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Heidelberg, (hī′del-bĕrg′), an ancient city of Baden, Germany. It lies 380 feet above sea-level, at the base of the Königsstuhl, 1,863 feet high, on the left bank of the Neckar. The city is celebrated for its university, founded by Rupert I in 1386, which flourished up to the era of the Thirty Years' War, when it declined until its restoration in 1802. It has courses in philosophy, law, medicine and theology, about 148 professors and 1,922 students. The library contains over 500,000 volumes and 4,700 manuscripts. Many of Germany's most famous scholars studied here. The city suffered by the Thirty Years' War: was taken by the French in 1689; and almost destroyed by them in 1693. Population 56,010.