The New International Encyclopædia/Ruge, Arnold

Edition of 1905.  See also Arnold Ruge on Wikipedia, and the disclaimer.

RUGE, rōō'ge, Arnold (1802-80). A German political agitator and miscellaneous writer, born at Bergen, island of Rügen. He studied at Jena and Halle, shared in the student agitations of 1821-24, was imprisoned (1824-30), became privat-docent at Halle (1832), founded the Hallesche Jahrbücher (1837), as an organ of the Young German Hegelians, and, on its suppression by the Prussian censorship, he went to Paris (1843-45), and later to Switzerland. He then became a bookseller in Leipzig, published a democratic journal, Die Reform, was elected to the Frankfort Parliament (1848), and in the next year he fled to England. He aided Mazzini and Ledru-Rollin in organizing the Central European Democratic Committee (1849), and, from 1852, lived in Brighton, teaching and writing. He wrote, among other things, a Manifest an die deutsche Nation (1866), and Geschichte unserer Zeit (1881). In 1877 he was pensioned by the German Government. His autobiography Aus früherer Zeit, appeared in Berlin, 1863-67; his Letters were edited by Nerrlich (ib., 1885-86).