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The New International Encyclopædia/Ohio

OHI′O (corruption of Iroquois Ohionhiio, beautiful river), popularly called the ‘Buckeye State.’ A north central State of the United States, lying between 38° 27′ and 41° 57° north latitude, and between 80° 34′ and 84° 40′ west longitude. It is bounded on the north by Michigan and Lake Erie, on the east by Pennsylvania, on the southeast by West Virginia, on the southwest by Kentucky, and on the west by Indiana. Its southeastern and southwestern boundaries are formed by the Ohio River, while the others, with the exception of Lake Erie, are straight lines. The State measures 215 miles from east to west, and 210 miles from north to south. Its area is 41,060 square miles, of which 40,760 square miles or 26,086,400 acres are land-surface. It ranks thirty-second in size among the States.

Topography. The surface is a rolling plain sloping gradually northward toward Lake Erie and southward toward the Ohio River from a low and flat ridge which forms the divide between the two water systems. This ridge crosses the State in an irregular line from near the northeastern corner to about the middle of the western boundary, keeping much nearer to the lake than to the Ohio River. The elevation of the State above sea-level varies from slightly less than 500 feet to somewhat more than 1000 feet. The greatest altitude, 1540 feet, is reached near Bellefontaine in the west-central part. There are no marked irregularities in the surface except the trenches out by the rivers, the Ohio River valley being lined with bluffs which in some places are 600 feet high. As noted above, the State is divided into two drainage basins. The northern portion is drained into Lake Erie by a number of streams which are all short except the Maumee, which flows through the northwestern part of the State from Indiana. The southern and much larger slope is drained into the Ohio River, some of whose tributaries in this State are of considerable size. These are the Muskingum, Hocking, Scioto, and Little and Great Miami. The Muskingum is the longest river flowing wholly within the State, and is navigable for nearly 100 miles. The Ohio itself is navigable throughout its length on the boundary, a distance of 436 miles. The other rivers of the State are chiefly important for water-power, some of them being very swift.


NIE 1905 Ohio.jpg
COPYRIGHT, 1891 AND 1903, BY DODD, MEAD & COMPANY.


AREA AND POPULATION OF OHIO BY COUNTIES.



County. Map
 Index. 
 County Seat.   Area in 
square
miles.
Population.

1890. 1900.






 
Adams D 8  West Union 524 26,093 26,328
Allen B 4  Lima 405 40,644 47,976
Ashland F 4  Ashland 424 22,223 21,184
Ashtabula J 2  Jefferson 691 43,655 51,448
Athens F 7  Athens 528 35,194 38,730
Auglaize B 4  Wapakoneta 394 28,100 31,192
Belmont H 6  Saint Clairsville 611 57,413 60,875
Brown C 7  Georgetown 430 29,899 28,237
Butler A 7  Hamilton 498 48,597 56,870
Carroll H 4  Carrollton 379 17,566 16,811
Champaign C 5  Urbana 419 26,980 26,642
Clark C 6  Springfield 403 52,277 58,939
Clermont B 7  Batavia 431 33,553 31,610
Clinton C 7  Wilmington 424 24,240 24,202
Columbiana J 4  Lisbon 504 59,029 68,590
Coshocton F 5  Coshocton 552 26,703 29,337
Crawford E 4  Bucyrus 397 31,927 33,915
Cuyahoga G 3  Cleveland 472 309,970  439,120 
Darke A 5  Greenville 604 42,961 42,532
Defiance A 3  Defiance 412 25,769 26,387
Delaware D 5  Delaware 431 27,189 26,401
Erie E 3  Sandusky 312 35,462 37,650
Fairfield E 6  Lancaster 493 33,939 34,259
Fayette C 6  Washington C. H.  444 22,309 21,725
Franklin D 5  Columbus 479 124,087  164,460 
Fulton B 2  Wauseon 419 22,023 22,801
Gallia F 8  Gallipolis 408 27,005 27,918
Geauga H 2  Chardon 412 13,489 14,744
Greene C 6  Xenia 453 29,820 31,613
Guernsey G 5  Cambridge 484 28,645 34,425
Hamilton A 7  Cincinnati 405  374,573    409,479  
Hancock C 3  Findlay 526 42,563 41,993
Hardin C 4  Kenton 461 28,939 31,187
Harrison H 5  Cadiz 370 20,830 20,486
Henry B 3  Napoleon 415 25,080 27,282
Highland C 7  Hillsboro 558 29,048 30,982
Hocking E 6  Logan 425 22,658 24,398
Holmes F 4  Millersburg 439 21,139 19,511
Huron E 3  Norwalk 516 31,949 32,330
Jackson E 7  Jackson 411 28,408 34,248
Jefferson J 5  Steubenville 390 39,415 44,357
Knox F 5  Mount Vernon 514 27,600 27,768
Lake H 2  Painesville 242 18,235 21,680
Lawrence E 8  Ironton 469 39,556 39,534
Licking F 5  Newark 665 43,279 47,070
Logan C 5  Bellefontaine 470 27,386 30,420
Lorain F 3  Elyria 494 40,295 54,857
Lucas C 2  Toledo 356 102,296  153,559 
Madison D 6  London 451 20,057 20,590
Mahoning J 3  Youngstown 413 55,979 70,134
Marion D 4  Marion 502 24,727 28,678
Medina F 3  Medina 423 21,742 21,958
Meigs F 7  Pomeroy 435 29,813 28,620
Mercer A 4  Celina 466 27,220 28,021
Miami B 5  Troy 417 39,754 43,105
Monroe H 6  Woodsfield 431 25,175 27,031
Montgomery  B 6  Dayton 489 100,852  130,146 
Morgan G 6  McConnellsville 396 19,143 17,905
Morrow E 4  Mount Gilead 395 18,120 17,879
Muskingum F 6  Zanesville 655 51,210 53,185
Noble G 6  Caldwell 369 20,753 19,466
Ottawa D 3  Port Clinton 292 21,974 22,213
Paulding A 3  Paulding 415 25,932 27,528
Perry F 6  New Lexington 413 31,151 31,841
Pickaway D 6  Circleville 474 26,959 27,016
Pike D 7  Waverly 411 17,482 18,172
Portage H 3  Ravenna 509 27,868 29,246
Preble A 6  Eaton 432 23,421 23,713
Putnam B 4  Ottawa 475 30,188 32,525
Richland E 4  Mansflield 514 38,072 44,289
Ross D 7  Chillicothe 646 39,454 40,940
Sandusky D 3  Fremont 429 30,617 34,311
Scioto D 8  Portsmouth 565 35,377 40,981
Seneca D 3  Tiffin 556 40,869 41,163
Shelby B 5  Sidney 401 24,707 24,625
Stark H 4  Canton 546 84,170 94,747
Summit G 3  Akron 394 54,089 71,715
Trumbull J 3  Warren 624 42,373 46,591
Tuscarawas H 5  New Philadelphia  533 46,618 53,751
Union D 5  Marysville 430 22,860 22,342
Van Wert A 4  Vanwert 411 29,671 30,394
Vinton E 7  McArthur 414 16,045 15,330
Warren B 7  Lebanon 439 25,468 25,584
Washington H 7  Marietta 627 42,380 48,245
Wayne G 4  Wooster 544 39,005 37,870
Williams A 2  Bryan 432 24,897 24,953
Wood C 3  Bowling Green 626 44,392 51,555
Wyandot D 4  Upper Sandusky 403 21,722 21,125
 


Climate. The climate is in general pleasant and healthful, though variable, and subject to great and sudden changes of temperature. The mean temperature of the State for January is 26°, and for July 73°. The maximum may reach as high as 108° and the minimum 34° below zero, but extreme heat or cold is never very prolonged, on account of the variable winds. The southern half is the warmer, the heat of the northern portion being tempered by the presence of Lake Erie. In the north the winters are more severe, though seldom very rigorous in any part of the State. The average annual rainfall is 39.35 inches, very evenly distributed through the, year, though there is a maximum in May and June.

Soil and Vegetation. In the southeastern part the soil is formed directly from the decomposition of the underlying rocks, while in the remaining area, covering nearly two-thirds of the State, it consists of glacial drift of great fertility. This soil contains a great percentage of limestone material in the west, while in the northeast it consists chiefly of clay, and is well adapted for wheat-growing. The alluvial soil deposited along the river courses is excellent for the raising of Indian corn. The extreme northwestern part of the State exhibits certain features of prairie country. The remainder was originally covered with forests, in which oak, chestnut, and maple predominated on the higher ground, and elm, beech, ash, and similar trees on the lowlands. The flora of the State partakes of the general character of the Northeastern United States and has few peculiar species.

For Fauna, see paragraph under United States.

Geology. The principal feature in the geology of Ohio is the broad fold or anticlinal whose axis extends from central Kentucky and crosses southwestern Ohio near Cincinnati, thence running northwest into Indiana, while a branch axis runs northeast toward the western end of Lake Erie. From this axis the strata dip gently in either direction, so that a broad area of Silurian rocks is exposed, covering southwestern Ohio, southeastern Indiana, and north central Kentucky, with a narrower band along the branch axis toward Lake Erie. A small portion of this area near Cincinnati is composed of Lower Silurian rocks known as the Cincinnati group. On either side of the Silurian are narrower outcrops of Devonian strata running on the one hand through central Indiana, and on the other through the whole length of Ohio a little west of the central line. The lateral outcrops of these strata along the branch axis occupy the northwestern corner of the State and a narrow belt along the entire southern shore of Lake Erie. The remainder of Ohio, including nearly the whole eastern half, consists of Carboniferous strata. The entire State seems to have been above sea level throughout the Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras, there being no formations later than the Carboniferous until we come to the glacial drift. This covers about two-thirds of the State, leaving the southeastern portion untouched by the ice invasion. The drift deposit is in some places several hundred feet thick, and consists of alternating layers of boulder clay, stratified sand, finely laminated clay, sandy clay, and gravel. Raised beaches showing the former extent of the Great Lakes have been traced through the State, and another interesting feature of the surface are the deeply carved river-valleys which are completely filled with débris, so that the rivers sometimes flow far above their former beds.

Mineral Resources and Mining. Both the upper and lower coal measures contain several workable seams interbedded between strata of shale, limestone, sandstone, and clay, and ranging in thickness from two to over a dozen feet. It has been estimated that Ohio contains enough coal to supply the demand of the State for soft coal for 1000 years at the present rate of consumption. The interbedding strata of the coal measures yield fire-clay and building stone, and here also are found the iron ores of the carbonate variety. The Salina group of the Silurian strata near Sandusky contains valuable gypsum deposits, and salt deposits also occur at various places. One of the most remarkable events in the mineralogical development of Ohio was the discovery in 1884 of petroleum in the Trenton limestone formation of Lower Silurian age. This formation as well as the Upper Silurian inclosed also considerable reservoirs of natural gas.

Ohio's output of coal increased from about 6,000,000 tons in 1880 to 13,562,000 tons in 1892. It did not exceed this figure again until 1898. In that year and in the two following years the increase was very rapid. The output in 1900 aggregated 18,988,150 short tons, amounting to 7 per cent. of the total output for the country. It was valued at $19,292,246. Only a small amount of the coal output is used in the production of coke. The average number of employees engaged in the coal industry in that year was 27,628.

The petroleum development has been of recent date. Little had been produced prior to 1885, which year marks the beginning of the swift progress of the industry. The yield increase from 90,081 barrels in 1884 to 661,580 in 1885, 10,010,868 in 1888, and 23,941,169 in 1896. The last is the record year. The output for 1900 was 22,362,730 barrels, valued at $24,091,601. This was much in excess of that of any other State, and was over one-fourth of the total output for the United States. The petroleum is obtained in two sections of the State, the southeast and northwest. The former is known as the Eastern district, and the latter—the more important—as the Lima district. In a third region, known as the Mecca-Belden district, small quantities of lubricating oil are obtained. The utilization of the State's natural gas resources is also of recent development. There are two gas fields corresponding in a general way with those of petroleum. The extensive use of gas for fuel began in the Eastern district in the early seventies. The value of the gas burned in 1880 was estimated at over $5,000,000. The product was extravagantly consumed, and the supply soon became exhausted, so that in 1885 the value of the product was only about $100,000. The development of the gas fields in the northwest part of the State began at Findlay about this time, and the value of the output rapidly increased until 1889, when it exceeded that of any previous year. After 1889 the output declined steadily until 1898, since when its value increased again, amounting in 1900 to $2,178,234. From 1890 to 1900 the State was exceeded in rank with respect to the output of natural gas by Pennsylvania and Indiana, and since 1899 by West Virginia.

Ohio ranks first in the annual value of clay products, contributing 17.3 per cent. (1900) of the total output for the country. Their value increased from $10,860,934 in 1890 to $18,504,628 in 1900. Of the latter amount, $8,573,323 represented the value of the pottery (see Manufactures). and $9,731,305, the brick and tile. The State regularly ranks first in the figures for the sandstone product. From an annual value of over $3,000,000 in the earlier years of the decade 1890-1900, Ohio's product fell to about half that amount, but rose in 1900 to $2,233,596, including grindstones and whetstones. Of these it produces over four times as much as all the rest of the country, the value for 1900 being $549,636. The output of limestone for the same decade fluctuated in value around $1,500,000, approximately half the product being burned into lime. Considerable quantities of cement are annually manufactured. Iron ore was mined at an early period, and was of great importance to the industrial development of the State. Recently, however, iron-mining has become of less importance, both relatively and absolutely. From 344,484 tons in 1886 the output fell gradually to 61,016 tons in 1900, the entire product being of the carbonate variety of ore, and giving Ohio first rank in the production of carbonate ore. In 1900 sales of mineral water were reported from fifteen springs. In the same year the production of salt amounted to $696,326, giving the State fourth rank.

Forests and Forest Products. The greater part of Ohio was originally covered with forests of hard wood, largely white oak. Scarcely any of the primeval forests remain. The wooded area in 1900 was estimated at 9300 square miles, or 23 per cent. of the total area. The value of the lumber and timber products (see table below) was greater for 1900 than for any previous census year. The abundance of forests early gave rise to a number of industries, such as the manufacture of planing-mill products, furniture, etc., which have continued important, although much of their timber supply is now imported from other States.

Agriculture. There is little waste land in the State. In 1900, 93.9 per cent. of the total land area was in farms. The proximity of large city markets and the excellence of the transportation facilities help to stimulate agriculture. Every decade from 1850 to 1900 shows an increase in the area of improved land, which amounted in both 1890 and 1900 to 78.5 per cent. of the total farm area. The average size of farms decreased from 125.2 acres in 1890 to 88.5 acres in 1900. The farms operated by tenants in 1900 were 27.5 per cent. of the total number. Farm renting is becoming more common. The farms leased on share are more than twice as numerous as those leased for cash.

From the table appended it will be noticed that no particular agricultural products receive a monopoly of attention. In the variety of its farm yield the State has ranked high since the first settlement of the West. The staple products are grown throughout the State, there being only a slight difference in the adaptability of the different sections. The area of corn, wheat, and hay each exceeds three million acres, though the two last attained that record for the first time in 1900. From 1890 to 1900 the acreage of wheat increased 41.4 per cent. and the acreage of corn 20 per cent. Oats are also extensively grown, but this crop decreased in area during that decade. Rye, barley, and buckwheat are not extensively raised. Ohio is one of the largest producers of Irish potatoes, and the large city markets have given rise to the extensive raising of other varieties of vegetables—sweet corn, tomatoes, and cabbage being particularly important. The area devoted to tobacco increased 61.2 per cent. from 1890 to 1900, the rank of the State in 1900 being fourth. Over 43 per cent. of the area devoted to tobacco in 1900 lay in the counties of Montgomery and Darke. Ohio is probably the largest producer of temperate zone orchard fruits. Fifty-nine per cent. of the trees, or 12,952,625, are apple. The yield of this crop in 1900 was 20,600,000 bushels. The number of peach and pear trees was three times, and of plum and prune trees six times, as great in 1900 as in 1890. The region around Lake Erie is especially favored for fruit-raising. This region has become noted for its numerous and extensive vineyards. Large quantities of small fruits are grown. The use of fertilizers, estimated on the basis of cost, increased 68.2 per cent. from 1890 to 1900, amounting in the latter year to an average of $10 per farm.

The following table of crop acreages is self-explaining:


CROP 1900 1890



Corn  3,826,013   3,189,553 
Wheat  3,209,074  2,269,585
Oats  1,115,149  1,215,355
Rye 17,585  59,643 
Buckwheat  13,071  14,052 
Barley 34,058  37,092 
Hay  3,015,261  2,992,026
Tobacco 71,422  44,303 
Potatoes 167,590  185,393 

Stock-Raising. Stock-raising is characterized by the same diversity as is the cultivation of crops. Ohio holds a prominent place in dairying. The number of dairy cows has increased each decade since 1870. The production of milk gained 30.3 per cent. from 1890 to 1900. The receipts from sales of dairy produce in 1900 were $15,484,849, or 61 per cent. of the value of the total product. Of this amount, $8,303,626 was derived from the sale of milk, and most of the remainder from butter. The State is noted for sheep-raising, having for a long time led in the number of sheep, but there was a large decrease from 1890 to 1900. The average weight of fleeces, however, increased in this last decade, and in 1899 $4,299,025 was received from sales of wool. There was a significant gain from 1890 to 1900 in the number of cattle. The number of swine has remained about the same since 1880. Poultry is an important source of income.

The following table of holdings of stock explains itself:


1900 1890



Dairy cows 818,239  794,833 
Other cattle 1,235,074  968,554 
Horses 878,205  880,677 
Mules and asses  17,021  18,858 
Sheep 2,648,250  4,060,729 
Swine  3,188,563   3,275,922 

Manufactures. Until 1880 Ohio ranked fourth in the United States in the value of manufactured products, being exceeded in that year for the first time by Illinois. It has since held fifth place. The greatest absolute increase both in the value of products and the number of wage-earners employed was made between 1880 and 1890. In 1900 the value of products was estimated at $832,438,000, and the wage-earners numbered 345,869, or 8.3 per cent. of the population.

The early settlers were mainly from the Atlantic coast States, and brought with them a knowledge of industrial methods which enabled them to begin at once a diversity of industries for the supplying of local needs. The local requirements were soon outgrown, however, in consequence largely of the superior advantages of transportation, which gave the industries easy access to the resources of raw materials outside the State, and to the markets of an extensive and rapidly developing region. The Ohio River on the south afforded communication with the States of the Mississippi Valley. Lake Erie on the north gave the State the advantages of the lake system of transportation, and, after the building of the Erie Canal, afforded communication with the Atlantic coast. The two systems of transportation were early connected by two canals, and these waterways determined the location of the early industrial centres, three of which, Cincinnati, Cleveland, and Toledo, were especially favored by their positions at the junction of the artificial with the natural waterways. They still hold their industrial precedence.

From 1800 to 1850 Cincinnati not only far surpassed all other cities in the State, but was the metropolis of the West. From 1890 to 1900, however, there was a decrease in both the value of its products and the number of its wage-earners. Cleveland by contrast has rapidly grown, and now surpasses all Ohio towns in importance as to manufactures. What has brought Cleveland and other cities in the northeastern part of the State into recent prominence is the advantage they enjoy in the manufacture of iron and steel. This has become the State's leading industry. The first iron and steel establishment was in this section of Ohio, but as the forests, which supplied the charcoal used as fuel, became exhausted, the industry shifted to the southern part. The revival of iron and steel manufacture in the northeastern part was due to the development of the Lake Superior iron mines and the easy transportation afforded by the Great Lakes to this section of Ohio, together with the fact that the coke-producing regions of Pennsylvania were near. Youngstown, near which place the industry originated, has become the largest producer of iron and steel in Ohio. Since 1870 the State has ranked next to Pennsylvania, and between 1890 and 1900 its product more than doubled in value. The closely allied tin and terne-plate industries are also rapidly developing. The prominence of the iron and steel industry and the convenient resources of coal have exercised a beneficial influence on the manufacture of foundry and machine-shop products—the second largest industry in the State. This branch early attained large proportions at Cincinnati, which city was favored by its location on the Ohio River and its nearness to the coal and iron regions farther east. The industry has since developed generally throughout the State, Cleveland having become the largest centre. From 1890 to 1900 there was a gain of 66 per cent. in the value of the product. In the construction of merchant vessels Cleveland now ranks first among the cities of the United States.

In 1900 Ohio led all States in the manufacture of metal-working machinery. The large steam railway interests have led to an extensive car and general shop construction industry, and the increased use of electricity has occasioned a rapid development in the manufacture of electrical apparatus and supplies. From the first the preëminence of Ohio in agriculture has been a potent factor in manufacturing, having created a market for certain products, and supplying raw materials for others. A number of towns are best known by their manufacture of agricultural implements and wagons and carriages. The local iron and steel supply and the native forests within or near the State boundaries have afforded the chief raw materials required. The products of the farms in turn have occasioned a large slaughtering and meat-packing output, extensive manufactures of liquors, and a large production of flour, grist and tobacco products, and food preparations. In 1900 Ohio ranked third in the value of flour and grist-mill output, and also in the value of liquor products. Toledo ranks first in the production of the former, and Cincinnati in that of the latter. Cincinnati is also the largest centre of the slaughtering and tobacco interests. Being located close to the junction of the three largest swine-raising States, Cincinnati was, from 1800 to 1850, the largest meat-packing centre in the United States. The importance of the tobacco manufacture of that city is due to the fact that it is surrounded by one of the largest tobacco-growing regions in the United States. Akron is the chief producer of food preparations, an industry which enjoyed a sixfold increase from 1890 to 1900. Other industries which depend upon the resources of the State include the manufacture of glass, pottery and other clay products, and the refining of petroleum. When the natural gas supply partially failed, some of the glass factories removed to the Indiana gas fields. The value of the output for Ohio has therefore decreased. The value of the pottery products, on the contrary, more than doubled during the decade ending with 1900. East Liverpool, on the Ohio River, produces nearly one-half of the white ware manufactured in the United States. Yellow ware is manufactured at Zanesville and other points.

The manufactures of clothing, boots and shoes, leather, and rubber and elastic goods are all important. The value of the boots and shoes manufactured in 1900 was twice that for 1890, and the value of the rubber and elastic goods increased fivefold during the same period. Ohio has always been the largest boot and shoe manufacturing State west of the Alleghany Mountains, and only three cities, all located in Massachusetts, rank in this line ahead of Cincinnati.

The following table with respect to the leading industries explains itself. It will be seen that the percentage of the value of products has increased much more than that of the number of establishments:


INDUSTRIES  Year  Number of
 establishments 
Average
number
 wage-earners 
Value of products,
including custom
 work and repairing 





Total for selected industries given below for State 
1900 9,557  213,545  $547,619,814 
1890 7,997  169,057  402,134,891 








Increase, 1890 to 1900 ...... 1,560  44,488  145,484,923 
Per cent. of increase ...... 19.5  26.3  36.2 
 
Per cent. of total of all industries in State
1900 29.5  61.7  65.8 
1890 27.9  57.7  62.7 
 
Iron and steel
1900 107  33,677  138,935,256 
1890 101  23,546  65,206,828 
Foundry and machine shop products
1900 861  41,799  72,399,632 
1890 600  24,795  43,617,072 
Cars and general shop construction
 and repairs by steam railroad companies
1900 91  11,534  12,975,182 
1890 64  7,397  8,096,905 
Electrical apparatus and supplies
1900 64  3,773  6,504,847 
1890 11  348  604,780 
Agricultural implements
1900 78  6,852  13,975,268 
1890 106  7,701  14,333,258 
Carriage and wagon materials
1900 109  4,529  7,186,271 
1890 99  2,697  4,310,607 
Carriages and wagons
1900 543  7,274  15,919,173 
1890 709  9,493  18,777,866 
Flouring and grist-mill products
1900 1,150  2,438  37,390,367 
1890 910  3,311  39,468,409 
Slaughtering
1900 71  1,765  20,660,780 
1890 138  1,346  17,012,198 
Soap and candles
1900 55  1,427  8,150,069 
1890 49  1,013  5,746,660 
Liquors: total
1900 190  3,978  31,771,591 
1890 179  3,666  28,484,290 
Tobacco
1900 1,196  12,189  20,832,629 
1890 995  8,259  16,387,719 
Food preparations
1900 31  1,100  7,166,532 
1890 35  270  1,029,842 
Coffee and spice, roasting and grinding
1900 26  678  5,849,644 
1890 32  488  7,806,763 
Glass
1900 28  4,546  4,547,083 
1890 59  6,435  5,649,182 
Pottery, terra cotta, and fire-clay products
1900 248  11,870  11,851,225 
1890 125  4,606  5,047,501 
Petroleum, refining
1900 1,008  8,396,977 
1890 15  1,976  16,343,493 
Clothing, men's, factory product
1900 539  6,521  16,593,824 
1890 508  15,210  20,604,134 
Clothing, women's, factory product
1900 126  4,817  7,772,771 
1890 31  2,546  4,352,098 
Boots and shoes, factory product
1900 81  12,718  17,920,854 
1890 63  5,743  8,489,728 
Leather—tanned, curried and finished
1900 58  1,384  5,182,065 
1890 113  1,447  6,701,670 
Rubber and elastic goods
1900 19  3,505  7,330,104 
1890 658  1,486,777 
Printing and publishing: total
1900 1,253  11,021  20,391,868 
1890 987  9,026  17,188,851 
Lumber and timber products
1900 2,054  8,539  20,790,854 
1890 1,461  11,727  15,279,843 
Lumber, planing mill products,
 including sash, doors and blinds
1900 354  4,696  11,066,671 
1890 335  5,356  12,910,538 
Furniture, factory product
1900 165  6,723  9,514,764 
1890 215  7,076  9,988,129 
Paper and wood pulp
1900 51  3,184  6,543,513 
1890 50  2,921  7,209,750 

Transportation and Commerce. Ohio ranks fifth in its total railroad mileage; and in its mileage per 100 square miles of area—21.61 miles—it is exceeded by only one other of the large States. The first railroad built in Ohio, the Mad River and Lake Erie, now a part of the Big Four System, was chartered in 1832. By 1850 the mileage had increased to 572 miles; in 1870, 3538 miles; in 1890, 7980 miles; and in 1900, 8885 miles. In 1901 there were 100 railroad companies represented in the State. Among the longer lines were the Baltimore and Ohio Southwestern, the Cincinnati, Hamilton and Dayton, the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago and Saint Louis, the Hocking Valley, the Lake Shore and Michigan Southern, the New York, Chicago and Saint Louis, the Pittsburg, Cincinnati, Chicago and Saint Louis, the Toledo and Ohio Central, and the Wheeling and Lake Erie. In recent years there has been a decided tendency toward centralization of the railroads. In 1901 there were 858,815,080 passengers carried one mile; the average distance which passengers were carried was 25.73 miles; and the average receipt per passenger per mile was $.025. In the same year there were 12,450,261,839 tons of freight transported one mile, the average distance haul per ton being 72.18 miles, and the average amount received per ton mile $.013. Ohio leads every State in the extent of its interurban electrical railways. It is now possible to cross the northern part of the Commonwealth on electrical lines, or to go from Newark to Cincinnati. Cleveland, Toledo, Columbus, and Dayton are important centres for electrical lines.

Ohio has three United States customs districts, of which the ports of entry are Toledo, Sandusky, and Cleveland. Cincinnati also is a port of entry in the district of Louisiana for the State of Ohio. These customs ports represent only the foreign imports and exports which the position of Ohio on the lakes, adjoining Canada, and in communication with ocean commerce through the Canadian canals and the Saint Lawrence, enables the local merchants to make direct to and from foreign countries. The same may be said of Cincinnati, though its foreign trade has to be carried much more indirectly through the Ohio and Mississippi rivers. The foreign commerce of Ohio is, however, insignificant compared with the vast domestic commerce east, west, north, and south, along the State's lakes, railways, canals, and great river. Lake Erie is still the greatest single highway of commerce for the State, and the Government has improved several of its harbors. Those at Cleveland and Sandusky are the finest in the State. Sandusky Bay extends inland about eighteen miles, and admits the largest lake vessels to wharf. Cleveland figures most prominently in the lake commerce. Formerly the canals were expected to be second only to the lake and the Ohio River in volume of commerce, but the railways have far surpassed them in carrying facilities. The great value of the canals is now to force low rates upon the railway system by their cheaper, though slower, transportation. The canals now operated comprise the Ohio Canal, completed in 1835, extending from Cleveland to Portsmouth, 309 miles long; the Miami and Erie Canal, completed in 1835, extending from Cincinnati to Toledo, 250 miles long; the Hocking Canal, a branch of the Ohio, completed in 1843, extending from Carroll to Nelsonville, 42 miles long; and the Walhonding Canal, completed in 1843, extending from Rochester to Roscoe, 25 miles long. There is also a large mileage of artificial feeders and slack-water navigation.

Banking. In 1803 a trading company was chartered with the privilege of doing a banking business. From 1808 to 1813 five more banks were incorporated, each by a special act of the Legislature. The banks did a prosperous business, and when in 1817 a branch of the first United States Bank was established in Cincinnati it called forth strong opposition. The State made an effort to drive out this branch by special taxation, but was defeated in the United States Supreme Court. Some 25 banks were established in the following twenty years, and when in 1836 the second United States Bank made an effort to establish a branch, a special act was passed prohibiting it. A large number of unauthorized banking institutions sprang up between 1840 and 1850, and their currency flooded the State. Several of them failed and caused losses to the holders of currency. To correct the evil, the State in 1845 strictly prohibited any one from engaging in the banking business without special authority of the State; but the law did not prove sufficient, and in 1851 the State was forced to pass a free banking law. In 1863 almost all the State banks became national. Since then the national banks have remained the more popular. In the panics of 1873, 1884, and 1893 the numerous bank failures were practically limited to the private and State banks. A reaction in favor of State banks came toward 1900, when the high prices of the United States bonds made the advantages of national banking unattractive. Savings banks have existed in Ohio since 1850, but the institutions do also a commercial business.

The condition of the various banks in 1902 is shown in the following table:


National
banks
State
banks
Private
banks
Savings
banks





Number 211 225 91 4




Capital $50,545,000 $24,829,000 $4,330,000  ..............
Surplus  16,858,000   5,906,000 844,000  $2,437,000 
Cash, etc.   22,455,000   7,156,000 1,391,000  743,000 
Deposits 185,468,000 142,913,000 20,246,000  48,180,000 
Loans  202,388,000   114,161,000   18,123,000   15,798,000 

Finances. The first debt of the State was created in 1825, when the construction of several important canals was begun. In 1835 the debt amounted to $4,500,000. The State continued to subscribe to railroad, turnpike, and canal companies, until in 1843 it had a public debt of $16,880,000, in 6 and 7 per cent. bonds, and interest charges of $1,022,000. Simultaneously with the loans, the State established a system of taxation to meet the charges. All the income from the canals and a special tax were pledged for that purpose. These measures kept the credit of Ohio high and enabled it to borrow further sums. In the financial stringency of 1838-40, however, borrowing became more difficult, and as the abandonment of work would have meant too great a loss, 7 per cent. bonds had to be issued in 1843. But the law authorizing this loan also closed up all means of further increase of the debt. The sinking fund, the proceeds from sale of lands, and the school fund were absorbed by the canals. The debt was then gradually reduced and in 1856 it was $13,897,242. During that year, however, $2,423,349 more was borrowed, after which the debt was rapidly reduced by redemption of several hundreds of thousands of dollars each year. In 1880 the debt was only $6,476,805; a greater part of these bonds were acquired by the school fund and so became irredeemable. Of the redeemable debt only $2,541,655 was left in 1890, and in 1902 only $200,000—maturing in 1903. The income of the State was always derived mainly from direct taxation and was divided between the general revenue fund, sinking fund, and school fund. In 1892 a special university fund was created. In 1902 the total income was $9,855,524, of which almost 60 per cent. came from a general property tax and 17½ per cent. from an excise tax. The expenses were $7,967,003. The balances in all the funds on November 15, 1902, amounted to $3,572,244.

Government. Ohio has its second Constitution, the one now in operation having been adopted by a popular vote in 1851. An amendment proposed in either House must be approved by three-fifths of the members elected to each House, and in turn by a majority of the electors voting at a popular election, each amendment being voted upon separately. A constitutional convention may be called if demanded by two-thirds of the members elected to each branch of the General Assembly, and by a majority of all the electors voting at a popular election. The question ‘Shall there be a constitutional convention?’ is voted upon at a popular election each twentieth year and determined by a majority of all the electors voting. The exercise of the franchise has the usual limitations of age, sex, and sanity, and the requirement of a residence of one year in the State and such time in the county, township, or ward as may be provided by law. The Legislature may deny the right of suffrage to persons convicted of bribery, perjury, or other infamous crime. The registration of voters is required in cities of not less than 9000 inhabitants. The State sends 21 members to the National House of Representatives.

Legislative. The General Assembly consists of a Senate and a House of Representatives. Representation is upon the basis of population. Most of the counties have one or more members in the Lower House, the smaller counties being united with other counties for representation. The members of both Houses are elected for two years, the day of election being the same as that for executive officers—the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November. The Legislature meets in regular session biennially the first Monday of January, in even-numbered years. The number of Senators and Representatives is determined biennially. Counties are united for Senatorial representation, but any county may be made a separate Senatorial district when it has acquired a population equal to a full Senatorial ratio, providing, however, that a full Senatorial ratio is left in the district from which it is removed. The compensation of the members of the General Assembly is fixed by law. The Lower House impeaches and the Senate tries all cases of impeachment, the concurrence of two-thirds of the Senators being necessary to a conviction. Bills may originate in either House, and no bill may contain more than one subject.

Executive. The term of the Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, Secretary of State, State Treasurer, and Attorney-General is two years; that of the Auditor four years; and that of the school commissioner, and of the board of public works, three years. The commissioner of railroads and telegraphs, superintendent of insurance, supervisor of public printing, gas commissioner, and State and law librarians are appointed by the Governor.

The Governor may call extra sessions of the General Assembly. He exercises the usual pardoning power, subject to regulations as to the manner of applying for pardons.

The Lieutenant-Governor, president of the Senate, and Speaker of the House are in the line of succession to the Governorship in case of a vacancy.

Judicial. The judicial power of the State is vested in a Supreme Court, circuit courts, courts of couunou pleas, courts of probate, justices of the peace, and such other courts inferior to the Supreme Court, as the General Assembly may from time to time establish. The officials here mentioned are all elected by popular vote. The term of service for the Supreme Court judges cannot be less than five years, that for the judges of the common pleas is five years, and that of the probate court judges and the justices of the peace is three years. The term of the circuit judges is determined by law. The General Assembly may establish courts of conciliation, and prescribe their powers and duties, but their judgment is not final except upon agreement of the parties to abide by such judgment.

Local Government. The General Assembly may provide for the organization of cities and incorporated villages by general laws, and variously restrict their powers. Similarly, provision is made for the election of such county and township officers as may be necessary, the day of election for county officers being the same as that for State officers. Their terms of office do not exceed three years. No person is eligible to the office of sheriff or county treasurer for more than four years in any period of six.

Laws. The legal rate of interest is 6 per cent., but 8 per cent. is allowed by contract. Willful absence or habitual drunkenness for three years, extreme cruelty, imprisonment in penitentiary, divorce procured by either party in another State, are some of the chief causes for divorce. Residence required, one year.

Militia. The men of militia age in 1900 totaled 893,327. The militia in 1901 numbered 6001.

Population. The following figures show the growth of the population: 1800, 45,365; 1820, 581,295; 1840, 1,519,467; 1860, 2,339,511; 1870, 2,665,260; 1880, 3,198,062; 1890, 3,672,316; 1900, 4,157,545. From eighteenth in rank in 1800 Ohio rapidly advanced to third in 1840, which position it held until surpassed by Illinois in 1890, since when it has been fourth. The greatest absolute increase was made in the decade 1830-40. From 1890 to 1900 the increase amounted to 13.2 per cent., as compared with 20.7 for the United States. The earliest development of the State was along the Ohio River, many of the early settlers coming from the Southern States. But the great bulk of the population in the later developing central and northern portions came from Pennsylvania and the Northeastern States. Ohio, particularly the southern part, attracted large numbers of the early German and Swiss immigrants, and Cincinnati became well known for its large German population. In 1900 the Germans constituted over half of the 458,734 foreign-born population. In the same year the negroes numbered 96,901. The increase between 1890 to 1900 was almost wholly on the part of the urban population. Only two States have a larger number of places containing over 4000 inhabitants. The 83 towns of this size in 1900 together had 44.8 per cent. of the State's population. There is an average of 102 persons to the square mile, which figure exceeds that for any other State west of the Alleghany Mountains.

In 1900 the population of the nine largest cities was as follows: Cleveland, 381,768; Cincinnati, 325,902; Toledo, 131,822; Columbus, the capital, 125,560; Dayton, 85,333; Youngstown, 44,885; Akron, 42,728; Springfield, 38,253; Canton, 30,667.

Religion. The principal Protestant denominations are the Methodists, with about one-fourth of all the church members of the State, and the Presbyterian, with about one-tenth. The Roman Catholics also have about one-tenth. The other Protestant denominations, in order of their importance, are the Lutheran, the Baptist, the Disciples of Christ, the Congregational, and the Protestant Episcopal.

Education. The first grant of land for public education in the territory of Ohio was made in 1785, when the Continental Congress reserved for that purpose the sixteenth section of every township. These grants were supplemented later by similar grants in the Virginia and United States military reservations and the Connecticut Reserve. In 1825 a school tax law was passed, and in 1827 provision was made for the sale of the school lands. A general school law was passed in 1873 providing for the classification of school districts, and making the use of the English language obligatory in teaching all branches, instead of German, which had hitherto been used in many schools.

During the second half of the nineteenth century Ohio was in many respects the leading State in the West with regard to education, and some of the most important educational reforms in the United States were first introduced here. School attendance is compulsory between the age of eight and that of fourteen. Considerable progress has been made of late in Ohio in the centralization of rural schools, with the result that there has been an increase in the number of high and graded schools, as well as in the regularity of attendance. The cost of maintaining the schools under the new system, including transportation, is in some cases less than under the old system. The census of 1900 gives the illiterate population of Ohio as 4 per cent. of the total population of ten years and over, being 2.4 per cent. for native white, 11.1 per cent. for foreign white, and 17.9 per cent. for colored. The total school age population (six to twenty-one) in 1901 was 1,219,919, of whom 829,857 were enrolled in the public schools. The average attendance in the same year was 610,622, or nearly 74 per cent. of the total enrollment. The length of the school term averages 163 days. The male teachers constituted 39.2 per cent. of all instructors in 1901. The average salaries of teachers in that year were $40 for males and $35 for females.

The school revenue is derived from State and local taxes, fines and penalties, and various other sources. The State contributions consist of the general State tax of one mill and the interest (6 per cent.) on the money obtained from the sale of the school lands and held by the State as an irreducible State debt, amounting in 1901 to $3,978,705, In 1901 the total school revenue was $14,237,752, of which $11,351,987 was obtained from local taxes, $1,783,258 from State taxes, and $242,257 from the income of the permanent fund. The average expenditure per pupil of average attendance in the same year was $23.33. Public kindergartens are found in all the larger cities. For the preparation of teachers there are a number of State and private normal schools. Some of the colleges and the universities also give courses in pedagogy. Ohio has more public high schools than any other State, though New York has a greater high school attendance. In 1901 there were in Ohio 899 public high schools, with a total attendance of 41,909. In the same year the 383 high schools of New York had an attendance of 63,549. The Case School of Applied Science (q.v.) ranks among the leading technological schools in the United States.

The best known of the academic institutions are the State University, at Columbus; Oberlin College (nonsect.), at Oberlin; Western Reserve University (nonsect.), at Cleveland; and the University of Cincinnati (city), at Cincinnati. Among the other higher institutions are Miami University (State), at Oxford; Ohio University (State), at Athens; Ohio Wesleyan University (Methodist Episcopal), at Delaware; University of Wooster (Presbyterian), at Wooster; Hiram College (Christian), at Hiram; Marietta College (nonsect.), at Marietta; Kenyon College (Protestant Episcopal), at Gambier; Saint Xavier (Roman Catholic) and the Hebrew Union College, at Cincinnati. Most of these institutions are coeducational.

Charitable and Penal Institutions. The State Board of Charities, consisting of six unsalaried members, is appointed by the Governor. This board investigates the whole system of public charitable and correctional institutions, including 17 State institutions, 8 workhouses, 89 infirmaries, 88 county jails, over 50 children's homes, and all municipal institutions and lock-ups. The plans for all new buildings, additions, or alterations must be submitted to the board for its criticism and approval. The following table includes the 17 State institutions for the year ending November 15, 1901:


INSTITUTION Location Daily
Average
number in
 institution 
Current
expenses,
including
salaries




State Hospital  Athens 997  $127,435 
State Hospital  Cleveland  1,121  184,710 
State Hospital  Columbus  1,367  200,287 
State Hospital  Dayton 837  133,983 
State Hospital  Massillon 733  116,789 
State Hospital  Toledo 1,515  226,022 
Long View Hospital  Carthage 1,118  168,115 
Hospital for Epileptics  Gallipolis 841  163,787 
Inst. for Feeble-Minded  Columbus 1,088  168,017 
Inst. for Deaf and Dumb  Columbus 510  101,037 
Inst. for Blind  Columbus 330  76,520 
Soldiers and Sailors' Orphans Home   Xenia 860  176,292 
Soldiers and Sailors' Home  Sandusky 1,258  203,905 
Boys' Ind. Home  Lancaster 827  121,231 
Girls' Ind. Home  Delaware 312  39,292 
Penitentiary  Columbus 1,831  308,814 
State Reformatory  Mansfield 339  89,979 



Total State Institutions. .......... 15,884   $2,605,615 

In the same year municipal institutions, comprehending eight workhouses and one house of refuge, had a daily average attendance of 1609, and total expenses of $246,543. The expenses for county institutions for the same period, including infirmaries, children's homes, jails, outdoor relief, as reported by infirmary directors ($232,209), and as reported by township clerks ($261,285), and by the soldiers' relief commission, aggregated $2,182,720. The total State municipal and county expenses for the year were $5,034,886. Petty criminals are committed to work-houses or to jails, the commitments to the former in 1901 numbering 813, to the latter 1627. No employment is afforded to those committed to the county jails. The State has a cumulative sentence law, but it is not enforced. The State Reformatory at Mansfield has the benefit of a parole law, and a ‘field officer’ is appointed to look after paroled men. Convicts at the penitentiary are employed under the peace-price and the contract systems, but the prisoners remain in the complete control of the State. At Dayton is located a National Soldiers' Home with accommodations for about 6000 inmates.

History. Ohio was formed from a part of the Northwest Territory (q.v.), and includes a portion of the Virginia cession of 1784 and all of the Connecticut cession of 1800. The first explorers cannot be surely determined. Possibly La Salle, about 1670, visited the region, but he left no record of his wanderings. The enmity of the Iroquois kept the French away from Lake Erie long after they had explored the other great lakes, and though large numbers of coureurs des bois roamed the wilderness and trading posts were doubtless established, not one resulted in a permanent settlement. About 1686 Governor Dongan of New York sent trading expeditions into the region with but little success. In 1749 a French officer, Céloron, under the orders of Gallissonière, Acting Governor of Quebec, crossed Lake Erie, put his boats into the Allegheny, and thus reached the Ohio and the Mississippi. His report is the first authentic relation of this part of the country. At several points he placed tablets declaring all the region of the Ohio to be French territory regardless of the grants of the Stuart kings. English traders were driven out, and this precipitated the French and Indian War. (See Ohio Company.) By the Peace of Paris in 1763 the French possessions cast of the Mississippi passed to Great Britain. During the Revolution the only settlement within the present limits of the State, consisting of some Moravian villages near the present site of New Philadelphia, was broken up by Indians and renegade whites. After the Northwest Territory was formed, settlement was rapid. Massachusetts pioneers founded Marietta in April, 1788. John Cleves Symmes, of New Jersey, bought a large tract between the Miami rivers and sent out settlers. In 1788, too, a party from Lexington, Ky., founded Losantiville (now Cincinnati) on a portion of this tract. A French settlement was made at Gallipolis in 1789 or 1790, and about the same time Virginians began to come in large numbers. A provision in the Ordinance of 1787 allowed the creation of a representative assembly when 5000 white males of voting age should be resident in the territory. The first session of such an assembly was held at Cincinnati in 1799. and William Henry Harrison was chosen the first delegate to Congress. In 1800 Connecticut completely abandoned her jurisdiction over the territory along Lake Erie, though she still retained proprietary rights in the soil. This was called the Western Reserve (q.v.) and rapidly filled with settlers chiefly from New England. In May, 1800, the Territory was divided and the western part was named Indiana.

On April 30, 1802, Congress authorized the election of delegates to a convention to determine whether a State government should be established. The convention sat at Chillicothe, November 1-29, and adopted a constitution, which was not submitted to the people. The boundaries were fixed, according to the suggestion of Congress, as the Pennsylvania line on the east, the Ohio River on the south, a north and south line from the mouth of the Big Miami to its intersection with an east and west line passing through the most southerly point of Lake Michigan on the west, and this east and west line through Lake Erie to the Pennsylvania line on the north. A proviso was inserted, however, that if this northern line should touch Lake Erie south and east of the mouth of the Maumee, the northern line should then run from Lake Michigan through the mouth of this stream. Such was found to be the case later and Michigan refused to give up claim to the strip of territory including Toledo until it was made a condition of her admission as a State in 1834. An election for members of the Legislature was ordered for January 11, 1803, and the Legislature met on March 1st. Meanwhile, on February 19th, Congress declared that Ohio, by adopting a constitution, had become a State of the Union, though there was as yet no State Government. The capital was fixed at Chillicothe and so remained until 1810, and was then moved to Zanesville. In 1812 the offer of a land company to build a new city was accepted, and since 1816 Columbus has been the seat of government. Considerable excitement was caused by the alleged Burr-Blennerhasset plot in 1806. During the War of 1812 the occupation of Ohio by the British was prevented by Gen. William Henry Harrison. Many Indians joined the British, but the combined forces were defeated, October 5, 1813, on the river Thames in Canada, and Tecumseh, the Indian leader, was killed. This battle, following close upon Perry's victory on Lake Erie, ended the war, so far as this State was concerned. The population steadily increased, but the lack of a market for the products of the State was the greatest need. Some sea-going vessels had been built upon the Ohio, but such sailing vessels were worth little on rivers. The application of steam to navigation, the construction of the Erie Canal, and the completion of the Miami and Ohio canals in 1835 made a new era. From that time access to the sea was comparatively easy and the country entered upon a period of magnificent prosperity, to which the coming of the railroads gave an additional impetus.

The State supplied more than its quota of troops for the Mexican War, and at the outbreak of the Civil War was exceedingly active. Seventy regiments responded to the first call for troops, though only thirteen were asked. Soldiers were sent into Virginia and helped to save West Virginia to the Union, and the prompt action of Governor Dennison had its influence upon Kentucky also. There were many Southern sympathizers in southern Ohio, however, and resistance was offered to national officers in 1863, when the advantage seemed to be with the Confederate armies. (See Vallandigham, Clement L.) A large number of the most successful Federal officers were natives of the State, as Grant, Sherman, McDowell, Rosecrans, Garfield, and others.

Ohio was Democratic in national elections from the time of its admission to 1836. In that year it voted with the Whigs, and since then has been Whig and Republican, with the exception of the years 1848 and 1852, when it cast its vote for Cass and Pierce respectively. The following have been the Governors of Ohio:

GOVERNORS OF THE NORTHWEST TERRITORY.
Arthur St. Clair 1788-1802
C. W. Byrd (acting) 1802-03
STATE GOVERNORS.
Edward Tiffin Democratic-Republican  1803-07
Thomas Kirker (acting) 1807-08
Samuel Huntington 1808-10
Return Jonathan Meigs 1810-14
Othniel Looker (acting) 1814
Thomas Worthington 1814-18
Ethan Allen Brown 1818-22
Allen Trimble (acting) 1822
Jeremiah Morrow 1822-26
Allen Trimble 1826-30
Duncan McArthur Whig 1830-32
Robert Lucas  “ 1832-36
Joseph Vance  “ 1836-38
Wilson Shannon Democrat 1838-40
Thomas Corwin Whig 1840-42
Wilson Shannon Democrat 1842-44
T. W. Bartley (acting) 1844
Mordecai Bartley Whig 1844-46
William Bebb  “ 1846-49
Seabury Ford (acting)  “ 1849-50
Reuben Wood Democrat 1850-53
William Medill (acting) 1853-54
William Medill 1854-56
Salmon P. Chase Republican 1856-60
William Dennison 1860-62
David Tod 1862-64
John Brough 1864-65
C. Anderson 1865-66
Jacob D. Cox 1866-68
Rutherford B. Hayes 1868-72
Edward F. Noyes 1872-74
William Allen Democrat 1874-76
Rutherford B. Hayes Republican 1876-77
Thomas L. Young (acting)  1877-78
Richard M. Bishop Democrat 1878-80
Charles Foster Republican 1880-84
George Hoadly Democrat 1884-86
Joseph B. Foraker Republican 1886-90
James E. Campbell Democrat 1890-92
William McKinley Republican 1892-96
Asa S. Bushnell 1896-1900
George K. Nash 1900—

Bibliography. Short, Ohio: A Sketch of Industrial Progress (Cleveland, 1882); Howells, Recollections of Life in Ohio, 1813-40 (Cincinnati, 1895). For the archæology, consult: Thomas, “The Problem of the Ohio Mounds,” in Smithsonian Institute Bureau of Ethnology (Washington, 1889); Moorehead, Primitive Man in Ohio (New York, 1890); Shepherd, Antiquities of the State of Ohio (Cincinnati, 1890); Maclean, Mound Builders (Cincinnati, 1897); and Fowke, Archæological History of Ohio (Columbus, 1903); King, Ohio, American Commonwealth Series (Boston, 1888); Atwater, History of the State of Ohio (Cincinnati, 1838); Hinsdale, The Old Northwest (New York, 1899); Burnet, Notes on Early Settlement of the Northwestern Territory (Cincinnati, 1847); Matthews, Ohio and Her Western Reserve (New York, 1902); Smith (ed.), The Saint Clair Papers (2 vols., Cincinnati, 1885); Bliss (ed.), Diary of David Zeisberger (2 vols., ib., 1885); Cutler, Life, Journals, and Correspondence of Rev. Manasseh Cutler (2 vols., ib., 1888); Thompson, Bibliography of Ohio (ib., 1880).