The Working and Management of an English Railway/Index

INDEX.


Accidents and Mishaps Occurring on Railways, 61
——— Regulations as to Reporting to Board of Trade, 223
Accommodation Works, Mode of Authorisation of, 19
Advantages Conferred upon the Community by Introduction of Railways, 3
Agents at Stations, Duties of, 15
Arbitration as a Means of Settling Disputes between Railway Companies, 208

Bessemer Process of Converting Iron into Steel, Description of, 113
Block Telegraph, Various Descriptions of, in use, 85
——— "Tell-Tale" Apparatus in Connection with, 88
——— Apparatus, Description of, 88
——— Mode of Working, 88
——— Combined Indicator and Bell System, 90
Board Meetings, Business Transacted at, 13
Board of Trade, Definition of their Powers of Control over the Working of Railways, 223
——— New Railways Must be Inspected by, 223
——— Accidents must be Reported to, 223
Boilers, Employment of Steel in Manufacture of, 116
Boys, Employment and Training of, 25
Brake Power, Various Descriptions of in use, 120
——— Description of automatic Vacuum, 120
Bridge Rails, Early Use of, on Great Western Railway, 42
Broad Street, Goods Station, Description of Construction and Working of, 182

Carriages, Steel Under-frames for, 105
——— Rude Type of, in use Half a Century Ago, 123
——— Improved Type of. Now in Use, 124
——— Proportions of Accommodation for Various Classes of Passengers, 125, 252
——— Abolition of Second-class by Midland Company, 125, 243
——— London and North-Western Company's Practice of Building their Own Stock, 127
——— Description of Mode of Building at Wolverton Works, 129
——— Examination, Greasing, Washing, and Cleaning of, 134
——— Heating of, 135
——— Lighting of, 136
——— Increase in size and weight of, 247
Carriers' Act, of 1845, Provisions of, 270
Cattle, Mode of Dealing With, at Holyhead, 196
(see also Live Stock)
Chairs, Type of, Now in Use, 46
Chain Drag for Arresting Runaway Waggons, 177
Channel Tunnel Railway Scheme of 1833, 9
Cheap Trains' Act of 1883, Provisions of. Described, 278
Check Rails for Crossings, 51
Claims, Mode of Settling Disputed Liability for, as Between Railway Companies, 21O
——— Against Railway Companies for Loss or non-Delivery of Goods; Mode of Assessing Damages, 276
——— Against Railway Companies for Delay in Conveying Passengers; Mode of Assessing Damages, 281
Classes of Passenger Traffic—Relation of to each other, 239
Classification of Merchandise Traffic, 205, 256
Coal, Consumption of, by Engines, 255
Committees, Composition and Functions of, 12
Common Carriers, Rights and Duties of, 267
Compartments, Practice of reserving for Passengers, 249
Competition, Means of Avoiding Extreme, 207
——— When Pushed to an Extremity not to the Advantage of the Public, 209
——— Pressure of as affecting Railway Companies, 259
Concentration of Troops in the Event of Invasion by Means of the Railway System, 284
Conferences of Officers, Constitution and Functions of, 15
——— of Railway Companies to Agree upon Rates and Fares, 207
Consignment Notes, Utility of, 188
Continental Railways, disadvantages of as compared with English Railways, 259
Crewe Works, Description of, 108
Cross-Channel Traffic with Ireland, Mode of Conducting, 194
Crossings and Points, 51
Curves, Super-Elevation of Outer Rails on, 53

Debts and Claims Committee, Functions of, 13
Defence of the Country, Importance of Railways Considered in Relation to, 283
Delivery of Goods to a Carrier, what constitutes, 268
——— by a Carrier, what Constitutes, 274
Detector Locks for Points, 75
Directors, Qualification and Functions of, 12
Disc Signals for Sidings, 69
Distant Signals, 68
District Officers, Duties of, 14
Divisions of Traffic in Percentages between Railway Companies, 208
——— in Mileage Proportions of a Through Route, 212
Drainage of Permanent Way, System of, 49
Duplication of Lines on Crowded Railways, 152

Earlestown Waggon Works, Description of, 146
Earnings of the various classes of Passengers, 243, 256
Electric Signal Repeaters, 93
——— Locks for Protecting Sidings, 94
——— Lighting of Carriages, 139
Employers' Liability Act, 32
Engine Drivers, Selection and Training of, 28
——— Diagrams for Regulating Working of Trains, 151
——— Head Lights, Distinctive, 157
Engines, Primitive Type of, in Use on Earlier Railways, 98
——— Early Difficulties, Experienced with regard to, 101
——— Trial of, at Rainhill, in 1829, 101
——— Various Types of, in Use at Present Time, 101
——— Webb's Compound, Description of, 102
——— Advantages of Webb's Compound, 103
Engines of Special Type, Constructed for Narrow Gauge Lines, and for Shunting Yards, 105
——— Method of Building at Crewe Works, no Interchangeability of Parts, 111
——— Increase in size and weight of, 247
Engineer and Railway Volunteer Staff Corps, Constitution of, 284
——— Volunteers, Enrolment of, at Crewe Works, 288
Executive Officers, Duties of, 14
Expenditure, System of Control Over, 19
Explosives, Railway Companies not Bound to Carry, 269

Facing Point Locks, 75
——— Points, Distance from which they can be Safely Worked from Cabins, 79
Fares and Rates Committee, Functions of, 13
——— Mode of Regulation, 204
——— Effects of Competition Upon, 206
——— Conferences of Railway Companies to Agree Upon, 207
——— Reduction of, in 1875, 243
Females, Employment of, as Clerks, 25
Finance Committee, Functions of, 12
Fires, Arrangements for Preventing or Extinguishing at Stations, 198
——— Liability of Railway Companies for Damage Resulting from, 270
First Class Traffic, Unproductive character of, 256
Fish Plates, Description of, 44
——— Traffic, Mode of Dealing with, at Holyhead Harbour, 198
Fog Signalmen, Duties of, 165
——— Signalling by Mechanical Methods, 166
Fog Signalmen, Means of Providing Dwellings for, Near their Posts, 167
Fogs, Mode of Working Railways During, 164
Foot-warmers for Carriages, Improved Method of Heating, 135
Frauds Practised upon Railway Companies as to Value of Goods, 269
Freight, Railway Companies may Demand Prepayment of, 268
——— Railway Companies may Detain Goods for Payment of, 273
Fuel, Consumption of, by Engines, 255

Gas for Lighting Signal Lamps, 80
——— Lighting of Carriages, 137
——— Engines for Actuating Machinery in Goods Warehouses, 201
Goods Agents, Duties of, 15
——— Conference, Business Transacted at, 16
——— Traffic, Perfect Organisation Required for Conduct of, 181
——— Method of Invoicing, Checking, Loading, and Unloading, 184.
——— Warehouses, Methods of Construction and Working of, 199
——— Lost or Damaged, Liabilities of Common Carriers with Regard to, 270
——— Must be Properly Packed, or the Carrier is Absolved from Liability, 269
——— Deterioration of, in Transit, 270
——— Stopped in transitu, 275
(See also Merchandise)
Gradients of Railways, 55
——— Effect of, on Speed and Load of Trains, 58
Guards, Selection, Training, and Examination of, 26

Head Lights of Engines, Distinctive Colours of, 157
Holyhead Goods Station and Harbour, Construction and Working of, 194
Home Signals, 68

Inspections, System of Periodical, 17
Insurance Against Accidents to Railway Servants, 31
——— of Goods by Railway Companies, 267, 269
Interlocking of Points and Signals, First Introduction of, 66
——— Description of Theory and Practice of, 71
——— by Means of Keys for Sidings, 76
Invasion, Value of the Railway System in the Event of, 283
Irish Traffic, Mode of Conducting, at Holyhead, 194
Iron Sleepers, Experimental Use of, 48

Junctions, Formation of, 53

Key, Interlocking, for Siding Points, 76

Land, Compulsory Purchase of, for making of Railways, 221
——— Legal Means for Acquiring, upon Reasonable Terms, 222
——— Extravagant Prices Formerly Paid for, 222
Law as Between Railway Companies and the Public, 267
——— Affecting; Railways; Manner in which it is Defined, 268
Legislation Hostile to Railway Companies, 225
Liability of Railway Companies as Regards Carriage of Merchandise, 270
Light Indicators for Signals, 93
Lighting of Signal Lamps, 80
——— of Carriages by Gas, 136
——— Electricity, 139
Liverpool and Manchester Railway, Projection of, 6
——— Opposition offered to, 7
——— Construction and Opening of, 8
——— Mode of Construction of, 8
——— Success of, 9
——— Type of Permanent way in Use upon, 42
Liverpool (Edge Hill), Description Footner's Plan of Sorting and Marshalling Waggons, 172
Live Stock, Conditions under which Railway Companies Carry, 272
Llandulas Viaduct Washed Away by Flood in 1879, 62
Locking Bars for Points, 75
Locomotive Committee, Functions of, 12
——— Department; Societies for Benefit of Staff, 36
——— Engines (see Engines)
London and Birmingham Railway, Projection and Construction of, 10
——— and North Western Railway, Various Companies Amalgamated under the Title of, 10
——— Statistics of, 11, 151
Lost Property, Means Adopted for Tracing Owners of, 218
Luggage of Passengers, Law Affecting the Conveyance of, 277, 279
——— Question of What Constitates, 280
——— Application of "Carriers' Act "to conveyance of, 280

Management of a Railway, 12
——— General Principles laid down for, 21
Marshalling of Goods Trains, Different Methods of. Employed, 170
——— Footner's Plan of "Gridiron" Sidings, 172
Merchandise, the Laws Affecting the Carriage of, 268
(see also Goods)
Merchandise Traffic of the lower classes, relative profit upon, Appendix
Military Operations, "Value of Railway System Considered with Relation to, 285

New Works, Mode of Dealing with Applications for, 19

Officers, Duties of, 14
——— Conference, Business Transacted at, 15
——— Attending at Headquarters Periodically, 17
——— Hints for Economising Time, 23
——— Selection and Promotion of, 27

Parliamentary Powers for Construction of Railways, 221, 223
——— Procedure in the matter of New Railways, 221 Passengers, the Law Affecting the Conveyance of, 277
——— Conditions under which Railway Companies are Bound to Carry, 278
——— Liabilities of Railway Companies with regard to Conveyance of, 279
——— Luggage (see Luggage)
——— Travelling on Railways Without Paying their Fares, 280
——— Must Show their Tickets on Demand, 281
——— Train mileage, increase of, Increase in number of, 255
Passenger Traffic, Conduct of 239
——— Revenue earning powers of, 241
——— Working Expenses of, 250, 256
Pension Fund, Constitution of, 35
Percentage Divisions of Traffic between Railway Companies, 208
Permanent Way Committee, Functions of, 12
Permanent Way, Improved Type of, as Compared with Earlier Railways, 38
——— Type of, in Use at Present Time, 46
——— Essentials of a Sound and Good, 49
——— Arrangements for Maintenance and Repair of, 59
——— Type of in use on Continental Railways, 260
Personal Injury to Passengers; Mode of Assessing Damages for, 282
Point Rod Compensators, 75
Points and Crossings, 51
Postal Train, London to Scotland, 246
Pope's Oil Gas for Lighting Carriages, 137
Private Waggons, Difficulties with Regard to, 143
——— Standard Specification for Construction of, 143
Provident Fund, Constitution of, 33
Purchase of Railways by the State, 232, 233

Queen's Train, Description of Mode of Working and Precautions Adopted, 168

Radial Axles for Engines and Carriages, 104
Rails, Fish-bellied, as used in 1789, 40
——— Vignoles', 42
——— Bridge, 42
——— Double-headed, 42
——— Steel, Introduction of, 44
Railways, a Subject of interest to all classes, 1
——— State of things Existing Prior to Introduction of, 2
——— First Dawn of the Conception of, 5
——— Proposed Purchase of by State, 232, 233
——— As a means of Defence, 283
Railway Clearing House, Origin of, 212
——— Functions of, 215
Railway Clearing House Statistics of, 214
——— Methods and Machinery of, 216
——— As a Means of Tracing lost Property, 218
Railway and Canal Traffic Act, 1873, Provisions of, 224
——— 1888, Provisions of, 229
Railway Commissioners' Court, Constitution of under Act of 1873, 224
——— Extension of Powers under Act of 1888, 229
Railway Companies and their Relation to the Trade of the Country, 225
Railway Engineers' Corps, Value of in Relation to Military Operations, 287
Rates and Fares Committee, Functions of, 13
——— Mode of Calculating, 204
——— Effects of Competition on, 206
——— Conferences of Railway Companies to Agree Upon, 207
——— Demand that the State should be Empowered to Fix, 225
——— And Charges, Mode of fixing maxima under the Act of 1888, 230
Receipts from Passenger Traffic, 242, 250, 256
Responsibility, Chain of Throughout Railway Service, 15
Responsibilities of Railway Companies as regards Carriage of Goods; Where they begin and End, 268
——— Of Companies for the Acts of their Servants, 279
"Rocket," Trial of, at Rainhill in 1829, 100
Rods for Working Points, 80
Route Indicators (Electric), 94
Royal Train, Description of Mode of Working, 168
Rules and Regulations for Working Railways, 18
——— for working of Railways in time of war, 289

Saloon Carriages, 126, 248
Second Class, Abolition of on Some Railways, 125, 243
Sheffield Colliery Tramway of 1776, 40
Shunting Indicators (Electric), 94
——— Of Slow Trains to allow Fast Trains to pass, 154
——— And Marshalling of Goods Trains, 170
——— Footner's Plan of Grid-iron Sidings, 172
Signals, Concentration of, 67
——— Various Descriptions of, in Use, 68
——— Home, 68
——— Distant, 68
——— Starting, 68
——— Disc, 69
——— Making of, 78
——— Arrangements for Maintenance and Repair of, 81
——— Sighting of, 82
——— Signal Cabins and Apparatus, 69
——— Fitting Establishment at Crewe, 77
——— Lamps, Lighting of, 80
Signalmen, Training and Examination of, 26
Signalling and Interlocking, System of, 64
——— Earlier Methods of, 65
Single Lines, Methods of Working, 160, 161, 162
Sleepers, Description of, Now in Use, 46
——— Experimental Use of Iron and Steel, 48
Sleeping Saloons, Advantages of, 126
Societies for the Benefit of the Staff, 29
Speed of Trains not the first Desideratum, 158
——— of Trains, Increase in, 245
Staff, Number of Men Employed, 25
——— Training and Examination of, 26
Starting Signals, 68
State, The, Relations of to Railways in Different Countries, 220
State, The, relations of to Railways in Great Britain, 221
——— Purchase of Railways Advocated in Certain Quarters, 223
——— Scheme Discussed, 233
——— Station Masters, Duties of, 15
——— Steam as a Motive Power, First Introduction of, 5
Steamboats for cross-Channel Traffic with Ireland, 194
Stone Sleepers, Experimental Use of, 48
Stockton and Darlington Railway, Construction of, 5
Stone Sleepers used on the Early Railways, 42
Stoppage of Goods in transitu, Circumstances under which this Right may be Exercised, 273
Superannuation Fund for Clerks, 29
Super-elevation of Outer Rails on Curves, 53
Supervision, System of, 15, 22
Switches, Description of, 51

Telegraphy, Various Uses of in Working Railways, 85
Telegraphs, Various Descriptions of Block, in Use, 86
——— Speaking, Extensive Use of, 95
——— Arrangements for Maintenance and Repair of, 95
Telegraph Wires, Relative Advantages of Iron and Copper, 97
——— ——— Description of, in Use, 97
——— Batteries, Description of in Use, 97
Telegraphing Progress of Trains from Point to Point, 155
Telephones, Use of in Railway Working, 95
Third Class Traffic, extraordinary development of, 258
——— Passengers formerly only carried by Slow Trains, 241
Through Booking of Traffic by Railways which Connect; Powers of Railway Commissioners, 224
Tickets must be Shown by Railway Passengers on Demand, 281
Time-tables, Preparation and Revision of, 20
Traffic, Agreements for Divisions of, between Railway Companies, 208
——— Possibilities of Increase, 262
Train Alterations, Method of Dealing with, 16, 20
——— Starting (Electric) Indicators, 94
——— Diagrams for Regulating Engine Working, 151
——— Mileage, Increase of, 255
——— Staff and Ticket System for Single Lines, 160
——— Tablet System for Single Lines, 162
Trains, Various Descriptions of, to be accommodated on Same Lines, 149
——— Difficulties in Attaining Absolute Punctuality, 153
——— Increase in Length, Weight and Speed of, 158
——— Composition, Speed and Weight of, 239
——— Increase in Speed of, 245
Trains Run between same points by various Routes, 261
Troops, Concentration of, by Means of Railway System in Event of Invasion, 284

Undue Preference, Mode of Dealing with Complaints as to, 231

Vacuum Brake, Description of, in Use, 120
Valuable Articles, Liability of Railway Companies with Regard to, 271
Vehicles on Line Indicators (Electric), 94
Vignoles' Rails, 42

Waggons, Ownership of by Railway Companies, 142
——— Belonging to Private Owners, Difficulties with Regard to, 143
——— Private Owners', Specification for Construction of, 143
——— Examination and Greasing of, 144
——— Dimensions of Axles, 145
——— Works at Earlestown for Construction of, 146
War, working of Railways in time of, 283
Water Troughs to Enable Trains in Motion to take Supply of Water, 106
Wheels for Passenger Carriages, Mode. of Construction, 130
Widening or Duplication of Lines on Busy Railways, 152
Wolverton Carriage Works, Description of, 127
Workmen's Trains, Provisions of Cheap Trains' Act of 1883, 278
Works, Mode of Dealing with Applications for New, 19
Working Expenses of Passenger Traffic, 250