Open main menu

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

 

PAGE

Chapter Fourteen: Realism and Nihilism. Černyševskii and Dobroljubov. Pisarev.

 

I.

 
 
§ 95.Černyševskii's philosophical Development.—Realism (Nihilism); Feuerbach, Positivism, Utilitarianism.—The "anthropological Principle."—Philosophy of the Enlightenment in the Sense of Peter the Great and that of Lessing.—Černyševskii versus Kant
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
1
 
§ 96.Černyševskii's Utilitarianism.—The Problem of the Will.—His Ethic social and socialistic; Love and Egoism upon a materialistic Basis necessitate Communism as a System of Equality an Equal Rights.—What is to be done as a Description of the materialistic and positivist Utilitarianism, the Realists or Nihilists.—The Woman's Question.—Černyševskii versus Self-Sacrifice
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
8
 
§ 97.Utilitarian Realism in Aesthetics.—Beauty is Life
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
17
 
§ 98.Dobroljubov continues Černyševskii's literary Criticism
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
19
 
§ 99.Černyševskii's Philosophy of History.—History and Science in general do not exclude Convictions.—The hypothetical Method
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
25
 
§ 100.Černyševskii and Marx; Heroes of the Spirit as primal Sources of Energy.—Lessing.—Černyševskii versus Darwin and the Struggle for Existence
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
28
 
§ 101.Černyševskii's Socialism is ethical.—He favours the Liberation of the Peasantry and the Assignment of Land to the Peasants.—Economics.—The Mir and the social Order of the Future; Russia can overleap Stages of Development
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
30
 
§ 102.Černyševskii's Sociology and Politics.—Anarchist Elements.—The Opposition between Aristocracy and Democracy.—The Conflict with Herzen.—Černyševskii and Dobroljubov as Representatives of the Rasnočinec, as "Children" against "Fathers."—The Question of Nationality from the materialist Outlook
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
35
 
§ 103.Černyševskii's Participation in the practical Work of Revolution
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
39
 
§ 104.Černyševskii's philosophical and literary Activities in Siberia
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
43
 
§ 105.The true Significance of Černyševskii's Materialism; the philosophical Revolution against the Theocracy
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
48
 
§ 106.Černyševskii's Influence.—Černyševskii prepares the Ground for Marxism.—Černyševskii and the Narodničestvo
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
50
 

II.

 
 
§ 107.Pisarev's Realism.—The Realist as a consistent Individualist, Egoist, and Hedonist; Aesthetics and Principles in general are annihilated.—The Realist might murder and rob, and is withheld from doing so only by his subjective Taste.—Pisarev's Exaggerations (Pisarev, Stirner, and Nietzsche).—Pisarev's Utilitarianism, naturalist Materialism, and Positivism
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
53
 
§ 108.The Realist becomes a "thoughtful Realist."—Pisarev's Interpretation of Turgenev's Bazarov.—The absolute Negation of Russia; Stupidity and Poverty.— Matters must be thought to a Finish; Salvation by natural Science
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
58
 
§ 109.The Problem of the Hungry and the Insufficiently clad; the "thoughtful Realist" becomes the "thoughtful Proletarian."— The thoughtful Realist not a Faust.—The Nihilist even recognises the old morality.—Pisarev's Influence; the Nihilist as Intelectual
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
63
 
 
 
§ 110.Nihilism
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
69
i.
Realism as Nihilism in Art, Aesthetics, and literary Criticism; Naturalism: Realism versus Romanticism
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
69
ii.
Positivism and Materialism; Facts, not Philosophy; Practice, not Theory
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
70
iii.
Nihilism as destructive Criticism and socio-political Negation of the Uvarovian Trinity; Atheism and Materialism; Nihilist Disillusionment versus Mysticism.—Nihilism is not Pessimism and Indifferentism.—The Nihilist is a believing Unbeliever
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
72
iv.
Ethics the leading nihilist Discipline.—Empiricist and practical Ethics.—Nihilist Industry versus aristocratic Tedium.—Irony and Cynism versus romanticist Sentimentality.—Nihilist Democracy takes the Form of the Movement "towards the People."—Nihilist in social Intercourse and nihilist Phraseology.—The nihilist Community; Friendship and Love.—Nihilism inevitably becomes political and revolutionary
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
74
v.
Nihilism versus Aristocracy and Liberalism.—Nihilism as Radicalism, Democracy, Socialism.—Nihilism as Anarchism; all Things are lawful.—The Problem of Crime
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
78
vi.
The manifold Types, Kinds, and Degrees of Nihilism.—Fathers and Children; Questions put by the "Children" to the "Fathers."—Nihilism as the leading Problem of the day; Dostoevskii; Nietzsche
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
79
 

IV.

 
 
§ 111.Nihilism and Terrorism.—The Program of the revolutionary Movement
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
81
i.
The secret Society Zemlja i Volja, 1862; Velikorus'; the "Organisation" of the Karakozovcy (1865).—The first Attempt on the life of Alexander II, made by Karakozov in 1866.—The first revolutionary Proclamations: Young Russia, 1862; To the Younger Generation, 1861.—The Addresses
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
81
ii.
The Bakuninist Program of 1868
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
85
iii.
Nečaev's Catechism of Revolution and the Program of the Narodnaja Rasprava, 1869
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
86
iv.
The Program of the Čaikovcy, 1871
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
89
v.
The Program of the Lavrovists, 1873
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
89
vi.
Tkačev's Jacobinism; Nabat, 1875–1877
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
92
vii.
Program of the new Zemlja i Volja, 1877
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
94
viii.
The terrorist Narodnaja Volja, 1879
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
95
ix.
Party of the Černyi Pereděl, 1879, as the Beginning of Social Democracy
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
97
 
§ 112.Nature and Development of the political Radicalism of the Sixties and Seventies.—The Socialism of the Day mainly agrarian; the Narodničestvo.—Terror without Mass Movement.—Individualism and Terrorism; Terrorism and Social Revolution.—Marxism and Bakuninism; nihilist Utilitarianism versus Bakuninist Revolutionism.—Socialism and Politism.—Increasing Significance of the urban Workers; the Movement not a Student's Movement
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
98
 
§ 113.Nihilism and Terrorism are not identical in Nature.—Stepniak's ethical Theory of Terror as a Means of Self-defence, a Theory based on natural Right; a Life for a Life!—The Bourgeois is the Enemy, but we strike down the Gendarme.—The philosophical Problem of Nihilism as Atheism
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
102
 

V.

 
§ 114.Psychology of the Russian Terrorists of the Seventies; the Lamb becomes a Tiger
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
105
 

Chapter Fifteen: The so-called Sociological Subjectivists; Lavrov and Mihailovskii.

 

I.

 
§ 115.Lavrov as Philosopher of History and Theorist of Subjectivism; Comte and Kant.—Lavrov's "Historical Realism" and his Conception of History; Consciousness versus Nature
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
115
 
§ 116.Lavrov accepts the Comtist developmental Scheme, but modifies it in a socialist and Darwinist Sense.—Universal History as a World Assize; History and Ethics.—The Illusion of Freedom.—The critically-thinking Individuality as the motive Force in History; Criticism and Faith.—Lavrov's Formula of Progress and his progressive Imperative.—The three Duties of the "more definite" Individual: Propaganda; Organisation of the socialist Party; a progressive Example.—The Duty of working for Progress as a Duty to promote Revolution; Lavrov's revolutionary Scepticism.—Lavrov's Concessions to Terrorism
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
121
 
§ 117.Lavrov's Socialism ethical and humanist.—Lavrov opposed to Marx's historical Materialism.—Humanity.—State and Nation.—Minimum of the State; the State as a Contract.—This Contract is no longer binding.—Lavrov and his Russian Contemporaries and Predecessors
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
128
 
§ 118.Lavrov's Significance.—Was he the first Russian Sociologist?—Kant reduced to the Level of Ruge and Bruno Bauer.—The Problem of Individualism left unsolved.—Lavrov's negative Philosophy of Religion.—Lavrov as Politician; the political Utopian
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
131
 

II.

 
 
§ 119.Mihailovskii an Empiricist and Positivist; denies the Existence of innate Ideas and apriorist Axioms.—Agnosticism and Relativism.—No Naturalism.—Utilitarianism versus Kant
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
136
 
§ 120.Mihailovskii's Sociology, the Question of the subjective Method; the Impassivity of positivist Historism rejected.—Society not an Organism.—Work the essential Attribute of Individuality.—Cooperation the Essence of Sociality
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
140
 
§ 121.Mihailovskii's Philosophy of History.—The three Stages of Development: the objective anthropocentric, the eccentric, and the subjective anthropocentric.—Evolutionary Type and evolutionary Stage.—The Development of Cooperation
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
146
 
§ 122.Criticism of Darwinism from the Outlook of the Philosophy of History; the Darwinian Struggle for Existence invalid for human Society.—The Struggle between the Rich and the Poor.—Physiological and social Division of Labour.—Darwinism in the Service of Liberalism.—Socialism versus Liberalism and Darwinism; Liberty corrected by Equality.—Alleged democratic Spirit of the natural Sciences.—The Struggle for Individuality: the Harmony of Individualism and Socialism.—The evolutionary Explanation of Consciousness.—Mihailovskii's Formula of human Progress
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
148
 
§ 123.The Defects of Mihailovskii's History of Philosophy
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
152
 
§ 124.The modern Age as an Epoch of Transition; Replacement of medieval Catholicism and Feudalism by false Individualism, Scepticism, and Subjectivism.—The eighteenth-century Enlightenment and the Revolution.—Does the Comtist Classification of Epochs apply to Russia?—The Revolution engenders the Liberalism of the Bourgeoisie.—The social Question (the Bread Question) of the Forties.—"Aristocrats doing Penance" and the Raznočincy. The new Woman.—Love and Marriage
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
154
 
§ 125.Liberal political Economy, professorial Socialism, and Marxism.—Sociology and political Economy.—Socialism and consistent Individualism are not mutually exclusive.—Mihailovskii and the Narodniki
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
156
 
§ 126.Mihailovskii and the political Problem.—Unity of Theory and Practice, of Truth and Justice.—Ethics necessarily social; there is no ethical formula "upon, in, over, and under itself.”—The Right of Judging involves the Duty to act.—The Ethics of Conscience and of the Sentiment of Honour.—Law; Revenge.—Ethics and Politics.—In 1873 Mihailovskii unable to join Lavrov; "I am not a Revolutionary."—Mihailovskii as a Socialist. His Explanation of the terrorist Act of Věra Zasulič in 1878.—Mihailovskii favours the political Struggle but is opposed to Terrorism.—It is the Idea of Autocracy that is to be slain.—The Theory of Retribution too narrow.—The Revolutionists must combine with the Liberals.—The Assassination of Alexander II.—Mihailovskii's political Views during the Eighties and the Nineties
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
160
 
§ 127.Mihailovskii's Philosophy of Religion; Religion as a coherent Outlook on the Universe; the religious Spirit equivalent to Definiteness of Character.—The early Christian Martyrs and Ščedrin's "Devourers."—Modern Disharmony of Reason and Sentiment; Weakness of Will; Bourget's Le Disciple
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
167
 
§ 128.Mihailovskii's Analysis of the present Epoch of Transition; Suicide.—Lack of Religion the Cause of Suicide.—Goethe's Faust.—Philosophical Significance of the Increase in Suicide
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
172
 
§ 129.The Faust Problem in Goethe and Voltaire.—The Faust Problem and the Suicide Problem; Irreligion of the Age of Transition
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
174
 
§ 130.Mihailovskii's Analysis of the Chaos of the present Day; the enlightened and wealthy Bourgeois.—Indefiniteness and Dilettantism; Pornography and Decadence; War of All against All.—Nationalism of the Slavophils and the Narodniki; Darwinism; Nietzsche and Stirner; Tolstoi and Dostoevskii; Marxism; Mysticism and Idealism of converted Materialists.—Religion versus Mysticism
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
177
 
§ 131.Mihailovskii as Author and Critic.—Nature and Function of Art and Criticism.—Mihailovskii's judgments concerning his Contemporaries and his Predecessors.—Definitive Judgment of Mihailovskii's Philosophy.—Mihailovskii and Marxism
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
181
 

Chapter Sixteen: The Theorists of the Official Theocracy: Katkov; Pobědonoscev; Leont'ev.

 

I.

 
 
§ 132.Katkov, philosophising Journalist and hack Politician for the Theocracy
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
191
 
§ 133.Pobědonoscev, Bureaucrat official State Philosopher for the Theocracy
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
197
 
§ 134.The Religion of the Theocracy; K. N. Leont'ev; Religion is Fear of the Lord.—The Struggle against Liberalism.—The Law of Evolution; the Idea of Progress disastrous; Russia must be preserved in cold Storage.—Leont'ev and the Slavophils; Nationalism is revolutionary.—Leont'ev opposed to Panslavism for Austria.—Russians akin to Asiatics.—The Conquest of Constantinople and of Asia
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
207
 
§ 135.The Church, not Christ!—Caesaropapism and Papism.—Dostoevskii's grand Inquisitor approved.—Morality without Religion is valueless; Politics is devoid of Morality but not devoid of Religion.—Leont'ev and Nietzsche; Amoralism.—A Word on behalf of the Revolution.—Tsarism and Aristocracy.—The Disintegration in Leont'ev's Mind; Faith and Unfaith.—Timor Dei essential.—Theistic Nihilism and Terrorism.—Leont'ev confirms Feuerbach; God and the Tsar.—The "Constraint to believe"
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
214
 

II.

 
 
§ 136.Comparison between the Theocrats and their Opponents; the Theocrats are quantitatively and qualitatively inferior.—Struggle against the nineteenth Century as a Whole.—The Clergy is the main Prop of the Throne.—Theology as the Russian State Philosophy.—The Struggle between Faith and Unfaith a political Struggle.—Feuerbach's Significance for the Russian Revolution; Atheism and Materialism are Crimes against the State and treason to the Country; the Monk versus Feuerbach.—Not Conservatism but Reaction; Tsarism is in Conflict with Peter and with itself—Theocratic Negation.—The Theocrats, too, are Sceptics; Theocratic Jesuitry.—The corpselike Obedience of the converted Revolutionary (Tihomirov); a skilled and vigorous Police as an infallible Authority.—The Theocrats are Westernisers; De Maistre's Executioner
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
220
 

Chapter Seventeen: Vladimir Solov'ev; Religion as Mysticism.

 
 
§ 137.Vladimir S. Solov'ev; free Theocracy
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
225
 
§ 138.Ethics and the Philosophy of Religion; the Good is equivalent to the Godhead.—The ascetic Principle of Shame is the Root of Morality and Religion; Shame as Conscience, Sympathy, and Veneration
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
228
 
§ 139.The Individual and Society; Solov'ev opposed to Egoism and Individualism, to Eudemonism and Utilitarianism.—Morality is organised Morality.—Agriculture and the State.—Opposed to Privilege as manifested in Despotism, Aristocracy, and Democracy.—The Church as the Organisation of Piety.—Significance of Dogma and the Sacraments; Theurgy.—"Russian Socialism" as Church universal.—The three functions of moral Organisation: High-Priesthood, Kingship, and Prophetship.—Need for the Renascence of the prophetic Function; the essential Nature of the true Prophet
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
233
 
§ 140.The Schism of the Churches must be healed by a Union of the Churches.—Nature and History of the Schism.—Relationship of the State to the three leading Churches, Catholicism, Orthodoxy, and Protestantism.—The Russian Church and the State.—Free Theocracy will be inaugurated by a Union of Pope and Tsar.—Significance of the Poles and the Jews in Relation to the Union of the Churches
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
236
 
§ 141.Solov'ev and the Slavophils.—Catholicism and Orthodoxy.—Nationalism and Nationality; Russian Messianism
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
241
 
§ 142.Eduard von Hartmann's Philosophy as the Culmination of western Philosophy.—Transition to the Theosophy of the East.—The historical Manifestation of the God-man; the cosmological and historical Process as the Aspiration of the Finite towards Immortality
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
245
 
§ 143.Epistemological Foundations of free Theosophy.—Absolute Cognition versus Subjection and Scepticism.—Revelation.—Religious or mystical Cognition.—Solov'ev and Kant
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
250
 
§ 144.Philosophy and Revelation as free Theosophy.—The Idea of Catholicity.—Solov'ev's Scholasticism as his Life Tragedy; the inward Struggle between Kant and Plato.—Solov'ev takes refuge in Anselm and Origen.—Solov'ev's Doctrine of Ideas and his free Theurgy
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
254
 
§ 145.Solov'ev's Mysticism.—Epistemological and historical Examination of Mysticism.—Mysticism and Religion.—Solov'ev opposed to the One-sidedness of oriental Mysticism; advocates an active "Christian Policy."—Mystical States in Solov'ev. Mysticism and the Mysterious.—Mysticism is aristocratic and conservative; the Catholicising Tendency
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
259
 
§ 146.Symptoms of Decadence in secularised Europe and Russia.—This Secularisation is Atheism, atheistic Subjectivism, and Individualism.—Solov'ev is opposed to the Reforms suggested by Atheism, is opposed to Revolution.—Theism is Life, Atheism is Death; Atheism leads to Murder or Suicide
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
266
 
§ 147.Solov'ev's Aesthetics.—Solov'ev upon Puškin, Lermontov, and Aleksěi Tolstoi.—Solov'ev, Lev Tolstoi, and Dostoevskii.—Solov'ev and the decadent Movement
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
269
 
§ 148.The apocalyptic Vision: Tolstoi as Antichrist.—Dostoevskii the Russian Prophet.—Solov'ev abandons free Theocracy; his Campaign for Kant and Plato
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
274
 
§ 149.Significance of Solov'ev to Russia; he recognized the Value of Criticism
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
281
 

Chapter Eighteen: Modern Socialism; Marxism and the social Democracy; Marxism and the Narodničestvo. The Crisis within the Marxist Movement. The religious Problem. The Social Revolutionaries.

 

I.

 
 
§ 150.Socialism in Russia and "Russian Socialism."—Russian Socialism preeminently a Philosophy.—Positivism, Materialism, and Atheism.—The ethical Foundation of Socialism, its new Ethic, the new Man, the new Society.—The social Revolution and Terrorism.—"Russian Socialism" manifests itself as the Narodničestvo.— Marxism turns its Attention to the Operatives
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
287
 
§ 151.The outward History of Marxism in Russia
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
289
 
§ 152.A Sketch of the History of Russian Social Democracy (1883–1912)
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
291
 

II.

 
 
§ 153.Marxism in Russia has to solve peculiar Problems determined by Russian Evolution.—The Problem of Tactics; the historico-philosophical Explanation of Russia; the Struggle upon the philosophical Plane (Materialism and historical Materialism, Subjectivism versus Objectivism)
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
300
 
§ 154.Nature and Development of the Narodničestvo
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
303
 
§ 155.The Doctrine of the Narodniki; its philosophical Basis and its economic Outlook.—The Problem of the Communism of the Russian Mir and Artel and of Russian Capitalism; the Question whether Russia can pass directly to Communism of a higher Order without, as a Preliminary, passing through the Stage of Capitalism
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
306
 
§ 156.The Peculiarities of Russian agricultural Development do not justify the Doctrine of the Narodničestvo.—The Mužik cannot be regarded as a social and moral Ideal.—The Mužik, too, is a Bourgeois
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
309
 
 
 
§ 157.The Crisis within the European Marxist Movement.—The Nature of Marx's historical Materialism as the philosophic Basis of communist Socialism.—The philosophical Inadequacy of Materialism and Positivism.—Objectivistic amoralist Historism does not suffice for the Foundation of Socialism.—There is no collective Consciousness.—Justification for the individual Consciousness; Socialism can have no other than an ethical Foundation.—Return to Kant?
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
317
 
§ 158.The first social democratic Program (1884); Plehanov, the "Father of Russian Marxism"
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
325
 
§ 159.The Cleavage in Plehanov's Views; the revolutionary Politism of the Communist Manifesto and the comparative Apolitism of the subsequent Doctrine of historical Materialism
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
328
 
§ 160.Marx's Theory of Revolution.—No more than Outlines of a philosophic Theory of Revolution as Dialectic.—Revolution and Evolution; gradual Evolution or Evolution by Leaps?—Marx (and Engels) more and more inclined to stress the utiliarian Aspect of the Problem.—Distinction between definitive and temporary Revolution.—Mass Revolution versus Stirner and Bakunin; Socialism versus Anarchism.—The amoral Valuation of the Revolution.—Marx favours legal Purchase in lieu of forcible Expropriation.—Even Engels renounces Street Fighting for Germany.—Communism abandoned.—The most recent Discussion among German Marxists concerning the Problem of Revolution; Revolutionism versus Reformism.—The Cleavage in Revolutionism: definitive Revolution, continued Mass Action
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
332
 
§ 161.The Indefiniteness of German Marxism characterises Russian Marxism as well.—The Dispute over the Question of Politism.—What may the Duma signify for Socialism?—The Organisation of the Masses versus the Oligarchy of secret Societies.—Věra Zasulič opposed to Terrorism.—Is a Republic possible in Russia?—Struve's Reformism versus Revolutionism.—Bogdanov's Philosophy of Revolution
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
338
 
§ 162.The Marxist Estimate of the Revolution of 1905–6
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
345
 

IV.

 
 
§ 163.Russian Marxism is philosophical, its Province being the Philosophy of Religion.—Plehanov favours the naïve Realism of Engels, but likewise favours Spinozism; he is opposed to Kant and to Solipsism.—Subjectivism as Scepticism.—Scepticism as an Expression of the Degeneration of the Aristocracy and the Bourgeoisie.—The Proletarian is free from Scepticism
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
348
 
§ 164.The Contrast between the orthodox Marxists and the Revisionists as a Contrast between Objectivism and Subjectivism.—Struve's Transition from Marxism to idealistic Metaphysics, Religion, and Mysticism.—The orthodox Marxists, too, seek new philosophical Foundations (Empirio-Criticism, Mach, etc.).—The ethical Problem in the Foreground of the Discussion; materialist Objectivism guarantees Revolutionism
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
351
 
§ 165.The Relationship of Socialism, Marxism, and the Social Democracy, to Religion.—The Lack of Christian Socialism in Russia.—Plehanov's and Lunačarskii's Philosophy of Religion.—From Feuerbach to Solov'ev and Dostoevskii
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
354
 
§ 166.Significance of Marxism for Russia.—Marxism and Art; Marxism opposed to the decadent Movement
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
359
 

V.

 
 
§ 167.Development of the Social Revolutionary Party since 1902.—The terrorist Revolution its leading Aim.—Attempts at the Revival of Terrorism after the Unmasking of Azev (the Burcev Wing).—The Maximalists; "economic Terrorism" as the Beginning of socialist Expropriation
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
362
 
§ 168.The ethical Foundations of the Revolution and in particular of the social Revolution, as conceived by the Maximalists; Nestroev's Diary
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
368
 
§ 169.The philosophical Foundations of the social revolutionary Movement; Lavrov and Mihailovskii.—Černov; from Marxism to the Empirio-Criticism of Avenarius and Mach.—The Unity of Theory and Practice; "active Realism" as a Philosophy of Reality and Activity.—This Activity is Revolution.—"Active Realism" as an "active-dynamic" School of Sociology.—The new "dynamic" Ethic.—Revolution as an ethical Problem.—Ethical Maximalism and Minimalism; the Need for Compromise.—The Right of the Majority and majority Rule.—The Majority as a party Majority
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
372
 

Chapter Nineteen: Modern Anarchism. Kropotkin. Anarchism and Socialism.

 

I.

 
 
§ 170.Kropotkin's Anarchism a clarified Bakuninism.—Kropotkin opposed to the State and to Authority in general.—Anarchism as Method and Science; the new Man and the new Faith.—Anarchism is Socialism; anarchising Socialism (Communism) in contradistinction to social Democracy.—Federalism versus Centralism.—Kropotkin opposed to Individualism (Nietzsche), but likewise opposed to social Democracy.—Ethics without Sanction or Obligation.—The Ethic of Liberty; Equality leads to mere Justice and Mediocrity.—Equality the Death of Society.—Be strong!—Kropotkin's Theory of Revolution and Terrorism; the Tyrant slaughtered as a Viper!—Kropotkin's Russian and European Teachers; Kropotkin as Narodnik.—Criticism of Kropotkin's System
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
378
 

II.

 
 
§ 171.The modern anarchist Movement in Europe and in Russia.—Increasing Strength of Russian Anarchism since 1901; the Revolution of 1905 and the Counter-Revolution.—Anarchism gathers Strength in Europe as well; the anarchistic labour Movement and literary and philosophic Anarchism.—Influence of this Movement upon Russia
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
389
 
§ 172.Anarchism as Astatism and Apolitism.—Anarchism opposed to Authority in general.—Liberty more important than Equality and Fraternity.—Anarchist Individualism and Subjectivism; the ethico-political and psychologico-epistemological Standpoint.—Extreme Individualism and Subjectivism (Solipsism); anarchistic Aristocracy.—The Individual and social Organisation in general.—Centralism versus Federalism (Autonomism).—Aims and Means; Disorganisation and Reorganisation.—Revolution with or without Bloodshed; ethical Anarchism.—Anarchist individual Outrages.—The general Strike.—Revolutionism.—Anarchism, Nationality, Church.—Scientific Organisation; Communism and Collectivism.—The Division of Labour.—The new Man and the new Ethic.—Can Peace be attained through Force?—The Problem of Revolution and Terrorism; is it right to kill?—Are all Things lawful?—Ordinary Crime.—Free Love and Marriage.—Anarchism metaphysical and religious; ni Dieu ni Maître.—Atheism and Astatism.—Anarchist Atheism and Autoapotheosis —The Anarchy of Anarchism; anarchistic Indeterminism; Chaos and Miracle.—Anarchism assumes artistic Forms; the decadent Movement
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
393
 
§ 173.Comparison of Anarchism with Socialism and in particular with Marxism
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
400
 
§ 174.Marx and Anarchism
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
406
 
§ 175.Anarchism, or at least communist Anarchism, is a socialist System; but the extreme Type of individualist Anarchism is unsocialist
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
408
 
§ 176.Territorial Varieties of Anarchism and Socialism; Spain, Italy, France, and Russia, are the leading anarchist Countries.—How far is Russia anarchist?
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
409
 

Chapter Twenty: Liberalism.

 

I.

 
 
§ 177.Liberalism as a universalised Struggle to secure Freedom; a Struggle waged against the theocratic social Order; a Struggle waged against the Church, at first on behalf of the State, but subsequently against the State as well.—In the theoretical Field, Liberalism is Aspiration for Enlightenment (Locke, Voltaire); in the ethical Field, it is an Aspiration for Humanitarianism and Individualism.—Natural Law.—The Rights of Man and popular Sovereignty; Democracy.—The Achievements of the older Liberalism
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
413
 
§ 178.The Restoration versus the Revolution.—Romanticism; Recatholicisation.—Positivism the main Prop of the liberal Laodiceans.—Historical Right versus natural Right.—Legitimacy versus Revolution; Order and aristocratic Inequality.—Peace with Church and State (Strauss and Constant); the State infallible.—Governmental Efficiency at any Price.—Imperialism.—The Bourgeoisie becomes capitalistic; the industrial State.—Organisation of the fourth Estate.—After 1848 Liberalism opposed to Socialism and to socialist Democracy.—Liberal Chauvinism in favour of official Patriotism and opposed to the democratic Idea of Nationality.—The Negation of Liberalism; its Half-Measures and its Love of Compromise (Tolerance).—Liberalism as transitional Trend
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
416
 
§ 179.Liberalism as Offspring of Protestantism and Parent of Socialism and Anarchism.—Renaissance of Liberalism?—Democratisation and Socialisation.—Is Cooperation of Liberalism with Social Democracy possible?—Marxist Repudiation of Liberalism as Anarchism
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
421
 

II.

 
 
§ 180.Herzen upon Liberalism.—Russian Liberalism and its Development
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
423
 
§ 181.Why the Author gives no detailed Account of representative Liberals.—Lukewarmness and Indecisiveness of recent Russian Liberalism.—Renascence of Liberalism after Novgorodcev; Democratisation and Socialisation.—Russian Liberalism akin to Socialism.—The moral and religious Question to be faced by the Democracy
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
428
 

Chapter Twenty-One: The Crisis in Revolutionism; The Religious Question.

 

I.

 
 
§ 182.Signposts, 1909; the Ex-Marxists versus the nihilistic Atheism of the Intelligentsia and versus the Revolution; back to Christ and to the Church.—Liberal Defence of the Intelligentsia (Miljukov and his Associates)
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
435
 
§ 183.Defects of Liberalism in religious Questions.—One-sided Rationalism and Romanticism.—From Romanticism to ecclesiastical Reaction.—Political Appraisement of the Church and of Religion; Witte versus Pobědonoscev.—The Elections to the fourth Duma and the Authors of Signposts.—Liberalism as Indifferentism
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
439
 

II.

 
 
§ 184.Social revolutionary Scepticism.—Ropšin's The Pale Horse; the Right to Revolution and the Right to kill.—Ropšin accepts Dostoevskii's Analysis of terrorist Nihilism; Feuerbach's and Stirner's Autoapotheosis leads to Murder and Suicide.—The old and the new Revolutionist as typical of the Contrast between Faith and Scepticism.—Subjectivism and Ultra-individualism; "I am with No one!"—The revolutionary Subjectivist as a decadent Faust—Ivan and Don Juan—Sanin.—The Terrorist who would gladly pray.—The Revolver as last Resort
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
444
 
§ 185.Ropšin's second Novel, The Tale of What was Not.—Černov and Plehanov versus Ropšin.—Russian Revolutionism at the Parting of the Ways
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
456
 

PART THREE (A Summary)

 

DEMOCRACY VERSUS THEOCRACY; THE PROBLEM OF REVOLUTION

 

Chapter Twenty-Two: The Epistemological Problem of Russian Philosophy.

 

I.

 
 
§ 186.The Summary attempts an Explanation of the facts that have been adduced.—Russian Philosophy is preeminently Philosophy of History and Philosophy of Religion; its Connection with Politics and especially with the Revolution
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
465
 
§ 187.Russian Philosophy devoid of epistemological Foundation; Kant has had less Influence in Russia than Kant's German Successors
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
467
 
§ 188.World-Historical Importance of the Kantian Criticism; critical Reflection in the Contest of Scepticism against ecclesiastical Religion.—Philosophy versus Mythology and Theology.—Russian Thought more steeped in Myth than European Thought.—Russian Negation lacks critical Force.—Russian Longing for Faith.—Bělinskii is archetypal of believing Negation
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
468
 
§ 189.Kant's Criticism not directed against Empiricism, but against mythical and mystical Extravagance.—Herzen's "Disillusionment."—Kant and Plato, Platonism and Nihilism
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
471
 
§ 190.The Russian Thinkers are epistemological Passivists, adverse to Criticism regarded as subjectivist Activism; they reject Subjectivism as Solipsism
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
472
 
§ 191.Bělinskii's ethical Analysis of extreme Subjectivism and Objectivism; Crime and Superstition (Myth).—Solipsism as ethical and metaphysical Isolation; Murder or Suicide as a Consequence of Solipsism? (Bakunin, Bělinskii, Dostoevskii, Mihailovskii)
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
473
 
§ 192.The ethical Imperative plays a Part in Russian Philosophy despite Empiricism and Utilitarianism; Russian Philosophy, too, is a moral Outlook on the World.—Ethics versus Historicism
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
474
 

Chapter Twenty-Three: The Religious Problem of Russian Philosophy.

 

I.

 
 
§ 193.The Analysis of Religion in Russian Philosophy
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
477
 
§ 194.The religious Disunion of Russia; ecclesiastical Religion and the rationalistic Philosophy of the Enlightenment; Nihilism and its Negation of Religion in general.—Atheism and Materialism.—Russia's sudden and unbridged Acquaintance with the European Philosophy of the Enlightenment; Feuerbach.—Moral and pathological Consequences; the Problem of Murder and Suicide in Russian Philosophy
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
481
 

II.

 
 
§ 195.Nature and Defects of Orthodoxy; Passivism and Stationarism. (Byzantinism)
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
487
 
 
 
§ 196.Development of Theocracy in the three leading Christian Churches.—Comparative Considerations.—The Reformation and modern Changes in our Outlook on Life and the Universe.—Attempts at the Separation of Church and State; the historic Process of Disestablishment.—The Anti-ecclesiasticism of Catholic Countries is especially radical
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
491
 

IV.

 
 
§ 197.Christianity and Christian Passivism favour the development of Theocracy
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
497
 

V.

 
 
§ 198.Historico-philosophical Significance of the three leading Christian Churches, and the Development of the antitheocratic and antireligious Radicalism of Russian Philosophy
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
500
 

Chapter Twenty-Four: Democracy versus Theocracy.

 

I.

 
 
§ 199.Opposition between Democracy and theocratic Aristocracy: the democratic Spirit of Industry as contrasted with the aristocratic Desire to rule.—The democratic Characteristics of Science, Philosophy, and Art.—Criticism as Determinant of Democracy
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
506
 
§ 200.Democracy and Religion.—Democracy has an ethical, not a religious foundation: it is founded upon Justice.—The Right of Initiative.—Democratic Catholicity (popular Sovereignty)
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
514
 

II.

 
 
§ 201.Catholicism and Protestantism in Relation to Democracy.—Protestantism positively demands Democracy.—General Inferiority of Catholic Countries.—Catholicism more radical and revolutionary
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
517
 
§ 202.Inferiority of Orthodox Catholicism.—Russians are comparatively revolutionary, but comparatively undemocratic
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
523
 

Chapter Twenty-Five: Democracy and Revolution.

 
 
§ 203.The concept of Revolution; modern Revolutionism.—Its Evolution.—Distinction between Catholic and Protestant Peoples as regards the Degree of Revolutionism
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
528
 
§ 204.The ethical Problem of Revolution; is Revolution attended by Bloodshed permissible?
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
533
 
§ 205.The jurist Defenders and Opponents of Revolution.—Natural Law versus historical Law
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
538
 
§ 206.Thomas Paine as a typical democratic Revolutionary.—The Russian Revolution anarchistic, nihilistic, but comparatively undemocratic
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
541
 
§ 207.Bakuninism and Blanquism; Russian Revolutionism akin to French.—Western Catholicism and Orthodox Catholicism the Nurseries of Revolutionism of this Type
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
546
 

Chapter Twenty-Six: Holy Russia; the Russian Monk and Feuerbach.

 
 
§ 208.Russian Catholicism (Orthodoxy) disintegrated by (German) Protestantism.—Feuerbach's materialistic Anthropologism and the Russian Monk with his third Century Orthodoxy.—Sudden Exposure to the Influences of a higher Civilisation.—Russian Passivism revolutionised by European Activism.—Russian philosophico-historical and philosophico-religious Analysis of this historical Process; the Problem of Solipsism and of Crime; Murder and Suicide.—Impulse to Suicide and the Revolutionary Spirit from the eighteenth Century onwards
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
553
 
§ 209.Significance of evolutionary Stages; epistemologically considered there is no Superman.—World-historical Importance of the eighteenth Century; Hume, Kant, the great Revolution.—Medieval Russia drawn without Transition into the new developmental Process
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
555
 
§ 210.The Explanation of Russia in Terms of Race and Nationality (national Character) is inadmissible.—Economic and natural Conditions are equally inadequate as Explanations
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
556
 
§ 211.Religion as the central spiritual Force.—Ecclesiastical Religion and its educative Influence.—The Russian Church
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
557
 
§ 212.Goethe's philosophico-historical Formula; the Struggle of Belief with Unbelief
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
558
 
§ 213.The Question of Russian Independence and Originality.—Russian Philosophy of History and its creative Mission; the Overcoming of Nihilism; Revolution and Imitativeness; the Trend towards Hume and Kant
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
559
 
§ 214.Defects and Dangers of Europe; in Europe, too, there is an Aspiration towards Rebirth
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
562
 
§ 215.The political and philosophical Interest which Europe takes in Russia.—The philosophico-historical Problem of Russian Development; the Russian Revolution
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
564
 
BIBLIOGRAPHICAL APPENDIX
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
567
 
INDEX OF NAMES
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
575
Copyright.svg PD-icon.svg This work is a translation and has a separate copyright status to the applicable copyright protections of the original content.
Original:

This work is in the public domain in the United States because it was published before January 1, 1924.


The author died in 1937, so this work is also in the public domain in countries and areas where the copyright term is the author's life plus 80 years or less. This work may also be in the public domain in countries and areas with longer native copyright terms that apply the rule of the shorter term to foreign works.

 
Translation:

This work is in the public domain in the United States because it was published before January 1, 1924.


The author died in 1972, so this work is also in the public domain in countries and areas where the copyright term is the author's life plus 30 years or less. This work may also be in the public domain in countries and areas with longer native copyright terms that apply the rule of the shorter term to foreign works.