The New International Encyclopædia/Periodical

PERIODICAL. In a wide sense, a publication issued, at more or less regular intervals, in successive numbers, which are not related to one another as volumes or parts of a single book or series of books. The word, however, is commonly employed—and is here considered—in a narrower sense which excludes on the one hand newspapers (see Newspaper), or periodical summaries of current, and especially of political, events, and on the other such periodical publications as the transactions of learned societies, year-books, almanacs, and so on. Even within these limits the term includes a great variety of publications which differ so much in object and character that concise description of them is impossible; but it may be said of them in general that they are designed to furnish either information about matters of more than ephemeral interest, or entertainment, or both. They deal either with a single subject—such as literature, or a particular science or industry—or with a group of allied subjects, or with material of the most heterogeneous character. The most important special groups of them are reviews, or periodicals devoted especially to the criticism of books, and magazines, which are designed to furnish miscellaneous and entertaining reading. In the most popular of the latter class fiction forms an important part of the contents, and pictorial illustrations, often of fine artistic quality, are frequently employed.

Early Forms. The periodical, as thus defined, originated in France in the seventeenth century, and in the form of the critical literary journal. The first example of it is also one of the most famous and the longest lived, for its publication has continued, though with many interruptions, until the present day—namely the Journal des Savants. The idea which it embodied was conceived about 1663 by the historian Mézeray, who proposed to establish a weekly journal in which should be “made known what was happening in the republic of letters.” His project came to nothing; but in 1664 Denis de Sallo, Sieur de la Coudraye, under the name of Sieur de Hédouville, obtained the privilege of issuing a periodical of this kind, and the first number of the Journal des Savants appeared on January 5, 1665. Its plan included reviews of new books, reports of scientific discoveries, obituary notices, and general information of interest to the learned world. Sallo associated with himself a number of scholars, among them the Abbé Gallois, who succeeded him as editor. The freedom or—as it appeared to an age not accustomed to the ways of the reviewer, arrogance—with which the new journal criticised both books and (what was more serious) ecclesiastical affairs promptly brought it into trouble, and after the appearance of the thirteenth number it was suppressed. Colbert, however, who recognized its value, decided to reëstablish it, and on Sallo's refusal to consent to the demanded abridgment of his freedom, placed it (1666) in the hands of the Abbé Gallois, who conducted it negligently, issued it very irregularly and practically abandoned it in 1674. In 1675 publication was resumed under the editorship of the Abbé de la Roque, who was succeeded in 1687 by L. Cousin. In 1701 it passed under the editorial control of a commission of literary men and was conducted in this way until 1723. After a year of suspended animation it was reissued under the auspices of the Abbé Bignon and the Abbé Desfontaines. Another interruption of publication was caused by the Revolution in 1792, and an attempt to revive it in 1796 was a failure. It was finally reëstablished (April 15, 1816) under the Restoration and placed under the supervision of a commission representing the different classes of the Institute. Seven years after the appearance of the Journal des Savants was founded the second French literary periodical, the Mercure Galant of Jean Donneau de Vizé, which, under a variety of titles, continued—with interruptions—to exist until 1825; in 1717 it received the name of Mercure de France, by which it is commonly known. In addition to criticism, poetry, and other literary material, it dealt with topics of the most diverse kinds, including current news, and it has, accordingly, a place in the history of journalism. Among its editors were Thomas Corneille, whom Vizé associated with himself in 1690, and Marmontel. In the same year (1672) with the Mercure Galant, Claude Blondeau and Gabriel Guéret began the first legal periodical, the Journal du Palais; in 1679 appeared the Nouvelles découvertes sur toutes les parties de la médecine (3 vols.) of Nicholas de Blegny—memoirs published by an ‘academy’ at whose head Blegny had placed himself—which may be regarded as the first medical journal; and in 1680 was issued by the Abbé Jean-Paul de la Roque the first prospectus of a religious periodical—the Journal ecclésiastique. The publication of the last named was forbidden, and in 1690 La Roque began the Mémoires sur l'histoire ecclésiastique, of which however, only one volume was issued. A medical journal—Les Journeaux de Médecine, etc.—which he started in 1683 was equally unfortunate. Other notable periodicals of French origin (but printed in Holland) dating from the seventeenth century are the Nouvelles de la république des lettres, founded by the celebrated Pierre Bayle in 1684, and conducted by him for three years (it survived until 1718); the Histoire des ouvrages des savants of Henri Basnage de Beauval, begun in 1687 and continued until the middle of 1709; and the Bibliothèque universelle et historique of Jean Leclerc, the noted critic, which was issued in 1686-93.

Beginnings in England. The last quarter of the same century saw the beginnings of the literary and of the scientific periodical in England also. As the first example of the former is commonly reckoned the Mercurius Librarius; or a Faithful Account of All Books and Pamphlets, the first number of which appeared in April, 1680. It was announced as a ‘catalogue’ to be published “weekly, or one in fourteen days at least,” and it was in fact nothing more; it contained advertisements, or paid notices of new books, and possessed nothing of the literary character. Of greater importance was the Weekly Memorials for the Ingenious, issued 1681-83, which obtained much of its material from the Journal des Savants. Between 1685 and 1700 appeared for brief periods several learned publications of the periodical type, derived chiefly from Continental sources. Of a more strictly English character was the Athenian Gazette (later called the Athenian Mercury)—a kind of ‘Notes and Queries’—published weekly from March, 1689-90, to February, 1695-96, by the bookseller John Dunton, with the assistance of Richard Sault and others. The Gentleman's Journal, or the Monthly Miscellany, of Peter Anthony Motteux, a forerunner of the modern literary magazine, was issued 1692-93 (2 vols.); it contained verses by Prior, Sedley, Mrs. Behn, Oldmixon, D'Urfey, and others, and miscellaneous prose. The History of the Works of the Learned, a review dealing mainly with Continental books, was issued from 1699 to 1712. Its publication was resumed in 1737 and was continued until 1743.

Early German Periodicals. In Germany a beginning was made in 1663 with the Erbauliche Monatsunterredungen of Johann Rist, which was followed in 1670 by the first scientific annual, the Miscellanea Curiosa Medico-Physica of the Academia Leopoldina. But the most celebrated of all the periodicals which date from this period is the first German literary journal, the Acta Eruditorum Lipsiensium (written in Latin), founded by Prof. Otto Mencke in Leipzig, the first number of which appeared in 1682. It was modeled after the Journal des Savants and the Italian Giornale de' Letterati (see below), and included extracts from new books, reviews, and independent articles. Mencke associated with himself in this work many of the most learned men of the time, among them Leibnitz, Seckendorff, and Thomasius, and the Acta became the supreme critical authority in German literature. On Mencke's death in 1707 he was succeeded in the editorship by his son, J. B. Mencke; and in 1732 his grandson, F. O. Mencke, began a new series under the title Nova Acta Eruditorum. The Acta came to an end in 1782, when the belated volume for 1776 appeared. Outside of the countries above mentioned, Italy alone has possessed learned periodicals dating from this period—the Giornale de' Letterati of Francesco Nazzari, founded in 1668 and published until 1679, another with a similar title issued from 1686 to 1697 by Bacchini and Roberti, and the Biblioteca volante of Cinelli and Sancassini (1676-1718 and 1733-47).

Modern British Periodicals. From the beginning of the eighteenth century new periodicals have appeared in these and in other countries in ever increasing numbers and diversity. In England, Daniel Defoe began in 1704 A Review of the Affairs of France and of All Europe, as Influenced by That Nation, issued at first weekly, then twice, and later thrice a week. It came to an end, in its original form, in 1712, but was carried on in a new series, called simply The Review, until June, 1713. One feature of this review—the contributions of an imaginary ‘Scandal Club’—doubtless suggested the periodical essay which became important in the history of English literature. Of these essay-periodicals the most noted are The Tatler (1709-10-11) written chiefly by Steele and Addison; The Spectator (1710-11-14) of Addison, Steele, Budgell, and others; The Rambler (1750-52) of Dr. Johnson. A French Protestant refugee, Michael de la Roche, a friend of Bayle, started in 1710 the Memoirs of Literature, a review, independent of foreign sources for its material, though modeled after French works of the kind, which he issued until the end of 1714. In 1725 he began another review, the New Memoirs of Literature, which lived for two years, and in 1730 A Literary Journal, a continuation of the Memoirs of Literature, which came to an end in about half that time. A classical periodical, entitled Bibliotheca Literaria, Being a Collection of Inscriptions, Medals, Dissertations, etc., was brought out in 1722 by Samuel Jebb and ran through ten numbers, ending in 1724. La Roche's work was taken up by Andrew Reid, who issued (1728-36) The Present State of the Republick of Letters, a review of considerable merit; and by Archibald Bower, whose Historia Literaria appeared monthly (1730-34). At this time (January, 1730-31) was published the first and one of the most famous of English magazines, the Gentleman's Magazine, or Traders' Monthly Intelligencer . . . by Sylvanus Urban, Gent., founded by the printer Edward Cave. His original plan, afterwards much widened, was that of a collection or ‘magazine’ (the first use of the word in this sense) of the essays and news which appeared in the London papers; the title was in other points suggested by Motteux's periodical mentioned above. The magazine met with great success—due chiefly to Cave's energy and practical (not literary) ability—its circulation rising within a few years to over ten thousand copies. In it, in 1732, was begun the publication of Parliamentary debates (of both Houses), under the—necessary—disguise of “Reports of the Debates of the Senate of Lilliput;” Johnson was employed during several years in writing out (largely from his own imagination) the speeches reported. His association with Cave and the Magazine is the chief title of both to fame. After Cave's death, in 1754, it was conducted by his brother-in-law, and later by John Nichols and his son. In 1868 it became a magazine of light literature. It soon had numerous imitators and rivals, the most successful of which was the London Magazine (1732-81), established by leading London publishers. Among the most important of the other magazines established during the eighteenth century are: The Scots Magazine (1739-1817, from that date to 1826, the Edinburgh Magazine); the Royal Magazine (1759-71); the Oxford Magazine (1768-82); the European Magazine (1782-1826); the Monthly Magazine (1796-1843); and the Philosophical Magazine (1798—). To return to reviews: the History of the Works of the Learned found a successor in A Literary Journal (Dublin, 1744-49), the first review published in Ireland. The Museum, projected by the poet and bookseller Robert Dodsley, appeared in March, 1746, and was issued fortnightly until September, 1747. It was as much a magazine as a review, comprising besides notices of books, essays, mainly upon historical and social topics, by writers of repute, including Spence, Warburton, Horace Walpole, Akenside, and Campbell. From this time on the distinctive characteristics of the modern literary review became more and more prominent and before the end of the century were firmly established.

A notable advance in this direction was made in the Monthly Review, founded by Ralph Griffiths (1749) and conducted by him until his death in 1803. It included scientific and literary material as well as criticism, and among its writers (1757-58) was Oliver Goldsmith. The Review was carried on after Griffiths's death by his son (until 1825) and others until 1845. The Whig politics and non-conformity of Griffiths led to the founding of the Tory Critical Review (1756-1817) by Archibald Hamilton, to which Smollett, Johnson, and Robertson contributed; and this was followed by a number of others, including The London Review (1775-80); A New Review (1782-86); the English Review (1783-96), combined in 1797 with the Analytical Review (1788-99); The Antijacobin Review and Magazine (1798-1821); and the High Church British Critic (1793-1843), begun by Nares and Beloe. An epoch in the history of the English review was made by the establishment of the Edinburgh Review or Critical Journal—‘to be continued quarterly’—the first number of which appeared in October, 1802. It was designed to be the organ not only of literary, but also of political (Whig) opinion, and was planned so broadly and edited so ably that it almost immediately attained a position of authority which soon became, as Carlyle said, that of “a kind of Delphic oracle and voice of the inspired for great majorities of what is called the ‘intelligent public.’ ” The first of the really great English reviews, it established a standard of reviewing which (though its literary criticism, especially in the early days, has often been inferior) its rivals during the century and more of its existence have not been able to surpass. In it the English review became for the first time a really potent influence in the formation of literary taste and the shaping of political views. Its original projector was Sydney Smith, and he also edited the first number; with the second the editorship was transferred to Francis Jeffrey (later Lord Jeffrey), who retained it until 1829, when he resigned on his election as Dean of the Faculty of Advocates. Among the other earlier contributors were Brougham, who largely determined its political opinions, Scott (during the first few years), Carlyle, Hazlitt, and (from 1825) Macaulay, whose influence upon its character was probably second only to that of Jeffrey. After Jeffrey's retirement the editorship was held successively by Macvey Napier (1829-47), William Empson (—1852), George Cornewall Lewis (—1855), Henry Reeve (—1895), and Arthur S. Elliot (1895—). In 1902 the Review celebrated its centennial.

The great success and rapidly growing influence of this champion of Whiggism caused the Tories to bestir themselves, and in February, 1809, appeared the first number of The Quarterly Review, which soon attained a position hardly second to that of its great rival. Its first editor was William Gifford, and among its first contributors were Scott, Southey, Dr. Young, Canning, John Wilson Croker, and Heber. Gifford resigned in 1824, and was succeeded by John Taylor Coleridge, who gave place in 1826 to John Gibson Lockhart, who retained the editorial control of the Review until 1853; he was followed by the Rev. Whitwell Elwin (—1860), William Macpherson (—1867), Sir William Smith (—1893), Rowland Prothero (1894-99), and George W. Prothero (1899—). The Westminster Review (styled from 1836, when it was combined with the London Review, until 1851 the London and Westminster Review) was founded in 1824 to promulgate the views of the Utilitarians, Bentham and the Mills. The great quarterlies above mentioned were partisan in their origin and in their principles of editorial management: they were designed to promulgate definite views, literary and political, with which the opinions of their contributors must be in harmony; their articles were accordingly anonymous (though the Westminster has not been consistent in the matter). This policy was abandoned by the Fortnightly Review, established in 1865 (issued monthly from 1866), which was designed to allow the freest expression of individual opinion with individual responsibility. Its first editor was George Henry Lewes, who was followed in 1867 by John Morley, who resigned in 1882. Among its early supporters were Bagehot, George Eliot, Sir John Herschel, Mill, Huxley, and Spencer. The policy of the Fortnightly in these particulars has been followed by other monthly reviews—the Contemporary Review, established in 1866, the Nineteenth Century in 1877, and the National Review in 1883.

Weekly journals dealing wholly or partly with literature, science, and art have existed by the side of the quarterlies and monthlies, among them The Examiner (1808-81), The Literary Gazette (1817-62), The Athenæum (1828—), The Spectator (1828—), The Saturday Review (1855—), The Academy (1869—), and The Speaker (1890—).

Hardly less notable than the development of the review during the nineteenth century was that of the magazine. The New Monthly Magazine (1814) numbered Campbell, Theodore Hook, and Bulwer Lytton among its editors. A brilliant production was Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine (1817—), which “created a sensation unparalleled in magazine history,” due to the wit and audacity of its anonymous contributors, among whom were Lockhart, Hogg, Scott, and John Wilson, the editor. Its most important feature, in those early days, was the famous Noctes Ambrosianæ, “in which the leading contributors discoursed with irresponsible wit and incisiveness upon the books, the people, and the events of importance in their day.” Fraser's Magazine (1830-82, when it became Longman's Magazine) is associated with the names of Carlyle and Thackeray. Others of note are The British Magazine (1832-49), The Dublin University Magazine (1833—), Tait's Edinburgh Magazine (1832-61), Bentley's Miscellany (1837-68), Notes and Queries (1849—), Macmillan's Magazine (1859—), The Cornhill Magazine (1860—), Saint James Magazine (1861—), The English Illustrated Magazine (1883—), Cassell's Magazine (1877—), Temple Bar (1860—), Review of Reviews (1890—), The Strand Magazine (1891), and The Pall Mall Magazine (1893—). These are only a selection from a long list.

Periodicals in the United States. The history of the periodical in the United States begins in colonial times with The American Magazine, issued at Philadelephia, February 13, 1741, by the printer Andrew Bradford, a business rival of Franklin's, and edited by John Webbe. The idea was due to Franklin, who had planned an imitation of The Gentleman's Magazine, and had incautiously divulged his scheme to Webbe. Franklin's own periodical, The General Magazine, was issued on February 16, 1741, its projector thus losing by three days the honor of having edited and published the first monthly in America. Both publications were short-lived, Webbe's perishing with its second number and Franklin's with its sixth. Throughout the entire subsequent development of periodical literature in this country the magazine has taken the first place, reviews having been comparatively few in number and decidedly inferior in quality. The magazines published down to the Revolution number sixteen. Among them were The American Magazine and Historical Chronicle (Boston, 1743-46), The Boston Weekly Magazine (1743), The Christian History (Boston, 1743-44), The Independent Reflector (New York, 1752-53), The New England Magazine of Knowledge and Pleasure (Boston, 1758), The American Magazine and Monthly Chronicle (Philadelphia, 1757-58), The New American Magazine (Woodbridge, N. J., 1758-60), The American Magazine (Philadelphia, 1769), The Royal American Magazine (Boston, 1774-75), and The Pennsylvania Magazine, or American Monthly Museum (1775-76). Between the close of the war and the end of the century about forty others appeared, among them The Columbian Magazine, or Monthly Miscellany (Philadelphia, 1786-92; from March, 1790, entitled The Universal Asylum and Columbian Magazine), The American Museum, or Repository (1787-92), of considerable value as a source of historical information; The Massachusetts Magazine (Boston, 1789-96), The New York Magazine (1790-97), The Political Censor, or Monthly Review (Philadelphia, 1796-97), edited by William Cobbett, and The Farmer's Weekly Museum (Walpole, N. H., 1790-99). The last was edited from 1795 by Joseph Dennie, the founder, in 1801, of The Port Folio. Charles Brockden Brown established in 1799, in New York, The Monthly Magazine and American Review, which, with a change of name to The American Review and Literary Journal, survived until 1802. He later edited The Literary Magazine and American Register (Philadelphia, 1803-08).

At the end of the first decade of the nineteenth century the periodicals published in the United States amounted to nearly thirty in number. Only two of them, however, were in any way notable: The Port Folio (Philadelphia) above mentioned, which survived until 1827—up to that time a phenomenally long life for an American magazine; and The Anthology and Boston Review (Boston, 1803-11), which included Ticknor, John Quincy Adams, and Everett among its contributors. From this time on the number of literary periodicals—to say nothing of religious and other special publications—increased rapidly, with a corresponding improvement in quality. The following are perhaps the most noteworthy: The Analectic Magazine (Philadelphia, 1813-20), founded by Moses Thomas, with Irving (its editor, 1813-14), Paulding, and Wilson the ornithologist among its contributors; The Atlantic Magazine (New York, 1824-25; continued until 1827 as The New York Monthly Review), which was edited by Robert C. Sands and had the support of Bryant; The New York Mirror (1823-42), of which N. P. Willis was one of the editors; The Illinois Monthly Magazine (Vandalia, 1830-32), the first publication of the kind in the West; The American Monthly Magazine (New York, 1833-38), edited 1837-38 by Park Benjamin; Graham's Magazine (1840-50), a widely and deservedly popular periodical; The Dial (Boston, 1840-44), the organ of the New England Transcendentalists, edited by Ripley and Margaret Fuller, and then by Emerson; The International Magazine (New York, 1850-52), edited by R. W. Griswold; The Knickerbocker Magazine (New York, 1833-60), founded by the novelist Charles Fenno Hoffman, and edited for some time by Louis Gaylord Clark; Putnam's Monthly Magazine (New York, 1853-57, and 1867-69); The Atlantic Monthly (Boston, 1857—), perhaps the foremost of American periodicals from a literary point of view, having as editors Lowell, Fields, Howells, Aldrich, Scudder, Page, and Perry, and among its contributors Holmes, Longfellow, Whittier, and most of the notable American men of letters; Harper's New Monthly Magazine (New York, 1850), an illustrated monthly of high standing and wide popularity; Scribner's Monthly (New York), an illustrated monthly founded in 1870 by Dr. J. G. Holland (as editor), Roswell Smith, and Charles Scribner, and from 1881 published with Richard Watson Gilder as editor, as The Century Magazine; The Galaxy, incorporated with the Atlantic Monthly in 1878 (New York, 1866—); Lippincott's Magazine (Philadelphia, 1868—); Scribner's Magazine (New York, 1887—), an illustrated monthly; The New England Magazine, illustrated (1889—); The Cosmopolitan, illustrated (New York, 1886—); and McClure's Magazine, illustrated (New York, 1893—). In the periodicals just mentioned, beginning with The Atlantic, the popular literary magazine has reached its highest point of development, not only in the United States, but in the world. Especially important has been the impetus given to developing the art of illustration, and the support given to the obsolescent art of wood-engraving by The Century and Harper's; it may almost be said that the art was revived by these periodicals.

Of American reviews less need be said. Although some of these are excellent, they do not, as a whole, compare favorably with those that have been published in England and on the Continent. Their history begins with The American Review of History and Politics (Philadelphia, 1811-13), a quarterly founded by Robert Walsh. This was soon followed by The North American Review (Boston, 1815), which has continued until the present day; among its editors have been many eminent men—A. P. Peabody, H. Adams, Dana, Edward Everett, Sparks, Bowen, Lowell, and Norton. Among later publications of the kind—overlooking those that were merely ephemeral—are: The Southern Quarterly Review, first published 1828-32 (Charleston, revived 1842-55); The United States Magazine and Democratic Review (New York, 1837-52), later The United States Review (1853-55); The New Englander (New Haven, 1843-92); The International Review (New York, 1874-83); The Forum (1886—); The Arena (1890).

Modern French Periodicals. In France the periodicals originating in the eighteenth century begin with Mémoires pour servir à l'histoire des Sciences et des Arts (1701-67), founded by the Jesuits Michel le Tellier and Philippe Lalleman at Trévoux (whence it is known as the Journal de Trévoux); it gained a high and well-deserved reputation as a critical authority. In 1703 Jean Leclerc began, in continuation of his Bibliothèque Universelle et historique (see above), a review entitled Bibliothèque choisie, which was issued until 1713 and was followed by his Bibliothèque ancienne et moderne (1714-27). These, as well as various other periodicals edited by Frenchmen in this period, were printed in Holland. Among them are to be noted reviews of particular foreign literatures, as the Bibliothèque anglaise (1717-19), and the Mémoires littéraires de la Grande Bretagne (1720-24) of Michel de la Roche (see above), and the Bibliothèque germanique (1720-40) of Jacques Lenfaut. About this time the English periodical essay found imitators in France; Marivaux published in 1722 the Spectateur français, which was followed by a number of other publications of a similar character. Other literary journals were the Mémoires secrets de la république des lettres (1744-48); the Observations sur les écrits modernes (1735-43) of Desfontaines; the Lettres sur quelques écrits de ce temps (1749-54) and L'année littéraire (1754-90) of Fréron; and the Observations sur la littérature moderne (1749-52) and L'observateur littéraire (1758-61) of the Abbé de la Porte. In 1754 a review, the Journal étranger, designed to deal with foreign literature in general, was founded by Fréron, Grimm, Prévost, and others; it ceased to appear in 1762. This was followed by the Gazette littéraire (1764-66), in the editing of which Voltaire and Diderot had a hand. The Mémoires secrets pour servir à l'histoire de la république des lettres (1762-87), also called Mémoires de Bachaumont, from its founder, are an important record of contemporary social and literary conditions; the same is true of the Correspondance littéraire secrète (1774-93). Of a more general character were the magazines Décade philosophique—later the Revue philosophique—(1795-1807), of P. L. Ginguené, the most important French periodical of its time, and the Magasin encyclopédique, founded in 1792 and continued from 1817 as the Annales encyclopédiques and the Revue encyclopédique, until 1832. During the second half of this century appeared a number of periodicals dealing with special subjects, such as agriculture, commerce, political economy, military and naval affairs, and so on. In the early part of the nineteenth century, under both the Empire and the Restoration, the periodical as well as the newspaper press was hampered by many restrictions and but little progress was made. In 1828 Guizot, Rémusat, and others started the Revue française, in imitation of the English reviews; it lived, however, only two years. In 1829 appeared the Revue de Paris, which was issued until 1846. The same year (1829) saw the founding of the Revue des Deux Mondes, by Ségur-Dupeyron and Mauroy; during 1830 it was not published, but in 1831 it reappeared, and ever since has maintained the high reputation which it at once attained. Pierre Leroux and George Sand started the Revue Independante in 1841; it ceased to appear in 1848. Many others, equally short-lived, followed it. Among the later literary periodicals are the Nouvelle Revue (1879—); Le Livre (1880—); the Revue de Paris (1894—); and the Revue Britannique (1825-1901).

Modern German Periodicals. In Germany since the beginning of the eighteenth century development has been mainly in the direction of the learned, and, especially in recent times, of the scientific periodical. An extraordinary number of these have been published, many of them of great value. Literature, however, has also been well represented. Only a few of these journals can be mentioned. One of the earliest and most important was the Neue Zeitungen von gelehrten Sachen, founded by J. G. Krause in 1715 and carried on until 1797. “It was the first attempt to apply the form of the weekly political journal to learned subjects.” Still more notable is the Göttingische gelehrte Anzeigen, founded 1739 as the Zeitungen von gelehrten Sachen, and conducted from that time until the present by members of the faculty of the University of Göttingen, among whom have been Haller, Heyne, and Eichhorn. In 1766 the publisher Nicolai founded the Allgemeine deutsche Bibliothek, which was issued until 1806. Lessing and Mendelssohn aided in conducting the Briefe die neueste Litteratur betreffend (1759-65) , also founded by Nicolai. Wieland founded Der deutsche Merkur (1773-89; revived 1790-1810). The Allgemeine Litteraturzeitung, established by Bertuch in 1785 and issued until 1848, was one of the most important of German literary periodicals; the same may be said of the Jenaische allgemeine Litteraturzeitung (1804-48), founded by Eichstädt. The Wiener Jahrbücher der Litteratur (1818-48) enjoyed a high reputation, as did, for its learning, Hermes (1819-31), founded by W. T. Krug. The Jahrbücher für wissenschaftliche Kritik (1827-46), published by Cotta, and the Heidelberger Jahrbücher der Litteratur (1808) should also be mentioned. Of more recent date are the Deutsche Vierteljahrsschrift (1838-70); Die Grenzboten (1841—); Unsere Zeit (1857—); Preussische Jahrbücher (1858—); Die Gegenwart (1872—); the Litteraturzeitung (Jena, 1874—); Deutsche Rundschau (1874—); Die Neue Zeit (1872—); Nord und Süd (1878—); Die Nation 1888—); Die Zukunft (1892—).

Periodicals in Other Countries. The development in other European countries has been similar, though less extensive. Italy, in which, as was stated above, the history of periodical literature dates back to the seventeenth century, exhibits a long list of notable literary journals. Among them are the Frusta letteraria (1763-65) of Giuseppe Baretti; the Novelle letterarie (1740-70) of Giovanni Lami; the Biblioteca italiana (Milan, 1816-40); the Progresso delle scienze (Naples, 1832-45); the Rivista contemporanea (Turin, 1853—); the Giornale degli eruditi (1883—); the Rivista internazionale (1869-83); and the Giornale storico della letteratura italiana (1883—). Spain and Portugal, Belgium, Holland, the Scandinavian countries, Russia, Greece, and the Slavic countries, are all represented by literary periodicals of prominence.

In all the countries mentioned above, periodicals dealing with theology or the interests and practical work of the various religious denominations; with science, either in general or in one or more of its special branches; with the arts or trades, or with other special themes (including periodicals of humor), multiplied greatly during the nineteenth century. Their history cannot be given here even in the briefest summary.