The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art

English-language translations of
九章算術 (The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art)

The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art (simplified Chinese: 九章算术; traditional Chinese: 九章算術; pinyin: Jiǔzhāng Suànshù) is a Chinese mathematics book, composed by several generations of scholars from the 10th century BCE to the 2nd century CE. It is among the earliest known Chinese mathematical texts.

English-language translations of 九章算術 include:
  • Yoshio Mikami: "Arithmetic in Nine Sections" (abridged), in The Development of Mathematics in China and Japan (1912).
  • Florian Cajori: "Arithmetic in Nine Sections" (highly abridged), in A History of Mathematics, Second Edition (1919).
  • Lam Lay Yong (1936–): "Jiu Zhang Suanshu: An Overview" (abridged), in Archive for History of Exact Sciences, Vol. 47, No. 1, pp. 1-51. (1994) Copyrighted in the United States until 2091
  • Shen Kangshen, The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art (unabridged with Liu Hui's commentary and original commentary), Oxford University Press 1999. Copyrighted in the United States until 2091


This work was published before January 1, 1926, and is in the public domain worldwide because the author died at least 100 years ago.