# The New International Encyclopædia/New Jersey

NEW JER′SEY. A middle Atlantic State of the United States. It lies between latitudes 38° 56′ and 41° 21′ N., and between longitudes 73° 54′ and 75° 33′ W. It is bounded on the north by the State of New York, which also bounds it for some distance on the east, being separated from it by the Hudson River, New York Bay, and Staten Island Sound. The remainder of the eastern boundary is formed by the Atlantic Ocean. On the south the State is bounded by Delaware Bay. The whole western boundary is formed by the Delaware River, which runs eastward in a sharp angle nearly to the middle of the State, and separates it from Pennsylvania. New Jersey is one of the smallest States of the Union, only three others, Rhode Island, Delaware, and Connecticut, having a smaller area. Its extreme length is 167 miles, and its average width 50 miles. Its area is 7815 square miles, of which 7525 square miles, or 4,816,000 acres, are land surface.

Topography. The northern and southern divisions of the Atlantic slope meet in New Jersey on a line running west from Newark Bay. The former division is characterized practically by the absence of the coastal plain and by the less definite demarcation of the Piedmont plain (q.v.). The latter division is characterized by the well-defined presence of both. Though the State lies wholly within the Atlantic slope, it is crossed in the northwest by several ranges of the Appalachian system. There are four distinctly marked topographical regions running in parallel bands across the State from southwest to northeast, coterminous with and closely dependent on the outcropping bands of geological formations. (See paragraph Geology.) The first, beginning at the northwest, is the Kittatinny range and upland valley. This range is an extension of the Blue Mountains of Pennsylvania, and runs in a continuous ridge into New York, reaching in High Knob, near the boundary, a height of 1799 feet. The second region includes the Highlands, an outlying Appalachian range consisting of semi-isolated, plateau-like masses, rising to a height of 1200 to 1400 feet. The third band is the Piedmont plain, nearly as wide as the first two combined. It is for the most part, an undulating plain ranging in elevation from the sea level in the marshes of the Hackensack Valley in the east to over 500 feet in the west. It is, however, diversified by bold trap-rock ridges extending in a northeast and southwest direction, such as the Palisades along the Hudson and the First and Second Mountains. The fourth region constitutes the coastal plain and includes the entire southern half of the State south of a line running from Trenton to Newark Bay. It is a gently undulating plain, sloping south and eastward. It is nowhere more than 400 feet, and in large part is less than 100 feet above sea level. It is trenched by river-valleys, and here and there diversified by isolated hills such as the Navesink Highlands. It is bordered on the coasts by salt marshes fringed along the Atlantic by shallow coast-lagoons inclosed by outlying sand beaches.

The western slope of the State is drained by short tributaries into the Delaware River, but by far the greater portion drains directly into the Atlantic Ocean or its inlets. The principal rivers are the Passaic and Hackensack, flowing into Newark Bay; the Raritan, flowing through Raritan Bay into Lower New York Bay; the Mullica and Great Egg, emptying into the Atlantic lagoons; and the Maurice, into Delaware Bay. Lakes are confined chiefly to the northern section. There are several beautiful mountain lakes in the Highlands, the largest being Lake Hopatcong and Greenwood Lake, the latter lying partly in New York State. The most noted natural features are the Falls of the Passaic River at Paterson, the Palisades of the Hudson, and the Delaware Water Gap.

AREA AND POPULATION OF NEW JERSEY BY COUNTIES.

 County Map Index. County Seat. Area in squaremiles. Population. 1890. 1900. Atlantic C 5 Mays Landing 567 28,836 46,403 Bergen D 1 Hackensack 236 47,226 78,441 Burlington C 4 Mount Holly 869 58,528 58,241 Camden B 4 Camden 222 87,687 107,643 Cape May C 5 .mw-parser-output .nowrap,.mw-parser-output .nowrap a:before,.mw-parser-output .nowrap .selflink:before{white-space:nowrap} Cape May C. H. 256 11,268 13,201 Cumberland B 5 Bridgeton 511 45,438 51,193 Essex D 2 Newark 127 256,098 359,053 Gloucester B 4 Woodbury 326 28,649 31,905 Hudson D 2 Jersey City 43 275,126 386,048 Hunterdon C 3 Flemington 437 35,355 34,507 Mercer C 3 Trenton 226 79,978 95,365 Middlesex D 3 New Brunswick 312 61,754 79,762 Monmouth D 3 Freehold 479 69,128 82,057 Morris C 2 Morristown 475 54,101 65,156 Ocean D 3 Toms River 583 15,974 19,747 Passaic D 1 Paterson 198 105,016 155,202 Salem B 4 Salem 359 25,151 25,530 Somerset D 2 Somerville 305 28,311 32,948 Sussex C 1 Newton 529 22,259 24,134 Union D 2 Elizabeth 103 72,467 99,353 Warren B 2 Belvidere 362 36,553 37,781

Climate. The particular element affecting the climate of New Jersey is the ocean. Since the extreme northern portion is also the most elevated and the extreme southern portion is low and surrounded by water, the slight range in temperature due to difference in latitude is accentuated, so that there is a variation of 8 degrees between the mean annual temperature of the north and the south. The former is 46° and the latter 54°. The mean winter temperature is 35° in the south and 25° in the north, and the mean summer temperatures, respectively, 75° and 67°. The mean annual rainfall is, in general, between 44 and 50 inches in the greater part of the State. In the extreme eastern portion it is over 50 inches, and in the south along Delaware Bay it is less than 42 inches. As a whole, the State is quite healthful, and the sandstone belt is considered particularly favorable to persons inclined to lung diseases. There are numerous summer and winter health resorts. Lakewood (q.v.), in the heart of the pine woods, is one of the most popular winter resorts in the Northern States, Atlantic City, Asbury Park, and Cape May, although essentially summer resorts, are also popular winter resorts for invalids. Other well-known summer seaside places are Long Branch, Elberon, and Ocean Grove.

For flora and fauna, see paragraph under United States.

Geology. The geology of New Jersey is very intimately connected with its topography. The outcrops of the rock formations cross the State from the southwest to northeast in bands closely coincident with the topographical regions described above. Beginning at the northwestern corner, we find the Kittatinny Mountain and valley, consisting of Paleozoic slate, limestone, and sandstone, and these formations also extend into some of the western valleys of the Highlands. The Highlands themselves, however, consist of the still older Archæan gneiss, granite, and mica-schist. The Piedmont plain is also called the Red Sandstone Plain, as it consists mainly of the Triassic red sandstone, with scattered intrusions of trap-rock. In the coastal plain the surface deposits consist wholly of unindurated materials. In the north there is a band running from Staten Island Sound southwest to Camden, composed of Cretaceous marls, sands, and clay, while the entire remaining portion is covered with Tertiary clays and sand finally fringed by the modern sand bars along the coast. Each of the main geological eras is represented except the Carboniferous.

Mining. The most extensively utilized of the State's diversified geological resources are its clays. New Jersey ranks second in the production of pottery and third in the total output of clay products. Brick clay is found in most parts of the State. The value of the pottery products and of the combined output of brick and tile, respectively, ranges between $5,000,000 and$9,000,000 annually. (See Manufactures below.) Morris County furnishes infusorial earths used in the manufacture of dynamite and giant powder, and for polishing purposes. Deposits of marl found in the State are utilized for fertilizers. A variety of stone is quarried in the northwestern counties, and constitutes another important source of wealth. The production of granite has increased rapidly since 1896. The output for 1900 was appraised at $1,170,555, or five times the value of the product in the former year. The value of the sandstone quarried in 1900 was$198,234, but the annual yield is usually worth much more. New Jersey ranks second in the production of Portland cement. Iron was mined in Warren County early in the history of the State, and has been mined continuously in the northwestern part until the present time. The entire product in 1900 was of the magnetite variety, estimated at 344,247 long tons. The iron is mined with greater difficulty than in the larger iron-producing regions, but the saving of the cost of transportation makes it profitable. The New Jersey ores have a larger per ton value ($3.18 in 1899) than those obtained in any other State. Fisheries. New Jersey, with its long and well indented coast line, and bounded by the Hudson and the Delaware, is well adapted for the development of an extensive fishery industry, in which seventeen out of the twenty-one counties of the State participate directly. There were 12,270 persons so engaged in 1898, as against 16,539 in 1891. The value of the product for 1898 was$3,563,766, only about $44,000 more than the product of 1891. The catch of oysters in the same year was valued at$1,670,000. Next to oysters, the principal species with respect to value are clams, shad, squeteague, bluefish, and cod. The value of caviar in 1898 was $79,693. The menhaden industry in that year was represented by six factories, and yielded a product of$57,995.

Agriculture. Only 59 per cent. of the total land area is included in farms. The area of improved land increased until 1880, since when it has remained practically stationary. In 1900 the percentage of farm land improved was 69.6. The number of farms increased during the half century nearly 45 per cent., while the average acreage decreased from 115.2 in 1850 to 82 in 1900. There is a gain in the per cent. of rented farms, especially cash-tenant farms, which increased 53.6 per cent. during the decade 1890-1900, so that these farms represented in 1900 15.3 per cent. of the total number of farms, as against 14.6 per cent. for the share tenants. The soil is generally a red sandy loam, easily tilled. The river valleys are very fertile, but in most parts of the State fertilizers are advantageously used. The cost of fertilizers per farm in 1900 was $62. Between 1880 and 1890 the area devoted to cereals decreased considerably, but the falling off was checked in the next decade, when the loss was confined to oats and rye, the other crops showing gains. Accordingly the decrease in the cereals is not so marked as in some other Eastern States. Corn, the principal cereal, is raised throughout the State; wheat, next in rank, is grown in the western counties; rye, oats, and buckwheat are confined almost entirely to the northwestern counties. The acreage of hay and forage crops exceeds that of corn and wheat combined, and considerable areas of the poorer lands are being turned into permanent pasture lands. As above suggested, the proximity of large cities—notably New York and Philadelphia—has led to a large gardening and fruit-raising industry. Of the$8,400,000 of vegetable produce grown in the census year 1900, 26 per cent. and 14.4 per cent. respectively represented the value of the Irish and the sweet potatoes. New Jersey ranks next to Maryland in the production of tomatoes; the acreage devoted to their cultivation exceeded that of sweet potatoes. Sweet corn, melons, and cabbages were the most important of the other vegetables. The raising of early vegetables under glass for the New York and Philadelphia markets is a large industry.

Orchard fruits receive much attention, the peach-growing industry being very extensive in the northwestern counties. From 1890 to 1900 the number of peach trees decreased about 38 per cent. There was an equal percentage of increase in the number of apple trees. In 1900 32.1 per cent. of all fruit trees in the State were apple trees, and 48.6 were peach trees. A great variety of small fruits are raised, strawberries and cranberries being most important. Cranberry culture is confined largely to the marshy lands of Burlington and Ocean counties. New Jersey is surpassed by few States in the extent of its floriculture. The value of the product grown for the market in 1900 was nearly $2,000,000. The following table of acreage is self-explanatory:  1900 1890 Corn 295,258 267,648 Wheat 132,571 121,570 Oats 75,959 121,327 Rye 68,967 77,245 Buckwheat 15,762 13,520 Hay 444,610 458,267 Potatoes 52,896 46,711 Potatoes (sweet) 20,588 20,157 Stock-Raising. From 1890 to 1900 there was a marked increase in the number of neat cattle, a decrease in sheep and swine, and a noticeable increase in horses. The decrease in dairy cows, as shown below, is more apparent than real, owing to the change in the method of enumeration. Over one-half of the total income of all animal products was derived from the dairy industry. Of the$7,170,000 realized from dairy produce sold, $6,318,000 represented milk. The value of the poultry products is also quite large. The following table shows the leading live-stock holdings:  1900 1890 Dairy cows 157,407 161,576 Other cattle 82,577 50,486 Horses 94,024 86,925 Mules and asses 4,931 8,227 Sheep 26,363 55,409 Swine 175,387 224,388 Manufactures. Manufacturing affords employment to a larger number of wage-earners than any other industry in the State. The number in 1900 was 241,582, or 12.8 per cent. of the population. The percentage of people thus engaged has increased faster than the population itself, there being in 1850 only 7.7 per cent. connected with manufactures. The increase in the value of the product has been twice as rapid. From 1890 to 1900 but few States exceeded New Jersey either in the absolute or the percentage (72.5) of gain attained in the value of manufactured products. In the latter year this value was estimated at$611,748,000, placing the State sixth in rank. Prominent among the factors contributing to the development of manufactures are first, New Jersey's proximity to the large markets of New York and Philadelphia; secondly, its admirable transportation facilities; and lastly, its iron and clay resources and its proximity to the coal and other mineral fields of Pennsylvania.

The manufacture of textiles constitutes the most important group of industries. New Jersey ranks first in the production of silk and silk goods; and Paterson, the chief centre, is the largest silk manufacturing city in the United States. The industry was first established here in 1840, but it was not until the decade ending with 1870 that its great growth began. From 1890 to 1900 the value of the product increased nearly 30 per cent. Cottons, woolens, and worsteds are also produced, but in less quantities. The output of woolens suffered a decline from 1890 to 1900, while the output of worsteds increased more than threefold. The dyeing and finishing of textiles has assumed large proportions.

Another important group includes the manufacture of iron and steel and their products. The iron and steel industry began in Warren County at an early period, the supply of iron ore being secured in that locality. The value of products more than doubled during the decade 1890-1900. Of yet greater value are the products of the closely related foundry and machine-shop industry. During 1890-1900 the advantages of cheaper land and more efficient railway service brought hither a number of New York establishments. Newark, Paterson, and Elizabeth are the largest centres. The value of the electrical apparatus produced in 1900 was nearly eightfold greater than in 1890. The sewing-machine output increased in value 59 per cent. in the same period. In 1900 the State ranked fourth in the manufacture of jewelry, Newark being the chief centre.

The State's valuable beds of clay and sand have each given rise to an important industry. Brick clays are found in every section, but nearly all the rich clays are in Middlesex County, and fortunately close to the navigable coast waters or the Raritan River. Architectural clay products, sewer pipe, etc., are produced in this section in great abundance. Trenton has become famous for its pottery. The industry was begun here in 1852, but it was not until the Centennial Exhibition in 1876 that the superior quality of the product became known, and a wide market was opened for it. From 1890 to 1900 the value of the total clay product increased 73.1 per cent. The sand deposits in the southern part of the State are of a quality that makes them valuable in the manufacture of glass, and glass has been produced in that section since pre-Revolutionary times. The leather industry is centred largely in Newark. Elizabeth has one of the largest sewing-machine factories in the United States. Chemicals, liquors, and tobacco goods are all extensively produced and have each made large gains. The first two are most important in Newark, the last in Jersey City. Extensive oil-refining works are located at Bayonne, where the surrounding water of New York Bay is of sufficient depth to enable oceangoing vessels to load from the docks. The table on the following pagebelow explains itself.

Comparative Summary of Fifteen Leading Industries

INDUSTRIES  Year  Number of
establishments
Average
number
wage-earners
Value of products,
including custom
work and repairing

 ⁠Total for selected industries for State ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\left\{{\begin{matrix}\ \\\ \end{matrix}}\right.}}$
1900 1,780  117,008  $258,421,105 1890 1,367 77,974 156,491,146 Increase, 1890 to 1900 ...... 413 39,034$101,929,959
Per cent. of increase ...... 30.2  50.1  65.1

 Per cent. of total of all industries in State ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\left\{{\begin{matrix}\ \\\ \end{matrix}}\right.}}$
1900 11.5  48.4  42.2
1890 14.8  44.9  44.1

 Textiles, total ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\left\{{\begin{matrix}\ \\\ \end{matrix}}\right.}}$
1900 321  46,932  $72,921,528 1890 242 33,860 52,855,496  Cotton goods, including cotton small wares ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\left\{{\begin{matrix}\ \\\ \end{matrix}}\right.}}$ 1900 25 5,681 6,930,766 1890 17 5,632 5,902,615  Dyeing and finishing textiles ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\left\{{\begin{matrix}\ \\\ \end{matrix}}\right.}}$ 1900 59 7,074 10,488,963 1890 41 3,735 6,183,397  Silk and silk goods ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\left\{{\begin{matrix}\ \\\ \end{matrix}}\right.}}$ 1900 180 24,157 39,966,662 1890 132 17,445 30,760,371  Woolen goods ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\left\{{\begin{matrix}\ \\\ \end{matrix}}\right.}}$ 1900 13 2,942 4,755,393 1890 21 4,165 5,652,166  Worsted goods ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\left\{{\begin{matrix}\ \\\ \end{matrix}}\right.}}$ 1900 11 3,910 6,823,721 1890 937 2,058,662  Iron and steel ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\left\{{\begin{matrix}\ \\\ \end{matrix}}\right.}}$ 1900 25 8,288 24,381,699 1890 28 5,150 11,018,575  Foundry and machine-shop products ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\left\{{\begin{matrix}\ \\\ \end{matrix}}\right.}}$ 1900 353 17,918 32,621,229 1890 249 12,793 21,666,955  Electrical apparatus and supplies ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\left\{{\begin{matrix}\ \\\ \end{matrix}}\right.}}$ 1900 35 2,793 6,447,154 1890 425 744,274  Sewing machines and attachments ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\left\{{\begin{matrix}\ \\\ \end{matrix}}\right.}}$ 1900 4,701 6,643,348 1890 3,931 4,177,330  Jewelry ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\left\{{\begin{matrix}\ \\\ \end{matrix}}\right.}}$ 1900 100 2,779 7,379,777 1890 74 1,757 4,724,500  Pottery, terra cotta, and fire-clay products ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\left\{{\begin{matrix}\ \\\ \end{matrix}}\right.}}$ 1900 81 8,117 8,940,723 1890 60 4,425 5,165,537  Glass ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\left\{{\begin{matrix}\ \\\ \end{matrix}}\right.}}$ 1900 26 5,383 5,093,822 1890 34 5,688 5,218,152  Rubber and elastic goods ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\left\{{\begin{matrix}\ \\\ \end{matrix}}\right.}}$ 1900 37 2,609 8,458,274 1890 12 926 2,135,705  Leather—tanned, curried, and finished ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\left\{{\begin{matrix}\ \\\ \end{matrix}}\right.}}$ 1900 77 4,178 13,747,155 1890 31 706 2,780,016  Liquors, malt ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\left\{{\begin{matrix}\ \\\ \end{matrix}}\right.}}$ 1900 45 1,723 14,386,456 1890 34 1,174 10,018,393  Tobacco—chewing, smoking, and snuff ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\left\{{\begin{matrix}\ \\\ \end{matrix}}\right.}}$ 1900 12 1,955 7,788,379 1890 131 348,814  Cigars and cigarettes ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\left\{{\begin{matrix}\ \\\ \end{matrix}}\right.}}$ 1900 486 1,640 2,647,595 1890 444 1,051 1,909,406  Chemicals ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\left\{{\begin{matrix}\ \\\ \end{matrix}}\right.}}$ 1900 61 3,048 12,207,289 1890 44 1,712 8,146,795  Petroleum, refining ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\left\{{\begin{matrix}\ \\\ \end{matrix}}\right.}}$ 1900 2,951 29,649,460 1890 2,610 20,711,826  Lumber, planing-mill products, ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\left\{{\begin{matrix}\ \\\ \end{matrix}}\right.}}$ including sash, doors, and blinds 1900 113 1,993 5,107,217 1890 101 1,635 4,869,372 Forests and Forest Products. The primeval forests, consisting mainly of hard woods, have been almost wholly removed, but there is considerable merchantable second-growth timber. In 1900 the woodland was estimated at 3234 square miles, or 43 per cent. of the State's area. The value of the timber cut did not show any marked tendencies to increase or decrease in the last half of the nineteenth century, the maximum value,$2,745,317, being attained in 1870. The value of the planing-mill products, etc., may be seen in the table on the following pageabove.

Transportation and Commerce. New Jersey is well provided with transportation facilities. Railroads which approach New York City from the west or Philadelphia from the east necessarily traverse its territory. New Jersey, therefore, has a greater railroad mileage in proportion to its area than any other State. The mileage increased from 560 in 1860 to 2109 miles in 1890, and 2242 miles in 1900. The terminals of the lines centring in New York City are on the New Jersey side of the Hudson River. The canals of New Jersey were once its principal commercial channels. The Morris Canal, 101 miles long, from Jersey City to the Delaware River at Phillipsburg, has always transported vast quantities of coal from Pennsylvania to New York, and now belongs to the Lehigh Valley Railroad. It cost originally $14,000,000. The Delaware and Raritan Canal, from New Brunswick to Bordentown, 43 miles long, with a feeder to Trenton, 22 miles, was built in the early part of the nineteenth century at a cost of$3,935,287. It is under lease to the Pennsylvania Railroad.

Banks. In 1804 two banking companies were chartered by the Legislature, one to do business in Newark and the other in Trenton. A general banking law was passed in 1812 for the protection of depositors. This law remained in force till 1850. Reports were made obligatory, the total indebtedness and the rate of discount were limited. But the provisions of the law were avoided, and a number of speculating banks flooded the State with worthless paper. This condition of affairs and the suspension of specie payment in 1837 led to a reform in 1850. Another general banking law was passed. Under this statute the bank circulation had to be guaranteed by deposits of collateral security—bonds of States, etc. The limits of loans on real estate were strictly set and investigations of the banks made possible. In 1860 there were eight banks of issue. Besides these, there were a number of specially incorporated banks of discount and deposit. In 1859 the number was 36, but most of them availed themselves of the national banking law, and there were only five left in 1870. State banks became somewhat more popular toward the end of the century. They numbered 18 in 1902.

In 1868 there were 55 national banks, and in 1900, 115. A Department of Banks and Insurance was established in 1891. The banking law was revised in 1899. Trust companies have rapidly multiplied in the State since 1880, under the influence of the organization of gigantic corporations, which have made the State conspicuous. In ten years the number of these increased from 11 to 23, and the deposits increased eightfold. Savings banks were established early (1828). A law for regulating them was passed in 1876. It remains almost unchanged. The condition of the various banks in 1902 is shown in the following table:

 National banks Statebanks Trustcompanies Savingsbanks Number of banks. 124 18 47 28 Capital $17,164,000$1,593,000 $9,321,000 .......... Surplus 11,375,000 979,000 6,890,000$6,060,000 Cash, etc. 5,965,000 493,000 1,823,000 423,000 Deposits 87,949,000 8,950,000 67,642,900 69,866,000 Loans 80,248,000 8,053,000 56,105,000 28,812,000

Finances. The beginning of the Civil War found the State in a satisfactory financial condition. It became involved in heavy war expenses, and a loan of $2,000,000 and a State tax of$100,000 for war purposes were authorized in 1861. In 1866 the total war debt amounted to $3,305,200. Besides the minor civil divisions of the State (counties and towns) spent more than$23,000,000 for war purposes. This debt was totally extinguished by the redemption of the last $71,000 on January 1, 1902. In the matter of taxation New Jersey is in advance of many States, having long ago solved the problem of conflict between State and local taxation by entirely dividing these two fields. Even between 1840 and 1850 the income of the State was largely derived from taxes on the gross receipts of railroads (‘transit duties’ was their official designation), taxes on capital stock of railroads, etc. A State tax upon general property was only introduced in 1861 for war purposes, and though it existed for twenty years, it was exceedingly small. In 1880 75 per cent. of the income was derived from corporation taxes. New laws for taxation of railroads, as well as other corporations, were passed in 1884 and 1885, and were declared constitutional after a hard struggle. Since then the only State tax on general property is collected for the purposes of the school fund. The whole sum collected is returned to the towns. This is therefore a State tax in form only. The income of the State Government is derived from taxes on railroads (70 to 75 per cent.) and other corporations (15 per cent.), and fees, licenses, etc. Since 1890 taxes on new corporations, of which so many have been formed in New Jersey, have constituted a large share of the receipts. In 1902 the total receipts of the general State fund were$4,317,846, of which $2,866,363 came from corporation taxes. The expenditures reached$3,924,811, leaving a balance of $393,035. But of the general fund,$883,978 was distributed among the counties for school purposes. Besides, the State collected and redistributed among the counties $1,486,806 as school tax, and$400,784 as a local railroad tax. The school fund amounts to $3,839,692. Though there was no debt, the sinking fund contained$172,550.

Government. The present Constitution was ratified by the people in 1844, and amended at a special election in 1875. Proposed amendments must receive the approval of a majority of the members elected to both Houses at two consecutively chosen Legislatures, and afterwards the approval of a majority of the qualified electors. But amendments cannot be submitted to the people oftener than once in five years. Voters must be citizens who have resided in the State one year, and in the county five months. An elector is not deprived of his vote by reason of being in the actual military service of the army or navy of the State or United States. The registration of voters is required by law. The capital is Trenton.

Legislative. The Legislature, meeting annually, and unlimited as to session, is composed of 21 Senators, one from each county, elected for three years, and of Representatives, not to exceed 60, elected for one year, from the counties on the basis of population, every county being at all times entitled to one member. The salary of a Representative is $500. State elections are held annually on the Tuesday after the first Monday in November. Revenue bills originate in the Lower House. Executive. The Governor is elected for three years, and cannot be reëlected until three years shall have elapsed. He can convene extra sessions of the Legislature or of the Senate alone. The Governor's veto of bills or items of appropriation bills is overridden by a majority vote of the whole number elected to each House. In conjunction with the six judges of errors and appeals and the Chancellor, the Governor grants pardons, etc. The president of the Senate and the Speaker of the House respectively succeed to the Governorship in case of a vacancy. The State Treasurer and Controller are appointed for three years by the Senate and General Assembly in joint meeting. The Attorney-General, prosecutors of the pleas, clerk of Supreme Court, clerk of the Court of Chancery, Secretary of State, and keeper of the State prison are appointed for five years—by the Governor and Senate. Judiciary. The distinction between courts of law and courts of equity is still maintained in New Jersey. The judges are appointed by the Governor, the judges of the Supreme Court and Chancellor for seven years, others for five years—all subject to confirmation by the Senate. The first or lower courts are the county courts of common pleas and oyer and terminer, presided over by a single judge; an orphan's court; and court of general quarter sessions of the peace. Next above is the Supreme Court, which makes the circuit of the State, and is composed of a Chief Justice and eight associates. A prerogative court is presided over by the Chancellor alone. The Court of Errors and Appeals in the last resort is composed of the Chancellor, the justices of the Supreme Court, and six judges specially appointed. The Senate acts as a court for the trial of cases of impeachment. Laws, etc. A wife holds property acquired before marriage free from control of her husband or liability for his debts. If living with her husband, she cannot convey her real property without his consent. The legal and only rate of interest is 6 per cent. A State Board of Agriculture was established in 1886, and there are a board of health and bureau of vital statistics. Each city and township is required to have local boards of health. Local Government. County sheriffs and coroners are elected by the people for terms of three years, but cannot be their own immediate successors. The counties also elect clerks and surrogates for terms of five years. The townships elect justices of the peace for terms of five years. The affairs of towns and counties are regulated according to general laws, and special laws cannot be passed relating to them. The State has ten Representatives in the Lower House of Congress. Militia. The number of men of militia age in the State in 1900 was 422,758. The number of militia in 1901 was 4038. Population. The growth of the population is shown by the following figures: 1790, 184,139; 1820, 277,426; 1850, 489,555; 1860, 672,035; 1870, 906,096; 1880, 1,131,116; 1890, 1,444,933; 1900, 1,883,669. From the 9th position in 1790 New Jersey fell to 21st in 1860, but rose again to 16th in 1900. Both the absolute and the proportionate increase have been much greater since 1840 than prior to that year. The absolute increase was greatest from 1890 to 1900, the percentage of increase being 30.4, as compared with 20.7 for the United States, and was exceeded only in one State east of the Mississippi River. The recent rapid growth is due largely to the heavy immigration of foreigners. Of the 431,884 foreign-born, according to the census of 1900, about one-half were German or Irish, the most prominent among the remainder being the English and Italians. In the same year the negroes numbered 69,844. The density of the population—250.3 to the square mile—is exceeded in only two States. The increase from 1890 to 1900 has been almost wholly on the part of the urban population. In 1900 the 49 cities containing over 4000 inhabitants each, together contained 67.5 per cent. of the total population, only three States having as high a percentage of urban population. Cities. In the State of New Jersey in 1900 the population of the ten largest cities was as follows: Newark, 246,070; Jersey City, 206,433; Paterson, 105,171; Camden, 75,935; Trenton, 73,307; Hoboken, 59,364; Elizabeth, 52,130; Bayonne, 32,722; Atlantic City, 27,838; Passaic, 27,777. Religion. The Roman Catholics form about 16 per cent. of the total population of the State. The principal Protestant denominations are the Methodist, with about 19 per cent. of the total number of church members; the Presbyterian, 12 per cent.; the Baptist, 8 per cent.; and the Protestant Episcopal and the Reformed, with about 6 per cent. each. Education. The question of education received attention at a very early date. Bergen had a school as early as 1661, and the charter of Woodridge (1669) provided for the granting of 100 acres of land for school purposes. The arrival of the Quakers gave an additional impetus. Even before the foundation of Princeton University, a number of classical schools were in existence. The finances for schools were not infrequently obtained by means of lotteries. After the Revolutionary War the matter of education, which had been almost entirely neglected during the struggle for freedom, again came to the fore. In 1816 the State Legislature laid the foundation of a permanent school fund by a grant of$16,000; and in 1824 a provision was made for the addition of one-tenth of all the annual State taxes. In 1871 a free public school system was established.

The educational affairs of the State are under the supervision of a State superintendent, appointed by the Governor and the Senate for three years, and of a board of education, whose 10 members are also appointed by the Governor and Senate. The State has a compulsory education law, and provides free text books and school supplies. The illiterate population in 1900 amounted to 5.9 per cent. of the total population of ten years and over. The proportion of illiteracy among the native whites is 1.7 per cent.; foreign whites, 14.1 per cent.; colored, 17.5 per cent. The 1893 public schools of the State employed, in 1901, 7561 teachers, of whom only 998 were males. The average monthly salaries received were $91.87 for male and$52.88 for female teachers. The length of the school term in 1901 was 183 days. The revenue for educational purposes amounted in 1901 to $6,718,189, of which$200,000 was derived from the permanent school fund and the rent of school lands, $2,399,724 from State taxes, and$4,079,945 from local taxes. The expenditures for the same year amounted to $7,189,712, or$32.49 per pupil in average attendance. The evening schools maintained in the larger cities of the State had an average attendance of 5397 in 1900.

For the preparation and training of teachers there are the State Normal School at Trenton and its auxiliaries and the Model and Farnum Preparatory schools. New Jersey had, in 1900, 170 public and private high schools and academies, with a total of 15,158 students. Technical education is provided by Stevens Institute (q.v.) at Hoboken and the Newark Technical School. The principal institutions for higher education are Princeton University, at Princeton; Stevens Institute of Technology, at Hoboken; Saint Peter's College (R. C.), at Jersey City; Saint Benedict's College (R. C.), at Newark; Rutgers College (Reformed), at New Brunswick; Seton Hall College (R. C.), at South Orange; and Bordentown Female College, at Bordentown.

Charitable and Penal Institutions. There is a State board of charities. Care and instruction of the deaf and dumb were provided in New York City and Buffalo until 1883, when a State institution was completed at Trenton. The blind are taken care of in New York and Pennsylvania institutions. There are a State training school for feeble-minded children and a State institution for feeble-minded women, both at Vineland. The home for disabled soldiers is at Kearney. An industrial school for girls at Trenton is maintained by the State. A State reform school for juvenile delinquents is located at Jamesburg in Middlesex County. The city of Newark also maintains a reformatory home at Verona. The old State lunatic asylum is at Trenton. This institution derives a revenue from the care of private patients. The asylum for the insane near Morristown is one of the finest structures for the purpose in the country, having cost about $2,500,000. It can accommodate upward of 1000 patients. The total expense for the insane and the poor in the fiscal year 1899-1900 was$1,812,962. The State prison is at Trenton. In 1884 the Legislature passed a bill abolishing contract convict labor in the prison. The inmates must now be employed upon goods used in institutions under State control, on the public-account system, or on the piece-price plan. A system of releasing certain inmates of the State prison on parole has been in operation since 1891.

History. The territory included within the limits of the present State was claimed by the Dutch without any definite boundaries as a part of New Netherland, and between 1614 and 1621 settlements were made in what is now Bergen County. Swedes and Danes also settled on the Delaware River, but were brought under the jurisdiction of the Dutch by Governor Stuyvesant. In 1664 this whole region was granted to James, Duke of York, by Charles II., but before James took possession he conveyed to John, Lord Berkeley, and Sir George Carteret the land between the Delaware and Hudson rivers, bounded on the north by a line drawn from 41° 21′ on the Delaware River to 41° on the Hudson, the present boundaries. In 1664-65 Berkeley and Carteret granted a form of government and settlement, the ‘Concessions,’ which allowed a popular assembly, and under which the colony was governed until the Revolution. Philip Carteret was sent over as Governor in 1665, and made Elizabeth-Town his capital. On March 18, 1674, Berkeley sold his interest to John Fenwick, in trust for Edward Byllinge, both Quakers, for £1000, and in 1676 the province was divided by a line drawn from Little Egg Harbor to the northwest corner. The Quakers took the western half, known as ‘West New Jersey,’ while Carteret retained ‘East New Jersey.’ Soon Byllinge surrendered his title to William Penn and others as trustees for his creditors, and West Jersey was divided into one hundred shares, of which Fenwick retained ten. Each of these shares carried with it the same rights of sovereignty which had been granted to the Duke of York. When the question was raised as to whether the Duke of York, not being a sovereign, could transfer the rights of government. Sir Edmund Andros, then Governor of New York, arrested Philip Carteret and Fenwick, and attempted to assume control. He was forced to give way in 1681, however, and the colonies continued to be governed by the proprietors. In 1682 Carteret's heirs sold East Jersey to William Penn and his associates. The proprietors of both colonies in 1702 ceded their right of government to the Crown, and the colonies were united and placed under the Governor of New York, though New Jersey retained its separate assembly. There was freedom of worship, but political privileges were withheld from Roman Catholics, and even as regards others the possession of at least two hundred acres of land or of property valued at £50 was a necessary qualification for the suffrage. In 1738 the province received a separate Governor. Manufacturing began very early. A paper mill was established at Elizabeth in 1728, and in 1769 forty of these were in operation. By 1750 the population was about 80,000. A glass factory was begun in 1748. In 1791 the Society for the Encouragement of Useful Manufactures was chartered, with the exclusive right of utilizing the falls of the Passaic, and the town of Paterson was founded. The first Provincial Congress met at New Brunswick, July 21, 1774. In 1776 the Royal Governor, William Franklin, was deposed, and on July 2, 1776, the Provincial Congress adopted a ‘Constitution’ for the ‘Colony of New Jersey’ without submitting it to the people. Under this instrument the Governor was to be chosen annually, and was to be executive, president of the council, and chancellor, thus combining executive, legislative, and judicial functions. On July 18th the Provincial Congress ratified the national Declaration of Independence, and changed the title of the colony to the ‘State of New Jersey.’ During the Revolution the State did its full duty, and was the scene of many of the battles of the war. (For military operations during the War of the Revolution, see United States.) The State hesitated to enter a Federal union out of fear of the larger States. In the constitutional convention of 1787 William Paterson (q.v.), one of her delegates, proposed the famous ‘New Jersey Plan,’ which provided for a single legislative House, in which each State should have one vote. The State ratified the Constitution, December 18, 1787. The capital was fixed at Trenton in 1790, and the history of New Jersey for many years after that was one of increasing prosperity. In 1844 a new constitution was adopted, providing for a term of three years for the Governor, and taking away his judicial duties. In 1875 the Constitution was thoroughly revised. The word ‘white’ was struck from the suffrage clause, though, of course, it had been a dead letter since the adoption of the Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. Politically, the State has generally inclined toward the Democratic Party. In 1796, 1800, and 1812, it supported the Federalist candidates; from 1836 to 1848 it was Whig; in 1860 it gave four votes to Lincoln and three to Douglas; in 1872 it cast its vote for Grant; and in 1896 and 1900 it went Republican on the money question. The following is a list of the colonial and State Governors of New Jersey:

 GOVERNORS OF EAST AND WEST JERSEY AFTER THE UNION Edward, Lord Cornbury[1] 1702-08 John, Lord Lovelace[1] 1708-09 Robert Hunter[1] 1710-19 William Burnet[1] 1720-28 John Montgomerie[1] 1728-31 Lewis Morris (pres. Council) 1731-32 William Cosby[1] 1732-36 John Anderson (pres. Council) 1736 John Hamilton (pres. Council) 1736-38 GOVERNORS OF NEW JERSEY ONLY Lewis Morris 1738-46 John Hamilton (pres. Council) 1746 John Reading (pres. Council) 1746-47 Jonathan Belcher 1747-57 John Reading (pres. Council) 1757-58 Francis Bernard 1758-60 Thomas Boone, 1760-61 Josiah Hardy 1761-62 William Franklin 1762-76 GOVERNORS OF THE STATE William Livingston Federalist 1776-90 William Paterson “ 1790-93 Richard Howell “ 1793-1801 Joseph Bloomfield Democratic-Republican 1801-02 John Lambert (acting) “⁠“ 1802-03 Joseph Bloomfield “⁠“ 1803-12 Aaron Ogden Federalist 1812-13 William S. Pennington Democratic-Republican 1813-15 Mahlon Dickerson “⁠“ 1815-17 Isaac H. Williamson “⁠“ 1817-29 Garret D. Wall (declined) Democrat 1829 Peter D. Vroom “ 1829-32 Samuel L. Southard Whig 1832-33 Elias P. Seeley Democrat 1833 Peter D. Vroom “ 1833-36 Philemon Dickerson “ 1836-37 William Pennington Whig 1837-43 Daniel Haines Democrat 1843-44 Charles C. Stratton Whig 1845-48 Daniel Haines Democrat 1848-51 George F. Fort “ 1851-54 Rodman M. Price “ 1854-57 Wm. A. Newell American 1857-60 Charles S. Olden “ 1860-63 Joel Parker Democrat 1863-66 Marcus L. Ward Republican 1866-69 Theodore F. Randolph Democrat 1869-72 Joel Parker “ 1872-75 Joseph D. Bedle “ 1875-78 George B. McClellan “ 1878-81 George C. Ludlow “ 1881-84 Leon Abbett “ 1884-87 Roberts Green “ 1887-90 Leon Abbett “ 1890-93 George T. Werts “ 1893-96 John W. Griggs Republican 1896-98 David O. Watkins (acting) “ 1898 Foster M. Voorhees “ 1898-1902 Franklin Murphy “ 1902 —

Bibliography. Whitehead, East Jersey Under the Proprietary Government (Newark, 1846); Foster, New Jersey and the Rebellion (ib., 1868); Carpenter and Arthur, The History of New Jersey (Philadelphia, 1853); Elmer, The Constitution and Government of the Province and State of New Jersey (Newark, 1872); Raum, History of New Jersey (Philadelphia, 1880); Scott, “The Influence of the Proprietors in Founding the State of New Jersey,” in Johns Hopkins University Studies, vol. iii., No. 8 (Baltimore, 1885); Cooley, “A Study of Slavery in New Jersey,” in Johns Hopkins University Studies, vol. xiv., Nos. 9, 10 (ib., 1896); Mellick, The Story of an Old Farm (Somerville, N. J., 1889); Salisbury, “The Physical Geography of New Jersey,” in New Jersey Geological Survey, Final Report of State Geologist, vol. iv. (Trenton, 1898); the New Jersey Historical Society Collections (Newark); the Archives of the State of New Jersey (ib., 1880 et seq.); and the Annual Reports of the New Jersey Geological Survey (Trenton) and of the New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station (New Brunswick, 1880 et seq.); Mills, Historic Houses of New Jersey (Philadelphia, 1903); Lee, New Jersey as a Colony and as a State (New York, 1903).

1. Also Governors of New York.