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THE

SAVAGE TRIBES
of

FORMOSA


The Government of Formosa
1926
 
 

THE SAVAGE TRIBES

OF

FORMOSA


The Government of Formosa
1926
 

CONTENTS

Tribal Divisions
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1
Table of Population
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2
Characteristic Traits and Customs
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2
History of Pacification
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4
Seizure of Firearms
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6
Injuries Inflicted by the Savages
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7
Defences Against the Savages
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7
Developement Measures
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8
Providing Work
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9
Education
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12
Medical Work
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18
Exchange of Commodities
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19
Tours
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20
Taxes Paid by the Savages
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22
Government Officials Residing in the Savage Districts
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
23
SavageTribesOfFormosa1926 04 Detail.jpg

LAKE CANDIDIUS SAVAGES.

The Savage Tribes of Formosa

The Formosan aborigines formerly inhabited the champaign districts of the island, but towards the end of the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), they began to be forced to retreat into the mountains by the ever-increasing immigrants from China, and now they dwell far up in the mountain fastnesses, out of the reach of lowlanders. Most of them lead primitive lives, untouched by the light of modern civilization. The only savages still inhabiting the plains are known as Pepo-huan (平捕藩) —Level Plain Dwellers—, living on the eastern coast of the island, and generally engaged in husbandry and kindred occupations. These are the only ones on whom public taxes are imposed, as will presently be seen.

 

Tribal Divisions

Ethnologically, the Formosan savages are supposed to belong to the Malay race, as do the aboriginal inhabitants of the South Sea Islands, and their physical characteristics, customs, and manners are quite different from those of the Hans, who have immigrated from the continent of China.

They are sometimes classified into two races, a northern and a southern, but this is merely geographical. If divided on the basis of differences in such things as character and customs, they may be classified into seven groups. They seem to have come across the sea from the south, centuries ago, and settled in separate groups, each of which has developed into one of the present tribes. The members of each tribe, no matter how widely separated, observe the same festivals and religious rites in their proper seasons, and always combine for offence.

The names of the seven tribes are the Taiyal, Saisett, Bunun, Tsuou, Paiwan, Ami and Yami. These are distributed in 719 villages, comprising 22,568 families, with total population of 134,420, the distribution of which may be seen from the following table:—

Taiyai Saisett Bunun Tsuou Paiwan Ami Yami Total
Number of Villages 276 15 126 23 191 81 7 719
Number of Families 6,656 214 1,834 250 8,432 4,862 320 22,568
Population M. 15,419 610 8,922 1,056 20,913 19,293 791 67,004
F. 16,181 586 8,478 951 20,900 19,596 724 67,416
Total 31,600 1,196 17,400 2,007 41,813 38,889 1,515 134,420
 

Characteristic Traits and Customs

Many points of distinction are to be observed amongst the different tribes, but practically all of them possess an almost miraculous agility and nimbleness of body, as shown by their feats in climbing mountains and wading rapids.

Of the seven tribes, the Taiyal, Bunun, and Paiwan are the most ferocious, and the first of them is the worst of the three, internecine massacres within the tribes over a very slight conflict of interests being not uncommon.

Though less fierce, the Bunun and Paiwan are more uncontrollable than the Taiyal, as they are generally more inclined to combine than the latter, so that in warfare they are able to present a united front to the enemy.

The Tsuou are by no means milder in disposition than the others, but they have long given up the barbarous custom of hunting the heads of the lowlanders. They have been quiet and submissive to government authority and industrious in their daily work, though not without occasional fights with the Bunun.

The remaining three tribes are in general very docile and law-abiding, and they are engaged in peaceful husbandry. The most peace-loving and harmonious of all is probably the Yami, although the Ami are also very mild. Whenever they are attacked by their neighbours, as is constantly the case, they show an almost cowardly desire to keep out of a fight. In the neatness of their dwellings, too, they show such a high degree of culture that they scarcely deserve the name of "Savage people.”

The history of the Saisett people is not free from the stain of head hunting, but as they have remained on the level plains from the first they have generally become docile and have taken on many Chinese customs.

The survival of the barbarous custom of head-hunting among some of the tribes puts them beyond the pale of civilized people, but it is hard to uproot this custom because it is an established and sacred institution.

It is followed in response in an imaginary ancestral command, obedience to which guarantees them the protection of the spirits of their forefathers.

For this reason, whenever a head is obtained, the occasion is celebrated by a carousal, from two to four days in length, at which there is singing, dancing, and general rejoicing.

An occasion for such sanguinary expeditions may be, with the Taiyal, any one of the following:—

  1. To celebrate the "coming of age" of a youth.
  2. To celebrate the decision of a dispute.
  3. To dispel suspicion, or to clear away a false charge.
  4. To win the favour of a maiden over rival suitors.
  5. To exorcise a prevalent disease.
  6. To avert an evil omen.
  7. To display bravery.

Or sometimes a man who is in domestic difficulties, will give vent to his wrath at the expense of an innocent stranger's head.

There is also a belief amongst some that their ancestors spirits will not allow theirs to enter Paradise unless they have obtained at last one head during life.

These facts show the difficulty of suppressing this deep-rooted practice, but in the execution of a five-year plan of the governments, from 1910 to 1914, most of the savage firearms and ammunition were seized. This plan has gone a long way toward eradicating the custom and subduing the savages.

 

History of Pacification

The control of the aborigines seems to have been an insoluble problem for the previous conquerors of the island, defying their most persistent and strenuous efforts.

When the northern and southern parts of the island were occupied respectively by the Dutch (1624-1661) and the Spaniards (1621-1661), they tried to enlighten mainly the tribes of the plains, chiefly by means of religion and medicine.

When Koxinga took possession of Formosa, he tried a high-handed but nevertheless clement policy. The mandarin administration of the savages during the three hundred years rule of the Chin Dynasty was highly commendable, rigid and lenient measures being taken according to circumstances, roads opened up, and competent high officials appointed: yet the effect was practically nil.

At the beginning of our administration, moderation was the policy, and in March, 1896, a number of stations called Bukonsho (Savage Development Stations) were placed in important situations near savage districts, charged with the duty of investigating, developing, and controlling the people and the country, and particularly, providing work for the population.

These stations were abolished in June, 1898, and their business handed over to the Bemmushio (Local Offices for General Affairs).

In November, 1901, when the government organization was revised, Formosa was divided into twenty cho (Provinces), affairs concerning the savages and their districts were transfered to the Shokusankyoku (the Bureau of Industry), those concerning the Aiyu (Guardsmen) and control of savage to the Keisatsu-Honsho (Police Headquarters), and those that were in charge of the Bemmusho to the thirteen provincial governments.

The island at that time was still in a somewhat unsubdued state, with constant uprisings, and with no real control of the savages. The government had had to concentrate on the insurgent outbreaks, but by July, 1901, these were entirely suppressed, and attention was turned to the savages.

Thus in 1903, the Bammugakari (Savage Commission) renamed Bammuka (Savage Section) in 1906, was created at the Police Headquarters, and to it was transferred all the business concerning the savages which had been managed by the Bureau of Industry. This change in the internal organisation made much more progress possible. The patrol line was advanced from time to time up to 1909, and punitive expeditions steadily narrowed the savage domain.

But, relying upon the inaccessibility of their bases and the strength of their forces, the large tribes of the north still remained very stubborn.

So the government drew up a plan to secure full control in five years time, for which they obtained the Emperor's sanction. Before launching this big plan, the Bammu-Honsho (Department of Savage Affairs) was instituted at the Government-General, and the Bammuka (Savages Sections) at the provincial governments which had savage districts under their jurisdiction.

The principal object of the five years programme was to lay the axe at the root of the evil by seizing the firearms of the savage people, and to lead them gradually into the path of enlightenment with a view to turning them ultimately into peaceful farmers. Those who submitted, therefore, were given protection and guidance, while the fierce and insubordinate were sternly dealt with until they yielded.

The first object was accomplished in the north by August, 1914, when all the northern tribes laid down their guns and ammunition; so another plan was immediately formed to chastise in October the southern tribes.

This southern expedition was very successful at first, no resistance being met with anywhere, but afterwards, partly because of misunderstandings, and partly of instigation by Formosan[1] smugglers of firearms they again became unruly, frequently assaulting our police posts and murdering many policemen.

Eventually, however, they gave in, presenting their guns before the authorities and pledging allegiance to the Imperial Government. It was in January, 1915, that the grand five year scheme was finished.

Since then the Government has on the whole obtained satisfactory results, though not without instances of policemen or innocent people being attacked and sometimes killed.

The cause has been frequently traced to Formosan mischief-makers, sometimes to savage superstitions in regard to the spread of epidemics, and at other times the recalcitrant actions of the neighbouring tribes.

The means taken against this has been to reinforce the police patrols in place where the savages were refractory, and in the worst sections, to set up wire-entanglements charged with electricity, to keep them within bounds.

On the other hand, the government policy toward the obedient and submissive tribes has also borne good fruit. They have been converted into good farmers able to pay public taxes, and some of their sons have even graduated from professional colleges. In this respect a somewhat detailed statement will be given below.

 

Seizure of Firearms

The guns confiscated, from the time of the Japanese occupation of the islands to the end of 1921, total 29,464. The record year was 1914, when the northern tribes were subjugated, the number being 14,637. Next comes 1902, the year after the punitive expedition to the northern tribes was started, the amount being 7,349. The two smallest sums obtained were 53 in 1918, and 77 the following year. In 1921, 228 rifles were seized.

Injuries Inflicted by the Savages

As to the injuries inflicted by the savages in 1895, the year of our occupation of Formosa, no record is available, but the deaths due to their outbreaks from 1896 to the end of 1921 amounted to 6,875. Of these, 761 cases occured in 1912, which is the largest number recorded. Then come next in order 557 in 1898, 531 in 1899, 525 in 1890, and 510 in 1891. The smallest records were as follows: 24 cases in 1919, 41 in 1918, and 52 in 1921.

A classified list of the victims is given below:

Keishi (Superintendents)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2
Keibu (Inspectors)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
41
Keibuho (Assistant Inspectors)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20
Junsa (Constables)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
638
Junsa-ho (Assistant Constables)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
32
Keishu (Patrols)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
130
Aiyu (Sentinels)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1281
Other officials
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
448
Civilians
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4309
 

Defences Against the Savages

In spite of the practical subjugation of the savages which we have just described, the time has not arrived when all defensive measures can be safely withdrawn. So at important points, Keikaijo (Watch Stations) and Bunkenjo (Detached Posts) are set up, the former with 20-30 and the latter with a much smaller number of policemen on duty. When an outbreak is feared, more members are added to the Keikaijo of the locality.

These defences in 1923, were as follows:-

Keikaijo (Watch Stations)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
61
Bunkenjo (Detached Posts)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
147
Length of Wire-Entanglements
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
159 miles.

Developement Measures

Having successfully carried through the so-called five years’ savage control programme by March, 1915, the Government was now able to concentrate upon the improvement of the savages.

In 1916, some of the Musha tribes in Taichu Province, who had been subjugated by that time, and some of the level plain tribes in Taito and Karenko Prefecture were taught and encouraged to grow rice and China grass.

Thus in that year about 3 ko (about 8 acres) of paddy fields and about 10 ko (about 2½ acres) of ordinary fields were brought under cultivation.

These farms, with 38 schools comprising only 456 of the aboriginal children, and 34 medical offices, were the small beginnings uplifting our uncivilized brothers.

The tribes having been generally quiet up to 1918, considerable progress was made in the work of development, but as agitation roused by the punitive expeditions was not entirely tranquillized, reckless savages occasionally rose in revolt, and set back the work initiated for their own welfare.

Never discouraged, however, the authorities applied themselves to their work with redoubled efforts, gradually succeeding in bringing the people to the realization of their condition.

Consequently economic ideas slowly began to dawn upon the primitive people, who were first induced to learn to cultivate fixed pieces of land or to get their living by some definite labour. As a result of this their postal savings, which were ¥52,479 in June, 1921, came up to ¥107,970 in June, 1923.

Encouraged by this, the Government assiduously endeavoured to help them to be independent and self–supporting people. For this purpose, such works as were considered most suitable for them during the transition period were chosen for their employment.

It is a pity, however, that these developement measures have been taken only for comparatively advanced tribes inhabiting frontier regions, and many in the deeper mountains have had to be left alone. So the authorities are now planning to extend their work to those remote tribes, availing themselves of the present tranquillity.

Education, barter, medical treatment, provision of occupation and conducting tours are the principal methods employed to develope the aborigines.

I. Providing Work

Paddy Fields.—Realizing the profitableness of rice-culture, the aborigines are now taking great interest in it under the instruction and guidance of the Government, and the area and crop are increasing year by year. It is, indeed, one of the most promising industries introduced to them by the authorities.

In 1923, the planted area was 742 ko (about 1,850 acres), from which a crop of 10,194 koku (50,970 bushels) was harvested, an increase of 3,029 koku (15,64 bushels) over the previous year.

It is expected that further encouragement and improvement will add a great deal more to the crop of the cereal.

Rice Crop in Savage Districts, 1923

SavageTribesOfFormosa1926 12 table.png

Note:-Paddy Fields belonging to savages under ordinary administrative jurisdiction are excluded.

Stock-Breeding.—For diverting the savage mind from its warlike pleasure in hunting and from the bloody practices induced by the use of guns, into a peaceful as well as productive life, nothing is more efficatious than stock-breeding. Also the shortage of food stuffs resulting from restricted hunting will be supplied by this means.

Since 1921, several stock farms have been established in different parts of the savage districts, where official guidance and encouragement have obtained very gratifying results.

There are now many animals employed by the aborigines as beasts of burden or in ploughing and efforts are being made to breed them to meet the demands even from the people of the plains.

Animals on Stock Farms (Aboriginal)

Taihoku Shinchiku Taichu Tainan Takao Taito Kareako Total
Water Buffaloes (Carabaos) 18 203 1,333 1,993 31 404 3,982
Humped Cattle (Zebus) 16 513 762 45 50 98 40 1,524
Cross-Bred Cattle 58 6 61
Cattle of Foreign Breed 1 23 1 25
Goats 3 40 159 1 1,516 352 2,071
Swine 649 1,674 5237 411 13,516 3,805 5,141 30,463
Rabbits 180 30 35 8 8 253 514
Deer 2 2
Domestic Fowls 4,731 12,180 13,198 1,367 5,910 5,687 9,415 52,518
Ducks 173 5 178
Geese 2 2
Total 5,597 14,814 20,805 1,853 21,522 11,147 15,605 91,343
Sericulture.—In view of the abundance of mulberry trees in the savage regions, the favourable climatic conditions, and its graceful and profitable character, sericulture surely ranks among the best industries for the mountain people of Formosa.

So it has been encouraged since 1916, and the first product of cocoons was about thirteen koku (about 65 bushels), but thanks to the helpful instruction given by the Government, and the realization of its value by the producers, the production of cocoons has been steadily increasing, all the tribes vying with each other. Thus in 1923, the cocoon crop went up to 130 koku (about 650 bushels), ¥4,660 in value.

SavageTribesOfFormosa1926 14 table.png
Note: 1. The number of the egg cards hatched being 973, the coccoon crop per card is 0.134 koku.
2. The price of cocoon per koku is ¥35.8.

Sugar-cane and Banana cultivation.—Sugar-cane cultivation, which is a profitable though simple husbandry, is another promising industry suitable for the aborigines. But, it cannot be encouraged in localities too far from the sugar factories, upon whose demand it entirely depends. Where sugarcane is in good demand, the savages are very eager to grow it.

The aborigines in Karenko (exclusive of lowland tribes) reaped 3,998,900 kin of canes, ¥ 18,200 in value, from about 89 ko (about 222 acres).

Next comes banana growing. On account of their own prolonged experience and the modern scientific methods of cultivation taught by the Government experts, the production of bananas in the savage districts is on the increase.

Last year the aborigines in Karenko alone harvested more than ¥10,000 worth of this fruit. If better markets and an improved method of preservation of the fruit can be found, the yield will increase rapidly.

Besides the above mentioned, the cultivation of many other useful plants is encouraged, and several institutions for practical guidance have been established in different localities as shown below.

As a result of the efforts made through these agencies, there has been a marked progress in the life of the aborigines.

II. Education

Education of Savage's Children.— Recently the savage people have become very enthusiastic for education, and in consequence, the number of children they are sending to schools is on the steady increase.

There are two kinds of schools, viz., Kogako (Public Schools), and Kyoikujo (Teaching Centres), in both of which elementary education is given.

Out of the whole population of 130,000, more than 10,000 are under instruction. Some who finish the courses in these schools enter higher institutions, or are appointed civil servants or policemen after acquiring special training or experience.
SavageTribesOfFormosa1926 Detail Photo.jpg

SCHOOL FOR TRIBESMEN'S CHILDREN.

Some young aborigines have become physicians, teachers and nurses, after graduating from the Medical College, the Normal School, and the Red Cross Training School for Nurses respectively. These forerunners have made no small contribution toward the developement of their fellow tribesmen.

Convinced of the power and value of education by these examples, the elders are now still more eager to educate their young. To meet the demand, exertions are being made to provide them with increased educational facilities.

 
Number of Kyoikujo
(TEACHING CENTRES)
Province or
Prefecture
Year 'A' Class Teaching
Centre
'B' Class Teaching
Centre
Total
Taihoku 1922 11 12 23
1923 11 13 24
Shinchiku 1922 14 11 25
1923 14 12 26
Taichu 1922 12 12 24
1923 14 17 31
Tainan 1922 2 2 4
1923 2 2 4
Takao 1922 11 15 26
1923 10 15 25
Taito 1922 5 9 14
1923 5 10 15
Karenko 1922 6 20 26
1923 8 36 44
Total 1922 61 80 141
1923 64 105 169
 
Note:—-During 1923, one ‘A’ class Teaching Centre was raised to the status of a Public School in Takao Province.

Number of Aboriginal Children Attending Kyoikujo

(TEACHING CENTRE)
Province
or
Prefecture
Year 'A' Class Teaching
Centre
'B' Class Teaching
Centre
Total
Taihoku 1922 429 224 653
1923 425 270 695
Shinchiku 1922 348 161 509
1923 374 171 545
Taichū 1922 404 301 705
1923 536 397 933
Tainan 1922 53 21 74
1923 51 25 76
Takao 1922 261 402 663
1923 236 411 677
Taitō 1922 160 164 324
1923 157 187 344
Karenkō 1922 244 298 642
1923 296 449 745
Total 1922 1,899 1,571 3,470
1923 2,705 1,940 4,015

Number of Pupils Completing Course at Kyoikujo

1921 1922
Boys Girls Total Boys Girls Total
Taihoku 6 13 19 31 36 67
Shinchiku 21 3 24 34 5 39
Taichū 21 9 30 29 18 47
Tainan 6 1 7 2 - 2
Takao 87 - 87 201 - 201
Taitō 26 - 26 49 2 51
Karenkō 33 26 59 100 65 165
Total 200 52 252 446 126 572

Number of Young Aborigines Attending Higher Schools

Kinds of Schools Taihoku Shinchiku Taichū Tainan Takao Taitō Karenkō Total
Higher Agricultural and Forestry School - - - - - 1 2 3
Normal School - - - - 2 2 1 5
Kagi School of Agriculture and Forestry - - - - - - 2 2
Agricultural Continuation School - - - - - - 44 44
Shōgakkō 5 6 8 2 1 1 6 29
Red Cross Training School for Nurses - 2 - - - - - 2
Commercial Continuation School - - - 1 - - - 1
Total 5 8 8 3 3 4 55 86
Self-Governing Organisations of the Savages.—With a view to the general progress and enlightenment of the savage population, such self-governing bodies as are shown in the following table have been organized, and through these organizations the authorities are striving for the improvement and reform of the manners and customs of the savages, the spread of hygienic knowledge, and the diffusion of the Japanese language.

In consequence of these activities many good signs are discernible in the tribal communities.

For instance, public cemeteries have been instituted in many villages. The people are growing industrious and, thrifty and the number of drunkards is diminishing. The savages, who were nomadic, have begun to settle down in groups in fixed places, engaged in the cultivation of land.

Self-Governing Bodies

Taihoku Shinchiku Taichū Tainan Takao Taitō Karenkō Total
No. of
Bodies
No. of
Mem-
bers
No. of
Bodies
No. of
Mem-
bers
No. of
Bodies
No. of
Mem-
bers
No. of
Bodies
No. of
Mem-
bers
No. of
Bodies
No. of
Mem-
bers
No. of
Bodies
No. of
Mem-
bers
No. of
Bodies
No. of
Mem-
bers
No. of
Bodies
No. of
Mem-
bers
Associations of Chiefs
& Leaders
13 116 1 12 31 285 3 34 30 442 11 198 16 105 1,087
Patriarchs' Associa-
tions
20 750 8 365 19 823 - - 16 1,009 - - 40 103 2,947
Young Men's Associa-
tions
20 980 - - - - - - - - 4 215 2 117 26 1,312
Womens' Associations 20 743 - - 1 76 - - - - - - - - 21 819
Alumni Associations 5 227 5 140 1 22 - - 8 228 6 151 23 864 48 1,632
Societies for the study
of Japanese
- - 7 182 11 525 - - 4 103 1 98 15 38 908
Total 78 2,816 21 699 63 1,731 3 34 58 1,782 22 662 96 981 341 8,705
Diffusion of the Japanese Language among the Aborigines.- How the Japanese language is diffused among the savage tribes can be seen from the following table.
Total Per 1,000
Population
Number of Aborigines who can speak Japanese
almost as freely as the Japanese
Number of those who command simple everyday
Japanese
Number of those who are able to exchange greet-
ings in Japanese
2,102


8,239


18,326
16


62.6


129
Total 28,667 217.8

The Ami tribe contains by far the largest number of Japanese speakers, i.e. 309.4 per 1,000 people. The Tsuou, Paiwan, Saisett, and Taiyal tribes stand at between 200 and 300 per 1,000 population.

That the Bunun and the Yami have only 53 and 1.3 per 1,000 people respectively is due to the fact that educational facilities for both tribes were provided only this year (1924).

With the remarkable increase of the educational establishments and the activities of the selfgoverning bodies, the use of the Japanese language is expected to become rapidly widespread.

Savings of the aborigines.—It is noticeable that the savage people are becoming more and more provident and thrifty as they are becoming enlightened.

As shown in the following table, the average amount of the savings per depositor has reached ¥25.102.

Savings of the Aborigines (1923)

Number of Villages Total Sum of Deposits Number of Depositors Deposit per Depositor Deposit of the Highest Depositor
Taihoku 28 yen
4,159.670
477 yen
8.734
yen
133.600
Shinchiku 55 12,953.636 443 29.241 468.280
Taichū 51 10,613.270 339 31,307 527.960
Tainan 11 1,539.445 33 18,548 60.000
Takao 39 7,605.740 188 41.000 637.240
Taitō 62 29,137.190 917 31.770 2,921.680
Karenkō 143 45,570.320 1,998 22.750 1,000.000
Total 389 111,579.271 4,415 25.102 -

III. Medical Work

In opening the eyes of the savages to the goodwill of the Government and the blessings of civilization, nothing can surpass medical treatment. By means of it, they can be rendered docile, and at the same time their welfare can be promoted.

The aborigines, who were ignorant of any remedies for maladies exepting for the superstitions use of certain herbs and plants or resorting to weird incantations, have come to learn the wonderful efficacy of scientific medicine, and some patients now even enter hospitals of a modern type for treatment. All this shows that they are gradually advancing in the direction of civilization.

Medical Facilities

Public Medical Officer's
Stations
Medical Stations Public Dispensaries Total
Taihoku 1 12 12 25
Shinchiku 5 16 19 40
Taichū 4 18 15 37
Tainan - 2 2 4
Takao 1 14 22 38
Taitō - 10 9 19
Karenkō 3 13 10 26
Total 14 86 89 189
Note: 1. Public Medical Officer's Stations. Medical offices where Public Medical Officers are stationed.
2. Medical Stations. Offices where policemen experienced in medical work, or other
medical officers, are stationed.
3. Public Dispensaries. Offices where proper medicines prepared by Public Medical
Officers or other responsible Medical Officers are administered to such patients as are
suffering from malaria. (which is widely prevalent in the savage districts), diseases
of the digestive or the respiratory organs, or the eyes, or from slight trauma, in
case they are of easy diagnosis.

IV. Exchange of Commodities

The exchange of commodities, which is one of the important measures designed for the benefit of the Formosan aborigines, is chiefly conducted by the Police Association of Formosá.

By means of barter, it is intended to soften their wild nature, and at the same time, to help to improve their living, in the hope of gradually elevating them to the status of sell-supporting people. With this object in view, the products of such industries as are officially encouraged are bought at good prices, but things such as game, the pursuit of which is incentive to brutal temper, are bought at low prices, in order that they may tend to engage in peaceful work, attracted by its profitableness.

This measure has been attended with very good results, and it has done much towards fostering economic ideas in the minds of the savages.

Total value of Commodities
Brought by Aborigines plus
cash paid by them
Total value of Commodities
Supplied to Aborigines plus
cash paid to them
Total Number of Places
of Exchange
Taihoku 22,328.840 22,328.840 44,657.683 9
Shinchiku 49,899.060 49,898.060 99,798.120 16
Taichū 23,629,690 23,629,690 47,259.380 23
Tainan 5,405.770 5,405.770 10,811.540 5
Takao 42,567.330 42,567.330 85,134.660 25
Taitō 22,011.600 22,011.600 44,023.200 12
Karenkō 30,222.855 30,222.855 60,445.710 12
Total 196,065.145 196,065.145 392,130.290 102

V. Tours and Cinematographs

Isolated in the depth of the mountains remote from any civilized habitation, they are naturally self-conceited, from their utter ignorance of the world. Hence the necessity of helping them to be broad minded. Sometimes picked companies, composed of chiefs and prominent men from different tribes, are sent on a tour through the island, or even to the leading cities of Japan, so that their own observations of civilized life may bring them to a realization of their barbaric state and lead them to desire an improvement in their mode of living.

The results have been very encouraging, but for financial and other reasons, this process cannot be extended to the majority of the people. To make up for this a Cinematograph Department was created at the Savage Control Section of the Police Bureau in 1923, whose business it is to prepare good films conducive to the enlightenment of the savage people.

The films are circulated in order to give cinema entertainment to those aboriginals who have had no opportunities to make a tour. The local governments are provided with reproducers to screen the pictures.

Twenty-eight pieces of such films 24,874 ft. in total length have already been prepared. Among others there is one which shows the scenes of H.I.H. the Crown Prince’s visit to Formosa, 7,710 ft. long.

Facilities for the Development of the Aborigines

1916 1923 Increase
Public Schools 23 26 3
'A' Class Teaching Centres 18 64 46
'B' Class Teaching Centres 20 105 85
Public Medical Officer's Stations 2 13 11
Medical Stations 12 84 72
Dispensaries 22 94 72
Barter Offices 30 75 45
Private Barter Offices 20 27 7
Model Experimental Paddy Fields - 8 8
Paddy Fields under Government Supervision 1 37 36
Practice Farms Attached to Teaching Centres - 11 11
Tobacco Plantations under Government Supervision - 16 16
Upland Rice Plantations under Government Supervision - 1 1
Sugar Plantations under Government Supervision - 7 7
China Grass Plantations under Government Supervision 1 15 14
Orchards under Government Supervision - 83 83
Rice Paper Plantations under Government Supervision - 5 5
Stock-Farms under Government Supervision - 3 3
Weaving-Shops under Government Supervision 1 5 4
Bamboo Work Shops under Government Supervision - 2 2
Straw Mat & Rope Workshops under Government Supervision - 3 3
Rattan Cane Workshops under Government Supervision - 3 3
Cocoonaries under Government Supervision - 13 13
Tea Plantations under Government Supervision - 6 6
Total 150 706 556

Note: Conditions in the first year of the development work and existing conditions are compared in this table.

Taxes Paid by the Savages

Savages who have become obedient to Japanese rule have been governed with a view to their gradual organization into peaceful agricultural communities. So well has this object been accomplished, that the taxes paid by such people in1921 amounted to ¥88,756, divided as follows:—

yen
Land tax
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
55,615
Land rate
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21,090
Water tax
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6,717
Agricultural Society expenses
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9,194
Land Readjustment Association expenses
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
990
Household tax
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2,133
Village land-toll
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
623
Household rate
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1,110
Business tax
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25
Income tax
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
32
Agricultural Association Expenses
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3
Miscellaneous taxes
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9
Total
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
97,541

Government Officials Residing in the Savage Districts

The number of government officials residing in the savage districts, at the end of 1921, was as follows:-

Keishi (Police Superintendents)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1
Keibu (Polic Inspectors)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19
Keibu-ho (Assistant Police Inspectors)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
78
Junsa-bucho (Police Sergeants
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2,371
Junsa (Constables)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Keisha (Patrols)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3,183
Total
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5,652
  1. In this pamphlet the preponderant inhabitants, viz. the Chinese race in Formosa, are termed "Formosans."