Neutral′ity, or the state in which a nation remains friendly to each of two nations which are at war with each other, is a rather novel invention in the history of nations. In ancient and even in medieval history a nation might be more or less neutral, but never entirely so, in the event of a war between its neighbors. At the present time there is a recognized code of conduct for neutral nations, which finds a place in international law. Neutrality, while not so perfectly defined that there may be no more dispute, in general requires the following mode of behavior on the part of the neutral nation: It is not to equip a privateer. For violation of this provision in the case of the Confederate cruiser Alabama, Great Britain was mulcted by arbitration in an enormous fine. It is not to allow war-vessels of the belligerents to remain in its ports more than 24 hours, except in stormy weather. It shall not be a market for prizes of war. It may not trade with either belligerent in contraband articles. It is not to be a recruiting ground for either belligerent, although it cannot be held responsible for the action of individuals in enlisting separately and on their own responsibility. But a neutral state has definite rights, as these: Its territory is not to be invaded by either belligerent. No battle is to be fought in its home waters. Troops are not to cross the territory of the neutral state. Neutral nations often proclaim the conduct which they propose to adopt at the outset of any war, chiefly to show their own citizens how far they will be protected by their own government in trading with the belligerents. A neutral vessel may trade freely except in articles contraband-of-war or in violation of a blockade. The orders of the English and French governments during the Napoleonic War, that the whole coast of their opponents should be regarded as in a state of blockade, violated the rights of neutrals in a way that would not at the present time be tolerated.