The New International Encyclopædia/Radetzky, Joseph Wenzel, Count

Edition of 1905.  See also Joseph Radetzky von Radetz on Wikipedia, and the disclaimer.

RADETZKY, rȧ-dĕts'kḗ, Joseph Wenzel, Count (1766-1858). An Austrian field-marshal, born in Trzebnitz, Bohemia. In 1784 he became a cadet in an Hungarian cavalry regiment. His first campaign was against the Turks in 1788-89. He fought in the wars of the French Revolution and the Napoleonic wars, attaining the rank of major-general in 1805 and lieutenant-field-marshal in 1809. In that year he fought bravely at Aspern and Wagram. After the conclusion of peace he became chief of the quartermaster-general's staff and took a leading part in the reorganization of the Austrian Army. In 1813-14 and 1815 he was chief of staff of Prince Schwarzenberg. He distinguished himself at Kulm, and was wounded at the battle of Leipzig. In 1831 he commanded in Italy, and in 1836 he became field-marshal. On the outbreak of the insurrection in Lombardy in 1848 Radetzky was driven from Milan after five days of desperate fighting and fell back on Verona. His position was for a time precarious, but having received reinforcements he was enabled to assume the offensive, and inflicted a crushing defeat on the Sardinian King Charles Albert at Custozza, July 25, 1848. A six months' armistice was agreed to, and war was not resumed by the Piedmontese till March, 1849. Radetzky was this time better prepared, and at once invaded Piedmont. He totally routed the enemy at Novara, March 23, 1849. Peace was concluded with Sardinia, and Radetzky besieged Venice, which surrendered after a long siege (August 23d). He was then appointed Governor-General of Lombardy and Venetia, and ruled with absolute authority till his retirement in February, 1857. He died at Milan. There are biographies of Radetzky by Krones (Vienna, 1891) and Schönhals (Stuttgart, 1858). Consult, also: Troubetzkoi, Campagnes du comte Radetzky dans le nord de l'Italie en 1848 et 1849 (Leipzig, 1860); Kunz, Die Feldzüge des Feldmarschalls Radetzky in Oberitalien (Berlin, 1890).