The New Student's Reference Work/German Universities
German Universities lead the world. Heidelberg, the earliest, was founded in 1386, and there are 21 universities with 3,203 professors and teachers and 44,964 students. Berlin (6,569 students), Leipsic (4,147) and Munich (5,734) are the largest universities; and Greifswald (890) and Rostock (661) the smallest. Of the universities 14 are Protestant, four are Roman Catholic and three are mixed. The government has control over these institutions, and the ministers of public instruction have the immediate charge; and all except three are dependent upon state-appropriations. The ministers of public instruction appoint for each university a curator, who sees that the regulations and laws are enforced. The professors choose a rector, who is the actual head of the university, sometimes a prorector when the sovereign is the nominal rector; and a judge to assist the rector and the deans of the faculties; and a questor, who collects and pays over the fees due from students. There is, besides, a senate composed of these officers, which is called together to decide on important matters. All the universities have the four faculties or branches of philosophy, jurisprudence, medicine and theology, and some add those of political economy and natural science. Entrance to the universities can be made only through the gymnasium or preparatory school, except in the case of foreigners, who are admitted without examination. Students are not obliged to stay in one university, but can study at several, and can enroll themselves in whatever branch they desire to work at. They board and lodge where they please, and enjoy much social liberty. The instruction is by lectures. If a student is expelled from one university he is expelled from all. The course of study is one of four years, except in the medical faculty, which in some institutions is five years.