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World Factbook (1982) Bahrain.jpg
(See reference map VI)


596 km2 plus group of 32 smaller islands; 5% cultivated, negligible forested area, remainder desert, waste, or urban


Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 3 nm

Coastline: 161 km


Population: 380,000 (July 1982), average annual growth rate 4.7%

Nationality: noun—Bahraini(s); adjective—Bahraini

Ethnic divisions: 63% Bahraini, 10% other Arab, 13% Asian, 8% Iranian, 6% other

Religion: Muslim, slightly more Shias than Sunnis

Language: Arabic, English also widely spoken

Literacy: about 40%

Labor force: 130,000 (1980 est.); 43% of labor force is Bahraini


Official name: State of Bahrain

Type: traditional monarchy; independence declared in 1971

Capital: Manama

Legal system: based on Islamic law and English common law; constitution went into effect December 1973

National holiday: 16 December

Branches: Amir rules with help of a Cabinet led by Prime Minister; Amir dissolved the National Assembly in August 1975 and suspended the constitutional provision for election of the Assembly; independent judiciary

Government leader: Amir 'Isa bin Salman Al KHALIFA

Political parties and pressure groups: political parties prohibited; several small, clandestine leftist and Shia Fundamentalist groups are active

Communists: negligible

Member of: Arab League, FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto), GCC, IBRD, ICAO, ILO, IMCO, IMF, ISCON, ITU, NAM, OAPEC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO


GDP: $1.8 billion (1980 est.), $4,600 per capita; annual real growth rate (1973-77) 11%, dominated by oil industry; 1980 average daily crude oil production, 48,000 b/d (oil expected to last 15 years if no new discoveries are made); 1980 natural gas production, 177 billion ft3 ; government oil revenues for 1978 are estimated at $845 million Agriculture: produces dates, alfalfa, vegetables; dairy and poultry farming; fishing; not self-sufficient in food

Major industries: petroleum refining, aluminum smelting, ship repairing, shrimp fishing, pearls and sailmaking on a small scale; major development projects include flourmill, and ISA town; OAPEC dry dock opened in 1977

Electric power: 900,000 kW capacity (1980); 4.0 billion kWh produced (1980), 10,204 kWh per capita

Exports: $3.8 billion (f.o.b., 1980); nonoil exports (including reexports), $550.8 million (1980); oil exports, $3.3 billion (1980)

Imports: $3.6 billion (c.i.f., 1980); nonoil imports $1.6 billion (1980); oil imports $2.0 billion (1980)

Major trade partners: Saudi Arabia, UK, US, Japan, EC

Budget: (1980) $488 million current expenditure, $302 million capital

Monetary conversion rate: 1 Bahrain dinar=US$2.65 (1980)

Fiscal year: calendar year


Highways: 93 km bituminous surfaced; undetermined mileage of natural surface tracks

Ports: 1 major (Bahrain)

Pipelines: crude oil, 56 km; refined products, 16 km; natural gas, 32 km

Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft

Airfields: 2 total, 2 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runway; 1 with runways over 3,660 m; 1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: excellent international telecommunications; limited domestic services; 38,300 telephones (14.2 per 100 popl.); 2 AM stations, 1 FM station, and 1 TV station; 1 Indian Ocean satellite station; tropospheric scatter and microwave to Qatar and United Arab Emirates


Military manpower: males 15-49, 106,000; 61,000 fit for military service

Supply: from several West European countries, especially France and UK

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 December 1979, $87.8 million; 11% of central government budget