The New Student's Reference Work/Czar


Czar (zär) or Tsar, a title of the ruler, the autocrat of all the Russias.  The word comes from an old Slav word cesar, which the Poles spelled as czar, meaning king or emperor.  The Russians use the Latin word imperator to express the idea of emperor.  The first independent Russian monarch to use the title was Ivan IV, “the Terrible,” who was crowned at Moscow in 1547.  The Empress of Russia is styled the Czarina.  The following have been the czars and emperors of Russia, from the era of the election of Michael Romanoff.  Czar Peter I was the first ruler who adopted, in 1721, the title of emperor.

House of Romanoff—Male Line.
Michael . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1613 Ivan and Peter I . . . . 1682
Alexis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1645 Peter I . . . . . . . . . . . . 1689
Feodor . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1676 Catherine I . . . . . . . . . 1725
Peter II . . . . . . . . . . . . 1727
House of Romanoff—Female Line.
Anne . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1730 Elizabeth . . . . . . . . . . . 1741
Ivan VI . . . . . . . . . . . . 1740
House of Romanoff-Holstein.
Peter III . . . . . . . . . . . 1762 Nicholas I . . . . . . . . . . 1825
Catherine II . . . . . . . . 1762 Alexander II . . . . . . . . 1855
Paul . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1796 Alexander III . . . . . . . 1881
Alexander I . . . . . . . . . 1801 Nicholas II . . . . . . . . . 1894