The New Student's Reference Work/Law

appointment of vicar-apostolic of New France and bishop of Petræa in 1658. He was consecrated at Paris, and arrived at Quebec in 1659. The seminary of Quebec was founded by him in 1659. Laval consecrated the church of Notre Dame, Montreal, in 1666, and was made titular bishop of Quebec in 1674, thus becoming the first Roman Catholic bishop of Quebec. Laval University in Quebec was named after him. See his Life by Louis Bertrand de la Tour (Cologne, 1751) and by an anonymous author (Quebec, 1845).

Laval University, the first institution for higher education in Lower Canada, was founded in 1852. The Seminary of Quebec, the pioneer institute, secured a charter from Queen Victoria which conferred the privileges of a university. Pius IX in 1853 gave the Quebec archbishops the right to confer theological degrees on divinity graduates from the new university. They are the visitors, a proof of the broadmindedness of the British government in permitting the Roman Catholic French of Canada to organize a university controlled only by archbishops of their own faith and blood. The visitor appoints the professors of theology nominated by the council of the university, and may veto all nominations and regulations. The rector, the superior of Quebec Seminary, is the highest officer. The rector and council administer affairs. The faculties are those of theology, law, medicine and the arts, each having its own council. It was not until 1866 that the theological faculty was organized. That of medicine opened in 1853, six professors of the Quebec School of Medicine becoming professors in the university. The faculty of law was the one for which most need existed, for there was no school of law in Quebec. It opened in 1854, but for several years teaching was limited to civil and Roman law. The faculty of arts, though outlined in 1855, was not opened for years. Laval has power to confer degrees in law, medicine and the arts, but not in theology, and did not receive all the rights of a canonical university until 1876. In 1870 the faculty of medicine was affiliated to the Royal College of Surgeons, London, England. In 1897-8 a bacteriological laboratory was installed, in 1899 one for experimental chemistry. The cabinet of physics contains thousands of instruments. The university has eight large and valuable museums. The library contains 150,000 volumes. The faculty consists of 50 professors, and the students number 444. Theology claims over 120, law 84, medicine and arts 140. There is a branch at Montreal, the statistics of which are not included here.

Lav′ender, a family of plants having the stamens and style surrounded by a two-lipped corolla, the upper lip two-lobed and the lower three-lipped. The common lavender grows wild on the mountains and hills of southern Europe, and is generally cultivated in gardens further north. It has a delightfully fragrant odor, and contains a great quantity of oil. The spikes and flowers are used in medicine as a tonic and nerve stimulant. The flowers are much used to scent wardrobes and in perfumery, and are blue-gray in color. The oil of the broad-leaved lavender is used by artists on porcelain and in making varnishes. It is made by distilling the flower with water; spirits of lavender by distilling them with spirits; and lavender water, the toilet preparation, by dissolving oil of lavender with other oils in spirits. Lavender gets its name from Latin lavare, to wash, because it was used in bathing.

Lavoisier (lȧ′vwä′zyā′), Antoine Laurent, the founder or modern chemistry, was born at Paris, Aug. 26, 1743. He devoted himself particularly to the study of chemistry, and was made an academician. To obtain means to carry on his researches, he became farmer-general (tax-gatherer) in 1769. While a director of the government powder-mills, in 1776, he discovered a way of improving the quality of the powder, and in 1791 was made a commissioner of the treasury. His most important contribution to science was the explanation of combustion and of the part that oxygen plays in the composition of substances. The popular hatred of farmers of taxes during the reign of terror was not tempered by his services to science and learning, and he died by the guillotine on May 8, 1794. His principal work is Traitè Elementaire de Chimie.

Law is a term of somewhat ambiguous meaning. One may speak of a law of nature, of a moral law or of the law of a state. In each of these cases, however, it is clear that the word relates to the prescription of a certain uniform kind of conduct. The notion of a law of nature may either imply a reference to a conscious being as lawgiver, or refer merely to the fact that a certain order has been observed in the occurrence of physical events. A moral law denotes a truth which is used to control human conduct. But law means especially the injunction of a certain kind of conduct upon the citizens of a state. In this sense law seems to have originated from the felt necessity of enforcing uniform customs upon the people of a state. Laws are not generally oppressive, because they usually represent customs rather than innovations. But so far as a government becomes distinguished from the people, it becomes possible for laws to represent innovations as well as customs.

Law is generally subdivided into public law and private law. Public law includes criminal law and constitutional law. Private law covers personal and family relations and affairs of property and contract. There also is canon law, which is still employed in the regulation of the functions of clerics, but has lost the importance attached to it in the middle ages. Modern law owes much to the Romans, who organized their laws into several codes, the most complete and celebrated of which was the code of Justinian, completed in 533 A. D. The famous code of Hugo Grotius, a Dutch scholar of the sixteenth century, also is of great importance as a factor in the development of modern systems. The codes and commentaries of Puffendorf, Vattel, Coke, Blackstone and others, with the famous Code Napoleon of France (1804-1810), should also be mentioned.

The technical name for the science of law is jurisprudence. Under jurisprudence the following types of law are recognized: (1) Admiralty law, which deals with crimes and contracts in which any member or branch of the navy is concerned. (2) Bylaws, which literally are town-laws, but include the laws of societies and corporations. (3) Civil law, which is based on the whole upon Roman law and needs to be distinguished from criminal law. (4) Common law, very important in the United States and England, which is based upon judicial records and not upon statutes. (5) Constitutional law, by which the sovereign body in the state (in the United States the people, in England Parliament) regulates the government. (6) Criminal law, which relates to crime and belongs to municipal public law. (7) Law of merchants, which is a principal part of the common law, founded on mercantile usages. (8) Law of equity, under which technicalities which might interfere with the course of justice (in civil suits only) are overruled. (9) Law of nations, which regulates international relations and is based in part upon custom, in part upon reason and in part upon treaty. (10) Martial law, which refers to military discipline, a state of hostilities or exceptional public danger. (11) Municipal law, a very general term of the statutory law regarded as regulating social activities. (12) Parliamentary law, which is the body of rules and restrictions by which the proceedings of deliberative assemblies are governed. A working acquaintance with these forms of law usually requires a three years' or four years' course of the most diligent postgraduate study. The procedure and usages of the courts are to be mastered only in the courts and by practice.

Law, John, originator of the “Mississippi scheme,” financier and projector, was born at Edinburgh, Scotland, on April 21, 1671. At 20 he went to London, but was compelled to leave on account of a duel in which he killed his opponent. He then proceeded to Amsterdam, and there began studying the system of bank credits, and in 1700 he returned to Edinburgh to advocate the use of paper currency before the unfavorable Scottish Parliament. Law then traveled over the European continent, gambling and speculating, until in 1716 he founded a private bank in Paris with his brother William. In 1718 the duke of Orleans, regent of France, adopted Law's system of paper currency and issued enormous amounts which received great credit, while the national bonds remained below par. In 1719 Law originated the Mississippi scheme. This was a plan for colonizing and exploiting the region of the Mississippi, a sort of wild-cat project, the chief motive of which was to raise money to meet exigencies of the time in France. In the speculative mania that ensued stocks and shares soared to fabulous heights, and for a time the financial world of France lost all reason and parted from sober sense. Next year Law was made councilor of state and comptroller-general of finance; but when his system met with popular disfavor and his bubble scheme was pricked, he fled to Brussels, thence to England and finally to Venice, and there remained, poor and forgotten, until his death on March 21, 1729. See Perkins' France under the Regency and Mackay's Extraordinary Popular Delusions.

Law′rence, the county-seat of Douglas County, Kan., lies on Kansas River, 34 miles southwest of Leavenworth by rail and 38 west of Kansas City. It is the seat of the state university, founded in 1864, and of Haskell Institute, a government institution for the education of Indian youth. It is the center of trade for a fertile and populous section, and has manufactures of flour, castings, furniture, paper, barbed wire and shirts, besides sash and door factories and machine shops. Porkpacking is extensively carried on. Lawrence was founded in 1854 by free-soil settlers, shared in the violent struggle against slavery, and was partly burned by Quantrell's guerrillas in 1863. The city is served by the Union Pacific; Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fé; and Southern Kansas railroads, and is the terminus also of two branch railways. Population 12,374.

Lawrence, an important manufacturing city in Massachusetts, one of the county-seats of Essex Co., is built on both sides of Merrimac River, 26 miles north of Boston, with which it is connected by two railroads. The river, which here falls 28 feet in half a mile, is crossed by two railroad and two other bridges and by a dam of granite, 900 feet long and forty feet high; canals on either bank conduct the water to the mills. The mills, some of which are among the largest in the world, manufacture cotton and woolen goods, cloth and paper; and engines, boilers, machinery,