to all but those who claimed the ownership thereof.” After a more or less complete naval supremacy lasting many centuries the power of the Phœnicians began to wane through the repeated assaults of the Assyrians, who attacked Phœnicia by land. Notwithstanding great numerical inferiority, the Phœnicians managed, though defeated, to preserve their independence, though in 870 they were compelled to pay tribute. In 724-720 Tyre w.as captured, but not destroyed, and in 650 the Tyrians threw off the foreign yoke. But the devastating wars of the past two hundred years had so reduced the population that soon after their reassertion of independence their slaves rose and mastered the city. Very soon after this the Egyptians made themselves masters of Phœnicia, but in 605 the Chaldeans drove them out. The naval power of the Phœnician fatherland had now become of little importance, but her colonies were wealthy and nourishing. In the sixth century Carthage declared its independence, and though it never attained the masterful position of the parent State, for a century or more it was upon the water, the most powerful of the Mediterranean States.

The decline of the Phœnician naval power permitted the rise of that of the Greeks and Persians. The confederated Greek fleets completely defeated the Persians at Salamis (B.C. 480). The naval supremacy of Athens was destroyed in the Peloponnesian War (B.C. 431-404).

The Romans found it necessary to build a war fleet when they came in conflict with the power of Carthage. Their first success was the defeat of the Carthaginian fleet at Mylæ (B.C. 260). With the fall of Carthage the naval power of Rome became paramount in the Mediterranean. Finally the battle of Actium (B.C. 31) cut off the last opposing naval force in the Mediterranean, that of Egypt.

Early in the Middle Ages the countries about the Baltic and North seas, which had been sending out their rovers in every direction, began to develop organized naval power. The predatory expeditions of the Norsemen show organized power, though the actual warfare was mostly upon land. The songs and stories of the Scandinavians and Danes contain many accounts of sea lighting. but the accounts are so intermixed with fable and poetic imagery that it is hard to separate fact from fiction. It is not until the ninth or tenth century that we begin to reach anything approaching reliable history. The first great sea fight of which we have a full account is that between King Olaf Trygasson of Norway and the allied Powers of Denmark and Vendland, which were assisted by the Norwegians of the Province of Viken (from which the name of Viking is derived). Notwithstanding his brave and able defensive fight, Olaf was overcome by weight of numbers, defeated, and killed. This was in the year 1000. In 1014 Olaf the Saint assisted the Saxons to capture London, which was occupied by the Danes. This fight is interesting from the fact that it was won by a fleet fighting against land forces. The culmination of the naval power of Norway was reached soon afterwards under Harald Hardrada. About five years before the landing of William the Conqueror in England, Harald destroyed the Danish fleet in a fiercely fought action at Nisaa. In 1066 he started with a fleet and army to assist Earl Tostig, brother of Harold of England, who was in rebellion and had fled to Norway. The ambition of the Norwegian King in this instance caused his death, for he was killed in battle at Stamford Bridge, September 25, 1066—three days before the landing of the Normans and less than three weeks before the battle of Hastings. After the death of Harald Hardrada the Norse sea power declined.

When, after the fall of Rome, there ceased to be any dominant power in the Mediterranean. there was an increase of piracy and robbery on the sea and along unprotected coasts. The geographical position of Italy caused it to be the natural doorway to merchandise entering Europe from the East or moving in the opposite direction. The development of maritime trade thus brought about caused the Italian commercial cities to be the heaviest losers by piracy, and made it necessary for them to establish naval forces. Of the Italian States, Venice, Pisa, and Genoa took the lead in commerce, and all gradually developed powerful navies. The army of Venice was composed chiefly of mercenaries and commanded by one because it was feared that a native might use its power to overturn the Government; but the navy, from which nothing of the kind was feared, became the pride of the people. The Senate encouraged the nobles to trade and serve in the fleet and they became merchants and admirals.

In the ninth century the Saracens had become powerful and troublesome in the Mediterranean, where their piratical armed vessels and strong fleets were the terror of every merchant who had a venture on the sea. They carried their depredations to the coast of Italy, so that in 842 the Venetians coöperated with the Greeks in sending a naval expedition against them. The hostile fleets met at Cortona. The Greeks fled at the first attack of the enemy, but the Venetians fought against vastly superior numbers until their loss was so great as to make further resistance impossible, when the few survivors endeavored to make their escape. For a quarter of a century the humiliation of defeat rankled in the Venetians, and finally they sent out a new force which gained a decisive victory over their enemies on the same spot. During the next six or seven centuries the Pisans, Genoese, and Venetians strove for naval and commercial supremacy with each other and with the Saracens and their natural successors, the Turks, Genoa and Venice profited by the Crusades, furnishing ships, munitions of war, and provisions to the Crusaders. Pisa succumbed to Genoa in the great sea fight off Meloria in 1284. Previous to this Genoa and Venice had entered upon their great struggle for supremacy. Both republics extended their territories by land and sea, and Venice held most of hers until the rise of the Turkish Empire, when she lost many of her islands and seaports, which constituted an almost uninterrupted territory from the head of the Adriatic to Asia Minor and the Bosporus, including Cyprus, Crete, and the Morea. The contest between Venice and Genoa for control of the Mediterranean continued at intervals until 1380, when the Genoese fleet and army which had threatened Venice were captured at Chioggia by the Venetians under Admiral Vettor Pisani, one of the greatest of naval commanders. After the battle of Chioggia the military and naval power of Genoa declined quite rapidly. Venice, on the contrary, continued to grow in wealth, power, and extent of territory until at the close of the Middle Ages the Turks became dominant in the eastern Mediterranean, while at the same time the Republic had to withstand the combined arms of the covetous Christian powers.

The Turks, who had firmly established themselves in Europe, dreamed of universal conquest and were expanding their territory at every opportunity. At last in 1571 Venice, Philip II. of Spain, and Pope Pius V. united in a great effort to put an end to the aggressive naval power of the Moslems, and the combined fleet, under Don John of Austria, dealt an irreparable blow to Turkish prestige in the battle of Lepanto. This victory did not arrest the decline of Venice, whose commercial prosperity was greatly affected by the change in the channels of trade which had been brought about by the discovery in 1497-98 of the water route to India.

Spain made a strong effort to become a great maritime nation, but ultimately failed, partly from governmental mismanagement, partly from various causes connected with the temperament of her people or with the country's environment. In 1588 she sustained a crushing blow in the defeat of the Invincible Armada, which was to conquer England.

Though the fact was not yet recognized, Neptune's sceptre was passing to northern nations, the English and the Dutch. But good sailors as the Dutch were, they were too few in number and too poor long to cope with their great rival, and Britain became mistress of the waves. Alfred the Great is commonly regarded as the founder of the British navy. Before his time the various petty kings had naval forces, but Alfred combined them into an English fleet and took command of it against the Danes in person, and England's first naval victory was gained in his reign off the coast of Essex. Alfred's grandson Athelstan fostered the maritime spirit of his people as regards both commerce and naval affairs. He granted the title of ‘thane’ to any merchant who had made three voyages on the high seas in his own ship freighted at his own expense, though this was a title (previously confined to men of noble rank and extensive landed possessions. Edwy the All Fair is said to have had large fleets, and under Canute the Great English maritime commerce assumed large dimensions. After the Normans had firmly established their rule they also encouraged the growth of shipping and provided for its defense. Henry II. and Richard Cœur de Lion are both known to have had strong naval forces, and under John it was decreed “that any ships of other nations, though at peace and in amity with England, should be made lawful prizes if they refused to strike to the royal flag.” Such an arrogant assumption is not likely to have been made unless the power to carry it out existed, and we know that John's fleet gained a victory over the French in the harbor of Damme. During the century which followed a sort of piratical war existed between England and France and the coasts of both were ravaged by the freebooters on either side. At length, in 1340, the English fleet, commanded by Edward III. in person, won the great victory of Sluis, the French losing nearly their whole force of three hundred vessels and 20,000 men killed, wounded, and prisoners. According to Charnock, this was the first action in which beaked galleys were wholly laid aside and vessels propelled chiefly by sails relied upon. From this time there was no particular improvement in the British navy (except that heavy guns were placed on board ship) until (he reign of Henry VIII., who gave great attention to the fleet, building several relatively very large vessels, of which by far the greatest was the Henry Grace de Dieu. She carried 72 guns and 700 men and her tonnage is variously stated at from 1000 to 1500.

Henry VIII. was the first sovereign in Europe to establish a corps of officers for sea service only; and he did more for the navy than any preceding monarch, using improved models for his ships and employing many Italian shipwrights (then the best in the world) in their construction. He greatly increased the number of vessels and established the arsenals at Portsmouth, Woolwich, and Deptford. Edward VI. and Mary paid little attention to the fleet, but Elizabeth recognized its vital importance and increased the number of ships and their size, besides improving the condition of the officers and gathering vast quantities of naval stores. From her reign to the present day the British navy, though not without rivals, has never been equaled.

In this brief review of the history of ancient and mediæval navies only those are considered which have been of greatest importance in the different periods. This has excluded a very large number from mention except so far as their histories are bound up with the histories of others. The greatest apparent omission is in the case of France. Her navy has always been respectable and occasionally very powerful, but it has never been paramount, and its prestige suffered at different times from defeats brought about by governmental neglect and mismanagement. It has not been to France what that of Great Britain has been to the British Islands and Empire, an absolute necessity. Her fleet has been built up or neglected according to the prevailing policy of the Government.

Modern naval development may be said to have begun with the rapid increase in the size of ships which took place at the close of the fifteenth century (see Guns, Naval); and mediæval history finally closed with the battle of Lepanto in 1571, the last great action in which rowing galleys played an important part. From this time the sail-propelled man-of-war was gradually improved until early in the nineteenth century, when sails began to give way to steam. During this period the British navy managed to retain its general supremacy, though the temporary rise of the Dutch naval power seriously threatened it; and for a few years Louis XIV. managed to maintain a French fleet which was superior to the British, and with which Admiral Tourville defeated the combined British and Dutch forces off Beachy Head (1690). Two years later the French fleet was destroyed at La Hogue by the allied British and Dutch. From this time forward the superiority of the British navy was undoubted. Though it lost many single-ship actions with the French and Americans, no foreign navy could stand before its full strength.

After the close of the Napoleonic wars the great naval Powers were Great Britain and France alone. In the second rank were Spain, Russia, the Netherlands, and Turkey. In the third were Austria, Denmark, the United States, the Two Sicilies, Sardinia, Portugal, and Prussia. In 1860 the conditions were much the same, except that the United States had risen to the second category, the Netherlands had sunk to the third, the Kingdom of Italy was forming, and that of the Two Sicilies tottering to its fall; while Greece, Brazil, Peru, and Chile had organized naval forces.

During the American Civil War the navy of the United States, whose history and present condition will be found fully treated under United States, became greatly expanded, but from 1865 to 1881 it steadily declined, until it reached the point of almost absolute uselessness so far as the ships were concerned, and ceased to be a factor among the naval armaments of the Powers. In 1866 the North German Confederation took over the Prussian navy and made some additions; and the fleet again received some increase of strength in the decade following the formation of the German Empire. Italy began to develop a fleet as soon as the Kingdom was established, but the disastrous battle of Lissa in 1866 caused a temporary check, and it was not until 1872 that she adopted the building policy that in a dozen years brought her up into the first rank of naval Powers. Russia began to reconstruct her fleet after the close of the Crimean War and has pursued a steady and unwavering policy of naval increase from that date to the present. In 1881 the United States began to rebuild the navy, but it was not until 1890 that battleships of the first class were commenced. After completing four large armorclads in 1878-80, Germany added little to her fleet until 1888-89, when a programme was adopted which included the construction of 28 ships of various types. Japan organized its navy on a modern footing soon after the close of the Civil War in the United States, and slowly added to it until after the battle of the Yalu (1894), when she began to build the fine vessels that have made her navy the most powerful outside of Europe, with the exception of that of the United States. Of the Powers of the second rank, Austria-Hungary is first. After the War of 1866 she did little for several years, and then (1872-78) built only three ships of much importance. In 1887 she launched two small armorclads, and in 1895-96 three coast defense vessels. Then was instituted a shipbuilding policy which, if persisted in, may soon place her among the great maritime Powers. Turkey, which had a powerful navy about 1880, has allowed it to fall into decay, and had not in 1903 a single ship of the first or even of the second class.

So far as the collective strength of their heavy fighting ships is concerned, navies are considered to rank as follows in 1903: 1. British; 2. French; 3. Russian; 4. United States; 5, German: 6, Italian; 7. Japanese; 8. Austrian. To the lesser Powers it is difficult to assign places. The relative positions of the United States and Germany are disputed, though all authorities agree that their forces are very nearly equal. At the opening of the twentieth century the French and Italian navies have been falling behind their rivals, and the Russian is hardly holding its own. If the present conditions remain unchanged, it seems likely that in a very few years the United States and Germany will be superior at sea to all other Powers except Great Britain, and will be striving with each other for second place.

The condition of the various navies in 1901-02 was as follows:

MODERN NAVIES.

Argentina. The Argentine navy is the most powerful one possessed by a South American State. In May, 1902, the fleet consisted of 4 high-speed armored cruisers of 6840 to 7l80 tons (launched 1895-98), 1 third-class battleship of 4267 tons (launched 1880, but recently rebuilt), 2 armored coast-defense vessels of 2336 tons (launched 1890-91), 2 armored coast-defense vessels of 1558 tons (launched 1874-75, but being reconstructed), 3 high-speed protected cruisers of 3200, 3570, and 4780 tons (launched 1890-95), 1 small partially protected cruiser of 1442 tons (launched 1874), 2 torpedo gunboats of 1070 and 520 tons (launched 1890-93), 3 gun vessels of 550 to 820 tons, 1 cruising school-ship of 2750 tons (launched 1897), 1 torpedo school-ship of 1100 tons (launched 1880), 4 torpedo-boat destroyers of 280 tons, 2 torpedo boats of 110 tons, 6 of 85 tons, 4 of 52 tons, 10 of 16 tons, and 1 torpedo mining boat. In addition there were building in Europe two high-speed armored cruisers of 8500 tons, and in Buenos Ayres a submarine boat was reported as under construction. The former by a treaty signed in 1903 between Argentina and Chile were to be disposed of, while further disarmament was contemplated. The naval academy is located at Buenos Ayres. There is a small naval station at La Plata and a torpedo school and torpedo-boat station at Buenos Ayres, but the principal navy yard will be at Bahia Blanca when the works which were under construction in 1902 are completed.

Austria. The navy of Austria is in power of its fighting ships eighth in rank among the navies of the world and sixth among those in Europe. For many years no new vessels of importance were added to the fleet, but in 1893 the armored cruiser Kaiserin Maria Theresia was launched and three small battleships were commenced; and since that time the annual building programme has steadily increased. As reorganized in 1901 the Navy Department forms an autonomous section in the Ministry of War under the control of a vice-admiral, who is commander-in-chief of the fleet and marine forces, and who represents the Minister of War in the discussions of the budget of the Navy Department. The department consists of the marine cabinet, the general staff, and three administrative sections divided into eight bureaus. The naval budget for 1901-02 amounted to 46,690,820 crowns ($9,478,236.46: 1 crown = $0.203), an increase of 3,200,000 crowns on that for the previous year. The principal navy yard is at Pola (which is the headquarters of the fleet), but there is another at Triest, and several small stations along the Dalmatian coast. The tabular statement later in this article gives the strength of the Austrian fleet.

Belgium. The seacoast of Belgium is only 42 miles long, and there are no very important seaports except the interior one of Antwerp. For fishery protection there is a small armed steamer of 684 tons, but there is no navy properly so called.

Brazil. Among the navies possessed by South American nations the navy of Brazil is third in power. The principal navy yard, together with the naval academy and apprentice school, is located at Rio de Janiero, but there are other naval stations at Pernambuco, Santa Catalina, and Bahia. The fleet consists of 2 small battleships of 5700 and 4950 tons (launched 1883-85, but rebuilt in 1893-90), 2 new coast-defense armorclads of 3162 tons (launched 1898-99), 4 protected cruisers of 4537, 3450, 2750, and 1300 tons (launched 1890-96), 3 cruisers of 1414 to 1911 tons (launched 1877-90), 5 torpedo gun vessels of 500 to 1030 tons (launched 1892-98), 1 old monitor of 1000 tons, 6 small river monitors of 340 to 470 tons, 15 first-class torpedo boats, 7 second-class torpedo boats, 6 third-class torpedo boats, 2 submarine boats (Goubet type—Paris, 1895), 2 new submarines (projected), 6 armed merchant steamers, 16 small gunboats of 137 to 726 tons, 2 old armorclads of about 1500 tons used as floating batteries, 3 small transports, and several small vessels used for river service.

Bulgaria. The navy of Bulgaria consists of one small gunboat and four royal yachts; the personnel is variable and uncertain.

Chile. Of the navies of South American countries, the navy of Chile is second in power, being exceeded only by that of Argentina. The naval school for officers is at Valparaiso. The principal dockyard is at Talcahuano, though there are naval stations at Valparaiso and Llica and smaller ones elsewhere. The fleet consists of 1 third-class battleship of 6900 tons (launched 1890), 1 fourth-class battleship of 3500 tons launched 1874, but rearmed about 1890), 1 old monitor of 1870 tons (launched 1865), 2 high-speed armored cruisers of 7000 and 8500 tons (launched 1890-97), 1 protected cruiser of 4500 tons (building in 1902), 4 protected cruisers of 3600, 4420, 2080, and 2080 tons (launched 1890-96), 1 new steel-sheathed cruising training ship of 2500 tons (launched 1898), 3 torpedo gunboats of 750 to 860 tons (launched 1890-96), 4 torpedo-boat destroyers of 300 tons (launched 1896), 6 torpedo boats of 130 tons, 13 smaller torpedo boats, several small vessels and old gunboats, and a number of merchant steamers which are held at the disposal of the Government in case of war. In 1902-03 negotiations were concluded with Argentina by the terms of which the war vessels under construction in Europe were not to be added to the fleet, and the reduction in vessels and armament was provided for.

China. The navy of China was never an organized force. The fleet was made up of squadrons supported, officered, and manned by different sections of the Empire, and the squadrons were called the Pe-chi-li squadron, Fu-chow squadron, and Canton squadron. The war with Japan swept away all the armored vessels and many of the unarmored ones and left the navy in a deplorable state, from which it has not yet recovered. There is not now, and there has not been at any time, any well-considered plan of supplying officers to the fleet, although there has been for many years a naval school at Nanking at which a few officers are educated by foreign instructors. What officialism and corruption failed to do in weakening the fleet, incompetency in the older officers accomplished. The principal dockyard is at Fu-chow, but there is a naval arsenal at Shanghai and small yards at Tien-tsin and Canton. The vessels possessed in 1902 in the different squadrons were 2 protected cruisers of 24 knots speed and 4300 tons (launched 1897-98), 5 protected cruisers of 2500 to 2950 tons (launched 1883-97), 3 cruisers of 2200 tons (launched 1883-90), 9 cruisers of 1200 to 2100 tons (launched 1875-87), 1 steel screw training ship of 1800 tons (launched 1895), 6 torpedo gun vessels of 850 to 1030 tons, 12 gunboats of 340 to 580 tons (launched 1869-95), 1 special service vessel (cruiser and cable ship) of 1400 tons, 1 armored gunboat of 200 tons (launched 1875), 6 small wooden floating batteries for river operations, 22 gunboats belonging to river and customs service of 120 to 850 tons, 4 dispatch vessels and training ships of 1200 to 1500 tons (launched 1869-79), 3 armed transports, 1 sailing training vessel of 400 tons, and 21 torpedo boats of 27 to 120 tons (launched 1885-99). Four torpedo-boat destroyers built by Schichau in 1898-99 were captured by the allied forces at Taku in 1900 and added to the British, French, German, and Russian navies.

Colombia. The navy of Colombia consists of 2 gunboats of about 400 tons, 2 armed yachts, 1 barque-rigged sailing vessel of 315 tons register, and 2 sailing cutters used in the revenue service.

Costa Rica. The only war vessel possessed by Costa Rica is a small torpedo boat built by Yarrow in 1892.

Denmark. Though necessarily small, the Danish navy has an excellent reputation as regards organization and efficiency. At the head of it is the Minister of Marine, who is assisted by a superior officer (usually a vice-admiral or rear-admiral) who has the title of ‘director-general.’ The Navy Department is divided into four principal sections: (1) Secretariat; (2) Admiralty; (3) Commissariat and Accounts; (4) Justice. The chief of the secretariat is the director-general; of the admiralty, a captain in the navy. The other two sections have civilian heads. The only dockyard is the royal arsenal, Copenhagen. The fleet consists of 2 armored vessels of 3470 tons (1 launched 1899, 1 building in 1902), 1 fourth-class battleship of 5370 tons (launched 1878, undergoing reconstruction), 6 armored vessels of 2080 to 3290 tons (launched 1868-96—older vessels rebuilt recently), 3 protected cruisers of 1290 tons (launched 1890-92), 2 protected cruisers of 2580 and 2900 tons (launched 1882-88), 4 small cruisers of 560 to 1570 tons (launched 1862-76), 6 gunboats of 215 to 360 tons, 4 surveying vessels of 95 to 145 tons, 1 torpedo mine boat of 389 tons, 1 royal yacht of 770 tons, about 20 special service vessels, receiving ships and hulks, 9 first-class torpedo boats of 90 to 143 tons, 4 second-class torpedo boats of 50 to 82 tons, 15 third-class torpedo boats of 15 to 44 tons.

Ecuador. The navy of Ecuador consists of one small cruiser of 811 tons (launched 1885, repaired 1900), two iron steamers lightly armed, and one torpedo boat of about 85 tons.

Egypt. Egypt has no navy, properly speaking. The armed vessels possessed by the Government are sixteen steam and sailing vessels of the coast guard service of 10 to 450 tons, three dispatch vessels of 330 to 700 tons, one transport of 3700 tons, thirteen shallow-draught river gunboats, and three royal yachts, which carry small guns.

France. The success of the French navy in war has never been proportional to its strength. This has been due to disorganizing forces from without the service which have prevented efficiency. Since the fall of the Empire the navy has greatly improved, and seems to be at present highly efficient; certainly, the ships, armaments, and equipments are of the best, and the personnel of apparently equal excellence. At present the French navy is second to that of Great Britain only, but for financial reasons the number of new ships now in hand and proposed is insufficient to enable France to maintain her present relative lead, and it is likely that within the next decade her navy will be surpassed by those of both Germany and the United States. It seems likely that the French naval authorities have realized the drift of naval matters for several years, and that the special attention that has been paid to the development of submarine boats is due to the hope of obtaining a defensive naval weapon which, at little expense, would enable the French coasts to be adequately protected. The French Navy Department is presided over by a Minister of Marine, a civil officer who is a member of the governmental Cabinet. Until 1902 the executive head was the chief of the naval general staff, but this was changed, and the chiefs of bureaus are directly subordinate to the Minister of Marine, the chief of the staff sinking to the level of a bureau officer. The sections or bureaus of the department are: (a) General Staff; (b) Office of the Minister of Marine; (c) Personnel; (d) Material; (c) Ordnance; (f) Submarine Defenses; (g) Hydrography; (h) Central Control (financial inspection); (i) Accounts; (j) Pensions. There are in addition six consultation or advisory boards: (a) Superior Naval Council; (b) Board of General Inspectors; (c) Council of Works; (d) Commission on Equipment; (e) Commission on Machinery and Plant; (f) Board to Classify Officers for Promotion. The principal naval arsenals (see Arsenal) are located at Cherbourg. Lorient, Brest, Rochefort, and Toulon, but there are others at Saigon (Cochin-China), Bizerta (Africa), Fort de France (West Indies), etc. By far the greater part of the executive officers are graduates of the Naval Academy at Brest, but many are now obtained from other schools, especially those promoted from the enlisted force. The men are enlisted voluntarily or drafted from the conscription maritime. The strength of the fleet is shown in the statistical table later in this article.

Germany. The navy of Germany is of comparatively recent origin. The Prussian navy and that of the North German Confederation were both weak. After the formation of the Empire a number of armored ships of importance were built, but it is only within the last dozen years that Germany began to take rank as a great naval power. From 1890 to the present the building of powerful new ships has proceeded steadily. After completing the vessels of several small building programmes, the Government in 1898 prepared a ‘sexennate’ programme, which was approved by the Reichstag. This provided for the constrtiction of 7 new battleships, 2 armored cruisers, and 5 small cruisers, besides replacing vessels which had become antiquated. The bill laid down the principle that the life of a battleship and of a coast-defense ship should be considered as twenty-five years, that of a large cruiser as twenty years, and of a small cruiser as fifteen years; after which times the vessels are to be considered as antiquated and replaced. In 1900 a much more comprehensive law was passed. This provided that not later than 1916 the German fleet should consist of 38 battleships, 20 large cruisers, 45 small cruisers, and 16 divisions of torpedo boats. Should the finances of the Government permit, the programme will be completed earlier than 1916, and it now seems probable that this will be the case. In 1902 the Government also proposed to ask legislative authority to construct two battleships, five cruisers, and a torpedo division (six boats) in excess of the programme provisions. In 1889 the administration of the German navy was reorganized; all matters connected with personnel, command of the fleet, mobilization, strategy, tactics, etc., were placed under the Oberkommando, and all matters connected with construction, dockyards, and materiel were put under the Reichsmarineamt. The Oberkommando was presided over by the commanding admiral of the navy, and the Reichsmarineamt by a vice-admiral acting as Naval Secretary of State under the Chancellor of the Empire. The two sections were wholly disconnected and were brought into harmony with each other by the Marine Cabinet acting advisory to the Emperor. In 1899 this organization was changed. The title of Oberkommando was changed to Admiralstab, and the office of Oberkommandant or commanding ollicer of the navy, abolished. Additional authority was given the Reichsmarineamt, and the Emperor and his advisers in the Naval Cabinet exercised direct control of naval affairs.

The Imperial naval arsenals are at Kiel, Wilhelmshavn, and Danzig; the Naval School and Naval Academy are at Kiel. The composition of the fleet is given in the comparative tables further on.

Great Britain. The British navy has been the most powerful navy in the world for three centuries, and it is to-day more than equal to the combined forces of any two Powers—probably equal to any four in actual warfare, as allied forces never can develop their full strength from lack of one supreme directing authority. The Naval Department is administered by the Board of Admiralty of six persons, consisting of the first lord, first sea lord, second sea lord, junior sea lord, controller, and civil lord. Theoretically, the members of the board are equal in authority; practically, the first lord is supreme. He has supervision over all departments, prepares the naval budget and programme, and is responsible to Parliament for the affairs of the navy; he is therefore necessarily a member of Parliament. The first sea lord (a flag officer) has charge of movements of the fleet, detail of executive officers, discipline, naval intelligence, deputy adjutant-general of marines, gunnery training establishments, naval reserves, hydrographic office, etc. The second sea lord (a flag officer) has charge of the intelligence department as far as it affects mobilization, manning the navy, training schools for boys, engineer officers, personnel of naval reserves, etc. The junior sea lord (usually a flag officer) has charge of transports, medical department, coal for the fleet, certain officers' allowances, chaplains, and naval instructors, and the intelligence department as regards mobilization so far as it affects the preceding. The controller (a flag officer) has charge of naval construction, dockyards, ordnance material, stores (except coal for fleet), and expense accounts. The civil lord has charge of naval works, general accounts, Greenwich Hospital, civil personnel. The first lord is assisted by the financial secretary and the permanent secretary. The former deals with all financial questions, assisted by the accountant-general and the director of navy contracts, the latter being also under the superintending lords as regards purchases made for their several departments. The financial secretary is a member of Parliament and of the party in power, and through him all Parliamentary statements are made in the House of Commons, unless the first lord be a member of that House. The permanent secretary superintends all correspondence in the name of the board, prevents the various departments from acting independently, and provides for the due execution of orders.

The total personnel of the British navy on April 1, 1902, amounted to 118,625; it will be increased during 1902-03 to 122,500. The sum total of the naval budget for 1902-03 was £31,255,500.

The principal dockyards are at Bermuda, Cape of Good Hope, Chatham,* Devonport,* Esquimalt (British Columbia), Gibraltar, Halifax, N. S., Haulbowline (Cove of Cork), Hong Kong, Jamaica, Malta, Pembroke,* Portsmouth,* Sheerness,* Sydney. Of these, the ones marked with a star are first-class yards in all respects. Secondary yards and naval stations exist at Ascension Island, Bombay, Calcutta, Colombo, Dartmouth, Delagoa Bay, Deptford, Greenwich, Plymouth, Portland, Sydney, Trincomali, Wei-hai-wei, and London (West India Docks). Naval cadets of the line are educated at the Royal Naval School at Dartmouth. The Royal Naval College at Greenwich is for post-graduate courses. The engineering college is at Keyham, and there are engineering schools at all the principal dockyards. The gunnery and torpedo schools are both located at Portsmouth. (See Naval Schools of Instruction.) The strength of the British fleet is given in the table on a following page.

Greece. The navy of Greece is naturally small, but it is by no means insignificant. The quality of its officers and men and their organization and training have never been tested by war, as practically no use was made of the fleet during the war with Turkey. In 1901 the Government decided to expend annually the sum of 2,500,000 drachmas ($482,500) for the purpose of repairing and adding to the fleet. The fleet consists of 3 small battleships of 4885 tons (launched 1889-90, rebuilt 1897-1900), 1 old armorclad of 1774 tons (launched 1868, reëngined 1897), 4 small cruisers of 1000 to 1800 tons (launched 1879-85), 1 old school-ship of 1300 tons, 11 gunboats of 380 to 410 tons (launched 1859-84), 1 torpedo depot ship of 1100 tons, 1 old training ship of 2030 tons (launched 1869, reëngined 1897), 3 torpedo mining vessels, several smaller vessels of no particular military value, 31 torpedo boats of 18 to 85 tons (launched 1878-85), 2 old Nordenfeldt submarine boats, purchased in 1886 (probably useless), 20 torpedo vidette boats.

Haiti. The Haitian navy consists of one steel gunboat, 260 tons; one iron corvette, 1200 tons; two iron sloops of from 500 to 900 tons; and one gun vessel of 900 tons. The steel gunboat Crête à Pierrot, 940 tons, was sunk by the German gunboat Panther, as a punitive measure, September 7, 1902.

Italy. The modern Italian navy dates from 1860, when the fleets of Sardinia and the Two Sicilies were combined. Immediately after the formation of the Italian Kingdom the construction of a powerful navy was commenced. The newly constructed fleet received a severe setback at Lissa in 1866, but it was continually added to, and in 1890, so far at least as ships were concerned, it was the third navy in the world. It then reached the limit of size permitted by the national finances. Since 1890 it has preserved about the same strength of fleet, but the increases in the navies of the United States, Russia, and Germany have forced Italy to sixth place in naval rank. The head of the navy is the Minister of Marine (an admiral), who is assisted by the ‘superior council’ of the navy, composed of 1 vice-admiral (or admiral), president; 3 vice-admirals (or rear-admirals), 1 director-general of the civil personnel, members; 1 rear-admiral (or captain), who is a member and secretary; and lastly the chief of the bureau or office whose affairs are under consideration. By the law of November 23, 1889, the Navy Department is divided into 10 sections, as follows: (1) General Staff and Cabinet, which consists of (a) cabinet of the minister, which coördinates the different branches; (b) questions of a general military kind, strategy, and tactics, auxiliary fleet, defense of the coast, and fleet manœuvres; (e) rules and arrangements concerning the service, discipline, dress, etc. (2) Direction of the service as regards personnel. (3) Naval Construction. (4) Armament and Equipment. (5) Merchant Marine. (6) Hydrographic Service. (7) Medical Department. (8) Military Engineering (fortifications, works, etc.). (9) Office of Revision. (10) Accounts.

The Naval Academy and College is located at Leghorn. The principal dockyards are at Castellamare, Spezia, Venice, Taranto, and Naples; naval stations at Genoa, Messina, Licata, Cagliari, and Palermo. The Italian fleet as it existed in 1902 is summarized in the table given later in this article.

Japan. The modern Japanese navy may be said to have commenced with the purchase of the armored ram Stonewall (renamed Adzuma), which was built for the Confederate navy and sold to Japan at the close of the Civil War. Since then the strength of the navy has steadily increased, but it was not until 1894 that it began to take rank among the navies of the great Powers. In that year two large battleships were ordered, and during the next eight years four more battleships and six large armored cruisers were built. These accessions placed the Japanese navy in 1902 seventh among the naval forces of the world. The principal navy yards are at Yokosuka, Kure, Saseho, Onohara, and Nagasaki. The comparative tables show the strength of the fleet.

Mexico. Until 1901 the navy of Mexico consisted of a small cruising training ship of 1200 tons (launched in 1891), and four gunboats of 425 to 450 tons (launched 1874-75). In 1901 a building programme was laid down providing for the construction of eight gunboats of 1000 tons and 16 knots, and two torpedo boats. Two of the gunboats in 1902 were nearly completed.

Morocco. The navy of Morocco consists of a small cruiser of 1200 tons (launched 1892) and one gunboat of 450 tons (launched 1898).

Netherlands. In the days of sailing vessels the navy of the Netherlands was a powerful one, but the great cost of modern fighting ships has prevented the Netherlanders, a naturally seafaring race, from maintaining a powerful fleet. The navy is represented in the Cabinet by the Minister of Marine. The administration, presided over by the Minister, consists of a chief (a captain) of the general staff, 1 director of naval construction, 1 director (commander) of the personnel, 1 director (captain) of pilotage, 1 director (captain) of the hydrographic service, 1 inspector of pay, provisions, and clothing, 1 medical inspector.

The executive officers are educated at the Royal Naval Academy at Willemsoord, while the engineers are educated at the special engineer school at Hellevoetsluis. The naval arsenals are four in number and located at Amsterdam, Hellevoetsluis, Willemsoord, and Fijenoord. There are small stations abroad in Surinam, Curaçao, Borneo, Sumatra, Java, and Celebes. The fleet consists of 3 small battleships of 4950 tons (building in 1902), 1 battleship of 5400 tons (launched 1874), 2 coast-defense ships of 3375 and 2490 tons (launched 1866 and 1891), 3 coast-defense ships of 3520 tons (launched 1894), 13 monitors of 1520 to 2200 tons (launched 1868-78), 5 armored river gunboats of 352 to 388 tons (launched 1870-79), 1 armored cruiser of 4600 tons (launched 1892), protected cruisers of 3900 to 4033 tons (launched 1896-99), 3 cruisers of 3400 tons (launched 1876-82), 1 protected cruiser of 1703 tons (launched 1890), 64 gunboats of 175 to 1298 tons (launched 1874-1900), 5 surveying vessels of 300 to 800 tons, 42 special service vessels, receiving ships, school-ships, etc., 39 torpedo boats of 45 to 90 tons, 3 torpedo boats of 140 tons, 33 torpedo boats of 29 to 37 tons.

Norway. The navy of Norway is entirely separate from that of Sweden, though, of course, both fleets would be combined in case of war. With the possible exception of that of Sweden or Denmark, the Norwegian navy is the oldest in Europe. In proportion to its population, Norway has a greater mercantile marine and furnishes more mariners than any other country, but the great expense of modern fighting ships prevents the maintenance of a large naval force, or an attempt to do more than defend the coast. The government of the navy is confided to the commanding officer of the navy and the Minister of Marine and Posts. The last-named is an administrative office and constitutes the ministry proper; both branches have their headquarters at Christiania. The commanding officer of the navy is a rear-admiral, and he is assisted by a captain, while a second captain is stationed at Stockholm as naval aid to the King.

The executive officers of the active service and those of the reserve are educated at the royal naval school. Norway possesses but a single military port, that of Horten, near Christiania. There are five naval establishments, of which that of Karljohansvorn at Horten is the only shipbuilding yard; the others at Bergensund, Trondhjem, Fredriksvaern, and Christiansund are naval depots and supply stations. The fleet consists of four small battleships of 3400 to 3850 tons (launched 1896-99), 4 monitors of 1448 to 2000 tons (launched 1866-72—rebuilt 1895-98), 1 protected cruiser of 1113 tons (launched 1891), 1 cruiser of 1370 tons (launched 1896), 1 torpedo gun vessel of 380 tons (launched 1896), 2 wooden cruisers of 1006 and 1610 tons (launched 1862-80), 12 gunboats of 190 to 635 tons, several small gunboats, sailing training ships, etc., 10 torpedo boats of 90 tons (launched 1897-1901), 21 torpedo boats of 27 to 65 tons (launched 1882-1901), and 6 submarine boats (building in 1902).

Persia. The nay of Persia consists of an armed dispatch vessel of 1200 tuns (launched 1885—remodeled from merchant steamer).

Peru. Previous to the war with Chile the Peruvian navy was of some importance, but a large sea-going monitor was captured by the Chileans, an old mouitor (purchased in the United Stales) was sunk, and an armorcil frigate was wrecked while chasing a Chilean gunboat. The naval force in 1902 consisted of a wooden cruiser of 1658 tons (purchased in France in 1900—launched 1877), 1 cruiser of 1700 tons (launched 1881—a sister to the U. S. S. Topeka), 1 gunboat of 420 tons (launched 1883), 1 small iron cruiser (launched 1891), 1 screw frigate (training ship), 1 armed transport of 1400 net tons measurement (launched 1863), and several paddle steamers.

Portugal. From time to time plans have been made for increasing the strength of the Portuguese fleet, but aside from an occasional cruiser the financial resources of the country have been unable to meet the demands of the naval programme. The Navy Department forms part of the Ministry of the Marine and Colonies. It is presided over by a vice-admiral with the title of director-general, and consists of the divisions of (a) personnel and (b) material. The only naval arsenal is at Lisbon, where is also located the naval college, a sort of polytechnic institute in which all the officers of the navy are educated—even the medical officers having a final course there. The fleet consists of 1 old armored coast-defense ship of 2480 tons (launched 1875), 1 protected cruiser of 4280 tons (launched 1898), 2 protected cruisers of 1800 tons (launched 1898), 2 cruisers of 1600 and 1765 tons (launched 1896-99), 4 small cruisers of 1110 to 1429 tons (launched 1864-84), 21 gunboats of 160 to 729 tons (launched 1873-1902), 25 river gunboats of 34 to 300 tons (launched 1888-1902), 1 transport of 3000 tons, 3 training ships, a number of small craft, 1 armed royal yacht of 950 tons (launched 1899), and 11 torpedo boats of 31 to 60 tons (launched 1880-93).

Rumania. The Navy Department in Rumania is a branch of the Ministry of War. The officers hold military titles and are overshadowed by the army in every way. There is a naval school for the instruction of petty officers, but a military education is apparently sufficient for the higher officers. There is a small navy yard at Galatz at which gunboats are occasionally built. The fleet consists of 1 protected cruiser of 1325 tons (launched 1887), 4 gunboats of 104 to 400 tons (launched 1862-86), 1 armed yacht of 350 tons, torpedo boats of 55 tons (launched 1888-95), 8 second class torpedo boats and launches of 10 to 32 tons (launched 1882-95), and 12 gunboats and coastguard vessels of 45 to 110 tons (launched 1873-93).

Russia. The Russian navy really dates from the time of Peter the Great, though the dwellers in the lands now belonging to Russia along the shores of the Baltic have been seafaring people from time immemorial. The navy and Navy Department are presided over by the general admiral, who is always one of the Imperial family. He has under his orders an Under-Secretary of State having the rank of vice-minister and called the director of the Ministry. The general admiral is assisted and advised by a board of admiralty consisting of 4 admirals, 5 vice (or rear) admirals, and 1 lieutenant-general of naval corps. The Minister of Marine or director of the Ministry is an admiral appointed by the Emperor. The subdivisions of the Ministry are: (1) General Staff; (2) Chief Naval Judicial Court; (3) Material and Supplies; (4) Technical Committee; (5) Scientific Committee; (6) Hydrographic Bureau; (7) Medical Bureau; (8) Chancellerie; (9) Administration of Courts-Martial; (10) Archives.

The naval schools are the naval academy, at Saint Petersburg, naval college (higher course at the naval academy), school of navigation, ordnance, and naval construction at Kronstadt, and marine engineering school. The present plans are to combine all the schools in one establishment. The principal dockyards are the New Admiralty Works at Saint Petersburg, Galernaya Island Yard at Saint Petersburg, Kronstadt arsenal, Nicolayev dockyard, Sebastopol arsenal, Windau dockyard, Libau dockyard, Port Arthur (Liao-tung Peninsula), Vladivostok, Sveaborg, Revel, Archangel, Baku, Batum, Nicolayevsk (Amur), and Kagala (Oxus). The number and displacement of the vessels of the fleet are given in the table. The transport service between Russia and Eastern Siberia is carried on by the Russian Volunteer Fleet, which receives a large subsidy from the Russian Government. It consists of 18 steamers of 7650 to 12,000 tons (launched 1891-1900), and 1 of 2700 tons (launched 1895). The vessels of the Black Sea Steam Navigation Company, 12 in number, mostly of about 2400 tons, are fitted to receive armaments and act as auxiliary cruisers or transports in time of war.

Santo Domingo. The naval force of this little republic consists of 1 small gunboat of 322 tons (launched 1894), 1 cruiser of 1000 tons (launched 1896), 1 cruiser of about 1000 tons (rebuilt in 1896-97).

Sarawak. The navy of this little Bornean State consists of three small gunboats of 118 to 300 tons (launched 1875-84).

Siam. The navy of Siam consists of 1 protected cruiser of 2500 tons, 8 gunboats of 260 to 800 tons, 1 old floating battery of 950 tons, 1 old depot ship of 545 tons, 6 dispatch vessels of 100 to 700 tons, 1 torpedo boat of 45 tons (launched 1888), and 43 small steamers for river and coast service.

Spain. The navy of Spain received a serious setback in the Spanish-American War, losing about half the fleet. During 1901 the navy was reorganized, and soon after it was proposed to construct a new and powerful fleet of 8 battleships of 12,000 tons, 4 cruisers of 8000 tons, and a limited number of smaller cruisers and torpedo vessels. All the old vessels not actually needed have been or are to be sold, the arsenals and naval establishments are being reorganized, and other improvements are contemplated. It is hoped by these means so to reduce the unnecessary expenses that a fine fleet can gradually be built and maintained without adding greatly to the expenses of the Government. The navy is presided over by a Minister of Marine, formerly a naval officer, but the incumbent in 1902 was a civil official. He is assisted by a council of 9 persons, of whom 5 are officers of the navy, 1 is a Senator, 1 a Deputy of the Cortes, 1 an inspector-general of engineers, and 1 a field marshal of artillery. The central administration consists of: (1) Section of Personnel; (2) Section of Equipment; (3) Section of Navigation and Maritime Industries; (4) Section of Naval Construction; (5) Section of Naval Ordnance; (6) Section of Accounts; (7) Section of Administrative Affairs. The reorganization of the navy in progress in 1902 may effect considerable changes in these arrangements. The principal dockyards are located at Ferrol, Cadiz (La Carraea), Trubia (army gun-factory where naval guns are made), Bilbao, and Cartagena. There are, in addition, several naval stations and supply depots. The naval school is located on the old wooden frigate Asturias. All executive officers are required to pass through the school; the course is three years, after which the cadets serve as midshipmen for further instruction. The fleet in 1902 consisted of 1 battleship of 9900 tons (launched 1887—partly rebuilt 1897-98 and 1900-01), 2 old battleships of 7000 tons (launched 1863-65—rebuilt as armored cruisers 1897-98), 1 armored cruiser of 9090 tons (launched 1895), 3 armored cruisers of 7000 tons (launched 1890-1900), 1 protected cruiser of 5372 tons (building in 1902), 2 protected cruisers of 5000 tons (launched 1891-92), 2 protected cruisers of 1875 and 2030 tons (launched 1898-1900), 1 small protected cruiser of 1040 tons (launched 1890), 2 cruisers of 3090 and 3342 tons (launched 1879-87), 3 cruisers of 1152 tons (launched 1885-88), 10 torpedo gunboats of 570 to 830 tons (launched 1889-97), 1 torpedo-boat destroyer of 386 tons (launched 1886), 4 torpedo-boat destroyers of 370 to 400 tons (launched 1896-97), 1 armed yacht of 1800 tons (purchased 1898), 7 training ships of 800 to 4000 tons, 1 transport of 2000 tons, 42 gunboats of 37 to 525 tons (launched 1877-95), 16 torpedo boats of 65 to 108 tons (launched 1885-1901).

Sweden. The navy of Sweden has been very much increased during the last fifteen years, and now possesses many effective coast-defense ships. The navy is presided over by a Minister of Marine with headquarters at Stockholm; the Minister is either a naval officer or civilian. The department comprises four bureaus, viz.: (a) The Cabinet of the Minister: (b) The Bureau of Personnel; (c) The Naval Staff; (d) The Bureau of Material. The school for executive officers (there are no marine engineer officers in the navy) is located at Stockholm; the full course is six years.

There are two naval arsenals, one at Stockholm and one at Karlskrona. The fleet consists of 4 small battleships of 3650 tons (building in 1902), 7 small battleships of 3100 to 3450 tons (launched 1886-98), 4 single-turret monitors of 1500 to 1580 tons (launched 1865-75—reconstructed 1898-1902). 9 very small single-turret monitors of 240 to 460 tons (launched 1869-76—nearly all recently rebuilt), 3 cruisers of 1530 to 2000 tons (launched 1870-86), 7 torpedo gunboats of 670 tons (launched 1896-99), 15 gunboats of 190 to 640 tons (launched 1861-84), 12 miscellaneous vessels, 12 vessels of 170 to 2858 tons, used as school-ships, training ships, and floating barracks, 1 torpedo-boat destroyer of 320 tons (building in 1902), 5 torpedo boats of 44 to 85 tons (building), 15 torpedo boats of 60 to 85 tons (launched 1884-1900), and 13 second-class boats of 34 to 44 tons (launched 1882-1902).

Turkey. The reduction of revenue entailed by the Turco-Russian War of 1877-78 caused Turkey to let her navy become wholly ineffective for purposes of war. About 1890 it was decided to rebuild some of the most available vessels of the fleet, and now all the old ships have either been rebuilt or are in process of reconstruction. The Navy Department, however, needs reconstruction more than the ships, for so long as present practices prevail the vessels will soon become useless for lack of care. The Minister of Marine is an admiral appointed by the Sultan. The department is divided into four bureaus, viz.: (1) Personnel; (2) Material; (3) Construction; (4) Medicine and Hygiene. The only great dockyard is the arsenal of Constantinople; this is a large and very excellent establishment as regards plan and arrangements, but is not properly kept up, and much of the machinery and fittings cannot be used. The personnel of the fleet consists of 6 vice-admirals and 11 rear-admirals with the rank of pasha; 130 captains, 25 commanders of superior grade, 55 commanders of inferior grade, 300 lieutenant-commanders—all with the rank of bey; 250 lieutenants, and 200 sub-lieutenants—with the rank of effendi; 400 engineers, 60 surgeons, 100 commissary officers, 110 pay officers. The enlisted force on paper is about 15,000 men; in fact, it rarely exceeds 3000, and sometimes is considerably less. For many years the larger vessels of the navy swung around their buoys in the Golden Horn without moving and without sufficient men on board to move them. The fleet consisted in 1902 of 1 battleship of 10,650 tons, which has been under construction at the arsenal of Constantinople for nearly ten years, and in 1902 was still far from being ready to launch; 7 old battleships of 5600 to 9120 tons (launched 1864-74, and very thoroughly rebuilt, modernized, and rearmed 1895-1902), 5 old battleships of 2050 to 2720 tons (launched 1868-72, but in 1902 undergoing thorough reconstruction), 1 armored coast-defense gunboat of 330 tons (launched 1864), 3 protected cruisers of 3250 tons (building in 1902 at Philadelphia, Elswick, and Kiel), 2 protected cruisers of 4050 tons (building at arsenal in Constantinople—work practically suspended for many years), 6 small cruisers of 643 to 1815 tons (launched 1892-96), 3 torpedo gunboats of 450 to 900 tons (launched 1890-92), 4 torpedo-boat destroyers of 180 to 270 tons (launched 1894-1900), 22 torpedo boats of 42 to 150 tons (launched 1884-92), 6 gunboats of 200 tons (2 completed 1894—others building), about 25 special service vessels.

United States. The head of the Navy Department is the Secretary of the Navy, a civil officer, and a member of the Cabinet; and the Assistant Secretary is also a civil officer. The department is divided into eight bureaus: Navigation, Ordnance, Equipment, Construction and Repair, Steam Engineering, Yards and Docks, Supplies and Accounts, and Medicine and Surgery; and there is in addition the office of the Judge Advocate-General. The Bureau of Navigation has charge of the personnel and the direction of the fleet; the duties of the other bureaus are indicated by their titles. Under the Bureau of Navigation are the Office of Naval Intelligence and the Naval Academy; under the Bureau of Equipment are the Hydrographic Office, the Compass Office, the Naval Observatory, and the Nautical Almanac Office. The Board of Construction, which passes on the general features of new ships, is made up of the chiefs of the Bureaus of Navigation, Ordnance, Equipment, Construction and Repair, and Steam Engineering. Strategical and tactical matters are controlled by the General Board, which is similar to the general staff of foreign services. For further and detailed information, see Navy in the article on the United States.

Uruguay. The navy of Uruguay consists of 3 small gunboats of 270 to 400 tons (launched 1883-91), 1 dispatch boat of 400 tons (launched 1882), and 1 transport of 260 tons. The senior officer has the rank of rear-admiral.

Venezuela. The navy of Venezuela previous to the difficulty of 1902-03 with the European Powers consisted of 2 armed steamers of 500 to 832 tons, a torpedo gunboat of 571 tons (launched 1891; purchased from Spain 1899), and several river gunboats (built in England 1891-93).

See Armor Plate; Ship, Armored, where will be found a complete bibliography; Guns, Naval; Galley; Shipbuilding; Tactics, Naval; Torpedo Boat.


Number and Displacement of Vessels of Different Classes. Built and Building, for the Principal Naval Powers, November 30, 1902.


Type. United States. Great Britain.


 Built.  Tons.  Building.  Tons.  Built.  Tons.  Building.  Tons.









Battleships, first class (above 10,000 tons) 10 112,329  9 131,200  41 551,160  11 167,750 
Other battleships and coast-defense ironclads 10 41,002  2 6,428   5 40,740  ... ... 
Armored cruisers  2 17,415  8 111,800  17 158,300  20 205,700 
Protected cruisers, first class (above 6000 tons)  2 14,750  3 28,880  21 201,950  ... ... 
Protected cruisers, second class (3000 to 6000 tons) 12 47,100  6 18,600  52 228,480   4 17,760 
Unprotected and partially protected cruisers (above 1000)  23 32,111  ... ...  48 105,630   2 1,140 
Gunboats (below 1000 tons and of or above 400 tons)  6 4,020  ... ...  84 70,645  ... ... 
Torpedo-boat destroyers 12 5,259  4 1,620  108 35,066  23 11,455 
Torpedo boats, first class (above 100 tons) 25 3,913  5 1,116  19 2,971   9 1,746 
Torpedo boats, second class (below 100 tons)  6 285  ... ...  151  6,076  ... ... 
Submarine boats  1 75  7 840  ... ...   9 1,305 








Total displacement 109   278,259  44   300,484  546   1,401,018  78  406,856 

Total built and building: United States, 153—578,743 tons. Great Britain, 624—1,807,874 tons.


Type. France. Germany.


 Built.  Tons.  Building.  Tons.  Built.  Tons.  Building.  Tons.









Battleships, first class (above 10,000 tons) 20 225,667   6 87,780   9 100,969  5 62,779 
Other battleships and coast-defense ironclads 19 87,303  ... ...  23 110,886  ... ... 
Armored cruisers 15 105,324  10 110,546   3 28,146  2 18,238 
Protected cruisers, first class (above 6000 tons)  4 31,513  ... ...  ... ...  ... ... 
Protected cruisers, second class (3000 to 6000 tons) 17 68,783   1 5,595  10 50,120  1 3,250 
Unprotected and partially protected cruisers (above 1000)  18 32,840  ... ...  30 61,250  5 13,446 
Gunboats (below 1000 tons and of or above 400 tons) 25 14,151  ... ...  10 9,029  1 900 
Torpedo-boat destroyers 16 4,764  18 5,388  35 11,815  6 2,100 
Torpedo boats, first class (above 100 tons) 38 5,665  ... ...  47 7,080  ... ... 
Torpedo boats, second class (below 100 tons) 186  13,379  26 2,319  38 3,420  ... ... 
Submarine boats 12 1,553  22 1,704  ... ...  ... ... 








Total displacement 370   590,942  83  213,332  205   382,715  20   100,733 

Total built and building: France, 453—804,274 tons. Germany, 225—483,428 tons.


Type. Japan. Russia.


 Built.  Tons.  Building.  Tons.  Built.  Tons.  Building.  Tons.









Battleships, first class (above 10,000 tons)  6 84,300  ... ...  11 124,231   8 105,754 
Other battleships and coast-defense ironclads  2 9,287  ... ...  13 72,982  ... ... 
Armored cruisers  7 60,600  ... ...   8 70,193  ... ... 
Protected cruisers, first class (above 6000 tons) ... ...  ... ...   5 32,330   4 26,340 
Protected cruisers, second class (3000 to 6000 tons) 10 41,226   2 6,730   5 18,612   5 15,200 
Unprotected and partially protected cruisers (above 1000)  14 25,570  ... ...   8 10,057  ... ... 
Gunboats (below 1000 tons and of or above 400 tons) 12 6,906  ... ...  11 6,277  ... ... 
Torpedo-boat destroyers 15 4,597   4 1,500  27 7,222  27 9,374 
Torpedo boats, first class (above 100 tons) 18 1,240   6 900  39 4,670  10 1,500 
Torpedo boats, second class (below 100 tons) 58 4,302  10 850  93 4,826  ... ... 
Submarine boats ... ...  ... ...  ... ...   1 ... 








Total displacement 142   238,028  22  9,980  220   351,400  55  158,168 

Total built and building: Japan, 164—248,008 tons. Russia, 275—509,568 tons.


Type. Austria-Hungary. Italy.


 Built.  Tons.  Building.  Tons.  Built.  Tons.  Building.  Tons.









Battleships, first class (above 10,000 tons) ... ...  2 21,200   9 116,596  7 88,553 
Other battleships and coast-defense ironclads  9 57,430  2 16,600   2 19,290  ... ... 
Armored cruisers  2 11,520  1 7,300   5 31,891  1 7,294 
Protected cruisers, first class (above 6000 tons) ... ...  ... ...  ... ...  ... ... 
Protected cruisers, second class (3000 to 6000 tons)  2 8,128  ... ...   6 20,554  ... ... 
Unprotected and partially protected cruisers (above 1000)   8 15,620  ... ...  15 30,209  ... ... 
Gunboats (below 1000 tons and of or above 400 tons) 10 5,670  ... ...  16 12,774  ... ... 
Torpedo-boat destroyers ... ...  ... ...   9 2,833  2 650 
Torpedo boats, first class (above 100 tons)  6 858  ... ...  13 1,706  4 560 
Torpedo boats, second class (below 100 tons) 63 3,759  ... ...  124  8,140  ... ... 
Submarine boats ... ...  ... ...   1 105  1 ... 








Total displacement 100   102,985  5  45,100  200   244,098  15   97,057 

Total built and building: Austria-Hungary, 105—148,085 tons. Italy, 215—341,155 tons.


N. B.—Vessels launched before 1878, unless reconstructed and rearmed, are not included in these lists. Unprotected cruisers and gunboats do not include merchant vessels or yachts.