Open main menu

BRAZILEdit

World Factbook (1982) Brazil.jpg
(See reference map IV)

LANDEdit

8,521,100 km2; 4% cultivated, 13% pasture, 23% built-on area, waste, and other, 60% forested

Land boundaries: 13,076 km

WATEREdit

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 200 nm

Coastline: 7,491 km

PEOPLEEdit

Population: 127,734,000 (July 1982), average annual growth rate 2.3%

Nationality: noun—Brazilian(s); adjective—Brazilian

Ethnic divisions: 60% white, 30% mixed, 8% Negro, and 2% Indian (1960 est.)

Religion: 93% Roman Catholic (nominal)

Language: Portuguese

Literacy: 83% of the population 15 years or older (1978)

Labor force: about 40 million in 1976—36.3% agriculture, livestock, forestry, and fishing; 23.2% industry; 18.9% services, transportation, and communication; 9.2% commerce; 6.1% social activities; 3.5% public administration; 2.8% other

Organized labor: about 50% of labor force; only about 1.5 million pay dues

GOVERNMENTEdit

Official name: Federative Republic of Brazil

Type: federal republic; military-backed presidential regime since April 1964

Capital: Brasilia

Political subdivisions: 23 states, 3 territories, federal district (Brasilia)

Legal system: based on Latin codes; dual system of courts, state and federal; constitution adopted 1967 and extensively amended in 1969; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 7 September

Branches: strong executive with very broad powers; bicameral legislature (powers of the two bodies have been sharply reduced); 11-man Supreme Court Government leader; President Gen. (Ret.) Joao Baptista de Oliveira FIGUEIREDO

Suffrage: compulsory over age 18, except illiterates; approximately 50 million eligible to register in mid-1982

Elections: Figueiredo, who took office on 15 March 1979, was elected by an electoral college, composed of the members of Congress and delegates selected from the state legislatures on 15 October 1978; next presidential election 1984

Voting strength: (November 1974 congressional elections) 33.6% ARENA, 31.9% MDB, 35.5% blank and void Political parties and leaders: Social Democratic Party (PDS), progovemment, Jose Sarney, president; Brazilian Democratic Movement Party (PMDB), Ulysses Guimaraes, president; plus several smaller parties

Communists: 6,000, less than 1,000 militants

Other political or pressure groups: the Catholic Church, over the years, has been a consistent critic of the regime; labor unions, at least as far as wage demands, have become highly active

Member of: FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMCO, IMF, IPU, ISO, ITU, IWC—International Wheat Council, LAFTA, OAS, SELA, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

ECONOMYEdit

GNP: $250 billion (1981 est.), $2,000 per capita; 20% gross investment, 84% consumption,—4% net foreign balance (1981 est.); real growth rate 1% (1981 est.)

Agriculture: main products—coffee, rice, beans, corn, sugarcane, soybeans, cotton, manioc, oranges; nearly self-sufficient; caloric intake, 2,400 calories per day per capita (1975)

Fishing: catch 857,971 metric tons (1978); exports, $140 million (f.o.b., 1981 est.); imports, $90 million (f.o.b., 1981 est.)

Major industries: textiles and other consumer goods, chemicals, cement, lumber, steel, motor vehicles, other metalworking industries, capital goods

Crude steel: 12.5 million metric tons capacity (1978); 12.5 million metric tons produced (1981 est.)

Electric power: 32,271,000 kW capacity (1981); 126.0 billion kWh produced (1981), 1,033 kWh per capita

Exports: $23 billion (f.o.b., 1981 est); coffee, manufactures, iron ore, cotton, soybeans, sugar, wood, cocoa, beef, shoes

Imports: $22 billion (f.o,b.> 1981 est.); machinery, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, petroleum, wheat, copper, aluminum

Major trade partners: exports—17% US, 5% West Germany, 6% Netherlands, 5% Japan, 4% Italy, 4% Argentina, 4% France (1981 est); imports—40% oil exporters, 17% US, 5% West Germany, 5% Japan, 3% Argentina (1981 est.)

Budget: (1981 est.) revenues $21.0 billion, expenditures $20.4 billion (Treasury budget only)

Monetary conversion rate: 125 cruzeiros=US$l (December 1981, changes frequently)

Fiscal year: calendar year

COMMUNICATIONSEdit

Railroads: 24,600 km total; 22,450 km meter gauge (1.000 m), 1,750 km 1.60-meter gauge, 200 km standard gauge (1.435 m), 200 km 0.76-meter gauge; 1,050 km electrified

Highways: 1,385,600 km total; 83,700 km paved, 1,301,900 km gravel or earth

Inland waterways: 50,000 km navigable

Ports: 8 major, 23 significant minor

Pipelines: crude oil, 2,000 km; refined products, 465 km; natural gas, 257 km

Civil air: 169 major transport aircraft, including 9 leased in

Airfields:' 4,464 total, 3,633 usable; 220 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways over 3,659 m; 17 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 412 with runways 1,220–2,439 m

Telecommunications: fair telecom system; good radio relay facilities; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT station with 2 antennas; 10 domestic satellite stations; 6.49 million telephones (5.1 per 100 popl); 1,100 AM, 150 FM, and 170 TV stations; 2 coaxial submarine cables

DEFENSE FORCESEdit

Military manpower: males 15-49, 31,263,000; 21,155,000 fit for military service; 1,393,000 reach military age (18) annually

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 December 1981, $1,757.5 million; 7.8% of central government budget