The New Student's Reference Work/Omar I, Abu Hafsah Ibn ul Khattab

The New Student's Reference Work  (1914) 
Omar I, Abu Hafsah Ibn ul Khattab

O′mar I, Abu Hafsah Ibn ul Khattab, the second caliph of the Mussulmans, was born about 581 A. D. Although he was at first bitterly opposed to Mohammed, he suddenly gave his adherence to the cause of the prophet and became a chief supporter of his creed and claims. He succeeded Abu-bekir in 634 A. D. He declined the title of Caliph or successor, as too exalted; and chose rather to be called Emir or Commander. It was through his command the Hejira (Flight) was adopted as the point from which the followers of Mohammed should date their years. It was by his genius that the Arabian empire was founded. Under his irresistible advance Syria and Palestine were conquered, and he built the Mosque of Omar which still stands central in Jerusalem.  He subdued Egypt and Persia, and brought for the first time all the Arabian tribes under one creed and authority.  An act of injustice, not usual with him, it should be said, incurred the resentment of a Persian slave, and he was assassinated in 644.  He was buried near Mohammed.