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v
 

Introductory Chapter .

 
Russia and Europe.—The Russian Monk
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1
 

PART ONE.

 

THE PROBLEMS OF RUSSIAN PHILOSOPHY OF HISTORY AND PHILOSOPHY OF RELIGION

 

Chapter One: "Holy Russia." Moscow as Third Rome.

§1.Kievic Old Russia.

i.
Geographical Preliminaries.—The Russian Slavs and their Neighbours.—Racial Fusions.—Slavs and Russians, Great Russia and Little Russia.—Was the Russian State of Norse Origin?
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ii.
Alleged unwarlike Character of the Slavs.—Negative Democracy.—The Village Community (Mir) and the Family Community (Zadruga)
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iii.
Effect of Soil and Climate
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iv.
Significance of Commerce to Kiev
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v.
Evolution of Law.—Defective Sense of the State (Anarchism?)
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vi.
Political Position of the Grand Princes.—Absolutism.—The Duma of Boyars and the Věče
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vii.
Kiev breaks up into petty Principalities.—The country is centralised by Moscow.—Sociological Appraisement of the centralising Forces: the Power of Religion and of the Church
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viii.
Centralisation: the Boyars become subordinate to the Tsar.—The Duma of Boyars and the Věče.—The Zemskii Sobor of Moscow.—The Muscovite administrative State
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ix.
The Peasant, too, becomes Subject to the State: Serfdom.—Agrarian Communism in Moscow.—The Towns.—Aristocratic Subdivision of Society.—Social Significance of the new Dynasty of the Romanovs
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§2.Origin and Development of the Russian Church; Christianisation of Kiev from Byzantium and Foundation of the Russian Theocracy (Caesaropapism).—Old Russian Civilisation; Church Religion and Folk-Morality.—The Cleavage in Old Russia; Byzantium and Old Russia
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§3.Moscow at Third Rome; the Muscovite Theocracy religious and ethical.—The Tsar as vicegerent of God and religious Instructor of the People
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§4.Orthodox Moscow seeks Help in Civilisation from Catholic and Protestant Europe.—Ecclesiastical Reform in Russia and the Development of the Raskol
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§5.Practical Needs likewise impel Moscow towards Reform and towards Europeanisation.—The Concept of Europeanisation
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Chapter Two: Peter's Reforms. The Linking up of Russia with Europe.

 
 
§6.Peter's Reforms mainly practical in Character
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§7.Scientific and social Reforms
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§8.Russia becomes a European great Power and a World Power, the Muscovite State being transformed into an absolutist State upon the European Model
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§9.Peter's ecclesiastical Reforms; the Patriarchate is replaced by the Synod.—The Synon uncanonical.—Definitive Subordination of the Church to the State.—Influence of Protestantism and Catholicism during Peter's Reign.—The Raskolniki
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§10.Theocratic Muscovy secularised by Peter
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§11.Consolidation of tsarist Absolutism.—Progressive Europeanisation and Asiatisation
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§12.Catherine II's enlightened Despotism
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§13.The Philosophy of the Enlightenment and humanitarian Ideals in Russia.—Preponderant Influence of France; Voltairism and Mysticism.—Freemasonry.—The Problem of Serfdom
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§14.First Formulation of the historical and philosophical Contrast between Old and New Russia
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79
 

Chapter Three: Theocratic Reaction after the French Revolution; Its Defeat before Sevastopol. Opening of the Political and Philosophical Revolution (Catherine II—Nicholas I).

 
 
§15.Reaction against the French Revolution under Paul I and Alexander I.—Futile Attempts to establish constitutional Government; Speranskii and Karamzin.—Movement for and against the Liberation of the Peasantry.—Alexander as Head of the Holy Alliance; theocratic Reaction; the Regime of Arakčeev and Photius
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§16.Organisation of the political Opposition in secret Societies; the decabrist Rising; Pestel
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§17.Nicholas' Reaction against the Revolution.—Uvarov's theocratic Trinitarianism; Orthodoxy, Autocracy, and Patriotism.—Čaadaev's Renouncement of this Doctrine
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§18.Oppression of Universities, Schools, and Literature.—"The Word Progress must be erased from official Terminology"
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§19.Strengthening of national Sentiment under Alexander and Nicholas
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§20.Growth of manufacturing Industry; its Europeanising Influence
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§21.Modern Russian Literature originates in the Epoch of theocratic Reaction.—Its essential Tendency is that of a Literature of Opposition
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§22.Influence of German Philosophy and Literature.—Hegel and the Hegelian Left; Feuerbach.—French Socialism and English Thought.—Beginnings of Russian Socialism; the Petraševcy Group.—The Intelligentsia and the Democratisation of Literature (the Raznočincy)
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§23.Organisation of the literary Movement of Opposition and Revolution.—Clandestine Literature and Emigration.—N. Turgenev as typical Representative of constitutional Refugees under Nicholas.—I. G. Golovin
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§24.Autocracy, Aristocracy, and Serfdom.—Social Disorders
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§25.Collapse of theocratic Obscurantism before Sevastopol
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Chapter Four: Liberation of the Peasantry in 1861. Administrative Reforms.

 
 
§26.Abolition of Serfdom.—Moral and legal Significance of Slavery.—Slavery and Aristocracy
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§27.Economic Significance of the Liberation of the Peasantry.—An agrarian Crisis ensues notwithstanding Enfranchisement
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§28.The "Great Reforms" of the Administration
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142
 

Chapter Five: Renewal and Continuation of the Nicolaitan Regime after a brief Liberal Interlude. Growth of the Terrorist Guerilla-Revolution; Alexander II becomes its Victim. Accentuation of the theocratic Reaction; Counter-Terrorism. Its Defeat in the War against Japan.

 
 
§29.Uncensored Journalism and Literature in Association with Alexandrine Reforms.—Criticism in Literature.—The Slavophils and the Westernisers; the Počvenniki and the Narodniki; Socialism and Anarchism.—The philosophic Reaction, Katkov and Pobědonoscev.—Nihilism as a Manifestation of New Russia; Dostoevskii's Contest with Nihilism.—The liberal Movement in Theology.—Influence of recent German, French, and English Philosophy; Positivism and Socialism.—Lassalle and Marx.—The International and German socialist Organisation.—Philosophic and Religious Rationalism of the Mužik (Stundism)
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§30.The Opposition aims at a Constitution.—Political secret Societies (Zemlja i Volja) and the Polish Revolt.—The Reaction (Katkov) and the first Attempt on the Tsar in 1866 (Karakozov).— Propaganda among Operatives and Peasants in the early Seventies, and the Development of individual Efforts at Terrorism; Věra Zasulič and Stepniak (1878).—The Zemlja i Volja splits into terroristic Narodnaja Volja and the socialistic Cernyi Pereděl.—The Tsar's Appeal for a Campaign against the Terror, and his Assassination on March 1/13, 1881.—Loris-Melikov's "Constitution"
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151
 
§31.Reaction in Revenge for the Assassination of Alexander II; Pobědonoscev's Regime.—Protection (Ohrana).—Marxism and the first socialist Party (1883).—Literary Disputes concerning the Problem of capitalist Development in Russia; Marxism and the Narodniki.—Revisionism (Struve) and the Revulsion from Materialism.—Influence of Dostoevskii, of Solov'ev, and of Leont'ev; religious Mysticism.—The Decadents (Neo-Idealism, Neo-Romanticism); Čehov
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
156
 
§32.The Reaction aims at improving economic Conditions.—Foreign Capital and foreign Policy; Tsarism and French Republicanism.—Care for the Aristocracy.—The Agrarian Crisis; Land Hunger and Famine.—Growth of manufacturing Industry; the labour Question
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
161
 
§33.Orthodox Caesaropapism culminates in the Program of imperialistic Panasiatism.—Russia's Defeat by Japan
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
167
 

Chapter Six: The first general revolutionary Movement among the Masses; the Beginnings of the Constitution. The Counter-Revolution.

 
 
§34.Union of all Classes and all Schools of progressive Thought in the Mass Revolution.—Significance of the Year 1905.—Gor'kii as the literary Spokesman of the Revolution
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
170
 
§35.Attack by the Reaction upon the Solemnly proclaimed Constitution and upon the new Duma
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
178
 
§36.The Counter-Revolution and the White Terror.—The reactionary Intelligentsia; the Union of the Russian People (the "Black Hundred").—Tsarism and provocative Agents (Azev and Sudeikin).—The White Terror refutes the alleged religious and moral Foundations of theocratic Caesaropapism and the alleged Divinity of the Church; the Church and the Elections to the fourth Duma.—Reform of the Church Schools; back to Muscovite Russia!
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
186
 
§37.The postrevolutionary Crisis.—Discussions concerning the Revolution.—Revolutionary Sentiment is increased by the Reaction.—Spiritual Crisis in Literature and Philosophy.—Mysticism and religious Revival.—Influence of Dostoevskii and Solov'ev.—Decadence and Sexuality ("Saninism").—Pessimism and suicidal Tendencies.—Symptoms of Renovation
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
196

Chapter Seven: Problems of the Philosophy of History and of Religion in Russia. A Summary Statement.

 

I

 
 
§38.Character of Russian Philosophy.—The ethical Problem: Politics; Socialism; Revolution.—The sociological Problem: History of Philosophy; Russia and Europe.—The religious Problem: Mysticism.—The epistemological Problem: Literary Criticism
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
199
 

II

 
 
§39.Character of recent European Philosophy.—Growth of the historic Sense during the eighteenth Century; Beginnings of scientific Historiography, of the Philosophy of History, and of Sociology.—Evolutionary Science considered as a Reinforcement of the historic Sense
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
201
 
§40.The historic Sense and the Idea of Progress; Philoneism and the Desire for Reform.—Revolution in general and Revolutions in particular; the old Regime or the new.—The Problem of Revolution
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
204
 
§41.The eighteenth Century as the Epoch of Enlightenment and of Rationalism.—The Kantian Criticism and its historical Significance.—The new Philosophy as Philosophy of Religion.—Opposition to Theology determined by the theocratic Unity of Church and State becomes an Opposition to official Doctrine, Morality, and Politics
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
205
 
§41a.Hume's Rejection of Religion as Anthropomorphism.—Analysis of this Concept by Kant, Comte, Vico, Feuerbach, Spencer, and Tylor.—Anthropomorphism is equivalent to Myth.—Criticism versus Mythopoiesis.—The old Opposition between Philosophy and Mythology; Theology as Christian Mythology.—Modern Philosophy in Opposition to Theology.—Theology as the Instrument of Myth, Philosophy as the Instrument of Science.—Religion and Myth.—Theism and Belief in Revelation; believing Catholicity.—Faith and Priests; Church and Theocracy.—Philosophy versus Theology; Anthropism versus Theism.—The Problem of Individualism and Subjectivism; Unfaith and Criticism; Empirical Thought versus Authority and Tradition; Science and Philosophy, not Priests and Church; Anthropocracy or Democracy, versus Theocracy; critical Catholicity.—The Question, Can an unrevealed Religion exist?—The Religion of the scientific and critical Thinker
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
206
 
§42.The Enlightenment and Humanitarianism.—Kant and Hume render Philosophy predominantly practical and ethical; the Ideal and Naturalness.—During the nineteenth Century, Emotionalism and Voluntarism are opposed to Rationalism (Intellectualism).—Democracy versus Theocracy
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
210
 
§43.The Enlightenment and Humanitarian Philosophy lead to political Reforms; the Proclamation of the Rights of Man.—The Proclamation of the Rights of Man necessitates social Reforms.—Socialism and Sociology; German Idealism likewise leads to Socialism.—Humanitarianism and Nationality; The Principle of Nationality is at once philosophical and political
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
211
 
§44.Individualism and Subjectivism.—Subjectivism and Activism.—Subjectivism and Solipsism; Kant, Fichte, Shelling, Hegel, Stirner, Schopenhauer, Feuerbach, Marx; History and Society versus the Ego.—The Problem of Subjectivism in Russian Philosophy
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
212
 
§45.The three Antitheses: Philosophy and Theology; Anthropism and Theism; Democracy and Theocracy (theocratic Aristocracy)
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
213
 

III

 
 
§46.Russian Historiography in association with the Reforms of Peter and with Nestor the Chronicler.—Tatiščev's Formula concerning the Evolution of the Russian State; supreme Value of monarchist Absolutism.—Russian Historians down to Karamzin.—German Historians in Russia.—Expansion of Historiography by the Inclusion of administrative, legal, and economic History.—Influence of the History of Literature.—Political History and the History of Civilisation.—The new historical Outlook resulting from Experiences of the Revolution in Europe and in Russia; Influence of German Philosophy under Nicholas I
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
213
 
§47.See Translators' Foreword, page xii.
 

PART TWO.

 

SKETCHES OF RUSSIAN PHILOSOPHY OF HISTORY AND PHILOSOPHY OF RELIGION

 

Chapter Eight: P. J. Čaadaev. Catholic versus Orthodox Theocracy.

 
 
§48.Čaadaev's Philosophic Writing as a Denial of Uvarov's Trinity and an Assertion that Byzantine Russia is a cultural Nonentity.—Catholicism is true Christianity and the true Church
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
221
 
§49.Was Čaadaev a Mystic?—His Attitude towards Catholicism; in Russia as elsewhere there took place a romanticist Reversion towards Catholicism
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
225
 
§50.Čaadaev's Apology
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
229
 
§51.The basic Ideas of Čaadaev's Philosophy of History.—Čaadaev as the first Russian Philosopher of History
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
232
 

Chapter Nine: Slavophilism. The Messianism of Orthodox Theocracy. Slavophilism and Panslavism.

 

I

 
 
§52.Ivan Vasilievič Kirěevskii, the Founder of Slavophilism.—His first cultural Ideal based upon the Philosophy of Schelling: Europeanisation
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
237
 
§53.Kirěevskii's second Stage; Evolution towards Pietism.—Slavophil Philosophy of History and of Religion.—Disintegration of the modern European Mind (including the Russian) and of the human Mind in general; Rationalism versus Faith, Europe versus Russia.—Russia as the Old Russia of the Mužik.—Russia's messianic Mission, to reorganise Humanity as a unitary Whole upon the Foundation of the Old Russian religious Spirit, and thus to save Mankind from Decay.—Schelling as Saviour versus Kant and Hegel
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
241
 
§54.Critique of Kirěevskii
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
247
 
§55.Continuation and Fortification of Kirěevskii's Doctrine by Homjakov.—Homjakov as an orthodox religious Teacher: his Doctrine of the Church and of Belief.—Stirner as the summary Expression of Protestant Philosophy
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
254
 
§56.Homjakov upon the Relationship between Church and State; Theocracy in Catholicism, Protestantism, and the Orthodox Church
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
261
 
§57.The theocratic political Doctrine of Aksakov: the primitive Russian State conceived as "inner Truth" in Contrast with the European State as "outer Truth"
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
266
 
§58.Homjakov's Philosophy of the State and of Nationality
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270
 
§59.Excursus concerning the chief Problems of the Philosophy of Nationality.—The slavophil Doctrine of Nationality is inadequate
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
274
 
§59a.Homjakov upon the Slav national Character
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
282
 
§60.Jurii F. Samarin, and his Polemic against Catholicism and Jesuitism.—The Polish Question
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
285
 
§61.Ivan Aksakov, nihilistic Terrorism as a form of Atheism
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
287
 
§62.N. Danilevskii, racial Nationalism
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
291
 

II

 
 
§63.The national Renaissance of the eastern Nations, and in particular of the Slavs, from the eighteenth Century onwards.—The Program of this Renaissance considered from the Outlooks of the Philosophy of History and the Philosophy of Nationality (Slavistic Movement).—Panslavism
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
293
 
§64.The humanitarian Panslavism of the Czechs and the Slovaks
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
296
 
§65.The southern Slavs; Serbo-Croats and Bulgarians.—Ecclesiastical and religious Divisions. (Illyrism). The Slovenes
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299
 
§66.The Little Russian Problem
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301
 
§67.Polish Messianism
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
304
 
§68.Russian Panslavism.—The Russian slavistic Movement; Pogodin and Ševyrev.—Panslavism replaced by Panasiatism.—Importance of the nonslav Peoples of Russia
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307
 
§69.Historical Explanation of slavophil Messianism as an Outcome of the social and philosophical Situation during the postrevolutionary Epoch of Restoration and Reaction
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
316
 

III

 
 
§70.Concluding and amplificatory Discussion of the Nature and Development of Slavophilism
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321
 

Chapter Ten: Westernism. V. G. Bělinskii.

 

I

 
 
§71.Westernism in its wider Sense of Europeanisation, and in its narrower Sense of Opposition to Slavophilism.—Westernism is religious, ecclesiastical, and metaphysical.—The Westernisers, too, are opposed to Scepticism.—Through Young Hegelian, Feuerbachian and French socialist Influences, the Socialists (Radicals) and Revolutionaries have been segregated from the Liberals, Herzen entering a different Camp from Granovskii.—Theocracy, by Contre-coup, gives rise to Opposition and Revolution: Atheism, Materialism, and Positivism
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336
 
§72.The Westernisers' Teaching concerning State and Laws, their Esteem for Peter; the Relationship between Church and State; the Mir, Nationality, the Slav (Polish) Question
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342
 
§72a.Some of the chief Representatives of Westernism
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
347
 

II

 
 
§73.Bělinskii as Westerniser.—His literary and philosophical Development.—His slavophil Phase
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
350
 
§74.Philosophical Significance of the Essay on Borodino; Hegel versus Fichte.—Hegel's rational Reality.—Bělinskii's Opposition to the Extremes of Subjectivism and Objectivism; neither Crime nor Superstition!
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
356
 
§75.Bělinskii versus Hegel's Sense of Reality.—Feuerbach's Anthropologism; Materialism and Atheism versus Theism, Man versus God.—Bělinskii and French Socialism; Approval of Terrorism and Revolution.—The Intelligentsia as a Class, the Bourgeoisie.—Bělinskii versus Gogol; the Struggle against Theocracy.—Bělinskii versus extreme Historism and Positivism (Stirner, Marx, Comte).—The Struggle against Scepticism and Mysticism.—Faith in Europe and in New Russia
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359
 
§76.Bělinskii as Critic and Aestheticist.—His Influence.—Creative Scepticism
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370
 

Chapter Eleven: The Synthesis of Westernism and Slavophilism. Apollon Grigor'ev.

 
 
§77.Grigor'ev's Synthesis of Slavophilism and Westernism.—Grigor'ev as Počvennik; Puškin's organic Synthesis of Europeanism and Russism.—Art as Instrument of Nationality.—Organic Criticism.—Idea versus Development.—Romanticist Campaign against Romanticism.—Grigor'ev versus Nihilism.—Grigor'ev and Dostoevskii. (N. Strahov)
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
379
 

Chapter Twelve: Aleksandr Herzen. Philosophical and Political Radicalism.

 
 
§78.Herzen continues Bělinskii's literary Revolution.—Herzen before and after 1848; Radicalism; Curses upon the Year 1848.—Positivist Convalescence from religious Illusion; to atheistic Materialism the French Revolution seems inadequate.—Christianity tantamount to Monarchy.—The only Path of Salvation—not Goethe's Faust but Byron's Lucifer; Crime
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
384
 
§79.Was Herzen an Eclectic?—Positivism and Materialism versus Religion.—Herzen upon Christianity and the three leading Christian Churches. (Old Believers)
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
392
 
§80.Herzen's Analysis of positivist Disillusionment.—His Explanation of Turgenev's Bazarov as Science conjoined with Love.—Byron's Lucifer overcome; Vindication of the "superfluous Person"
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395
 
§81.The Problem of Crime as Subjectivism and Objectivism.—Crime and Revolution.—How Herzen came to terms with Bakunin and Revolutionism; the Galilean in the End gains the Victory over Byron
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
400
 
§82.Herzen's Philosophy of History.—At first he assumes that there is Progress.—In 1850 he denies Progress, denies that there is Teleology.—Later still he is again willing to admit the Occurence of historical Progress
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407
 
§83.Herzen's Conversion to slavophil Messianism.—Will Russian social Evolution follow a different Course from that of Europe?—Herzen as Narodnik.—Herzen's Panslavism
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410
 
§84.Herzen's "Russian" Socialism and Communism.—Herzen versus Marx and political Economy.—Herzen, like Proudhon, is Individualist, Federalist, and Anarchist.—The social Revolution in the Form of the Liberation of the Peasantry in the Year 1861.—Herzen in Favour of Parliamentarism.—Herzen's Doubts concerning messianic Schemes
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417
 
§85.Herzen's Influence in all Directions.—This Influence weakened after the Polish Rising of 1863.—Herzen and Černyševskii.—The Radicals versus Herzen.—Cause of Herzen's Change of Views.—Herzen's Defects.—Anarchism as Unpracticality; social Isolation of the Refugee.—Herzen's aristocratic Trend; Sympathy with the Bourgeois.—Scepticism and Dilettantism.—Analysis of the "superfluous Person"
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422
 

Chapter Thirteen: M. A. Bakunin. Revolutionary Anarchism.

 
 
§86.Bakunin's philosophical Evolution towards the Hegelian Left
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430
 
§87.Bakunin versus Subjectivism; Suicide
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434
 
§88.Bakunin's first Program of 1882; the Destruction of the existing Order by religio-political Democracy; the old World is perishing from Scepticism
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436
 
§89.Antitheology upon a Feuerbachian Basis as the Foundation of true Democracy.—The ontological Proof of Atheism
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446
 
§90.Absolute Equality in the Absence of all Authority the Goal of the Future.—Anarchy as a stateless Amorphism the Precondition of the future Federation.—Pandestruction and partial Destruction.—Atheism and political Revolution
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448
 
§91.Bakunin's "new Morality" as a Theory of Revolution.—The Right to kill.—Jesuitism and Machiavellianism.—The Aristocracy of the secret Society
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
450
 
§92.Did Bakunin recant?
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
457
 
§93.Bakunin and Slav Messianism
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
458
 
§94.The Light thrown on Anarchism by the Struggle between Bakunin and Marx.—Bakinin's Influence in Europe and Russia
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461
 
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472
Copyright.svg PD-icon.svg This work is a translation and has a separate copyright status to the applicable copyright protections of the original content.
Original:

This work is in the public domain in the United States because it was published before January 1, 1924.


The author died in 1937, so this work is also in the public domain in countries and areas where the copyright term is the author's life plus 80 years or less. This work may also be in the public domain in countries and areas with longer native copyright terms that apply the rule of the shorter term to foreign works.

 
Translation:

This work is in the public domain in the United States because it was published before January 1, 1924.


The author died in 1972, so this work is also in the public domain in countries and areas where the copyright term is the author's life plus 30 years or less. This work may also be in the public domain in countries and areas with longer native copyright terms that apply the rule of the shorter term to foreign works.