Monaco (mŏn′ȧ-kō), a small principality on the Mediterranean, nine miles from Nice. It covers eight square miles, and consists of a rocky promontory, on which the city is built, and a small strip of coast. Here, within the petty state, is the great gambling town and casino of Monte Carlo (q. v.). It has belonged to the Grimaldi family for over 900 years. They have several times put their country under French protection, and in 1859 the whole region belonged for a short time to Victor Emmanuel. The owner at another time sold a part of his dominions, including Mentone, to Napoleon III for $200,000. His capital is now under French protection. The climate is mild, and palms, aloes and other southern plants abound. Population of the entire principality 15,180, the town of Monaco having 3,292 and Monte Carlo 3,794.