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CHILEEdit

World Factbook (1982) Chile.jpg
(See reference map IV)

LANDEdit

756,626 km2 ; 2% cultivated, 7% other arable, 15% permanent pasture, grazing, 29% forest, 47% barren mountains, deserts, and cities

Land boundaries: 6,325 km

WATEREdit

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 3 nm (fishing 200 nm)

Coastline: 6,435 km

PEOPLEEdit

Population: 11,323,000 (July 1982), average annual growth rate 1.4%

Nationality: noun—Chilean(s); adjective—Chilean

Ethnic divisions: 95% European stock and mixed European with some Indian admixture, 3% Indian, 2% other

Religion: 89% Roman Catholic, 11% Protestant

Language: Spanish

Literacy: 90% (1977)

Labor force: 3.0 million total employment (1979); 20% agricultural, 22% industry and construction, 22% services, 15% commerce, 3% mining, 6% transportation, 12% other (1979)

Organized labor: 25% of labor force (1973)

GOVERNMENTEdit

Official name: Republic of Chile

Type: republic

Capital: Santiago

Political subdivisions: 12 regions plus one metropolitan district, 41 provincial subdivisions

Legal system: based on Code 1857 derived from Spanish law and subsequent codes influenced by French and Austrian law; current constitution came into effect in March 1981; the constitution provides for continued direct rule until 1989, with a phased return to full civilian rule by 1997; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; legal education at University of Chile, Catholic University, and several others; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 18 September

Branches: four-man Military-Police Junta, which exercises constituent and legislative powers and has delegated executive powers to President of Junta; the President has announced a plan for transition from military to civilian rule by 1989; Congress dissolved; civilian judiciary remains

Government leaders: President Gen. Augusto PINOCHET Ugarte; Junta members, Adm. José Toribio MERINO Castro, Air Force Maj. Gen. Fernando MATTHEI Aubel, Carabinero Gen. César MENDOZA Durán, Army Lt. Gen. Cesar BENAVIDES Escobar

Suffrage: none

Elections: prohibited by decree; all electoral registers were destroyed in 1974

Political parties and leaders: Christian Democratic Party (PDC), Andres Zaldivar; National Party (PN), Sergio Onofre Jarpa; PDC and PN are officially recessed; Popular Unity coalition parties (outlawed)—Communist Party (PCCh), Luis Corvaldn (in exile); Socialist Party (PS), Clodomiro Almeyda and Carlos Altamirano (both in exile); Radical Party (PR); Christian Left (IC); United Popular Action Movement (MAPU); Independent Popular Action (API)

Voting strength (1970 presidential election): 36.6% Popular Unity coalition, 35.3% conservative independent, 28.1% Christian Democrat; (1973 congressional election) 44% Popular Unity coalition, 56% Democratic Confederation (PDC and PN)

Communists: 248,000 when PCCh was legal in 1973; active militants now estimated at about 20,000

Other political or pressure groups: organized labor; business organizations; landowners' associations (SNA—Sociedad Nacional de Agricultura); Catholic church; extreme leftist Movement of Revolutionary Left (MIR) outlawed; rightist Patria y Libertad (PyL) outlawed

Member of: CIPEC, ECOSOC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMCO, IMF, IPU, ITU, LAFTA, OAS, SELA, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG, WTO

ECONOMYEdit

GDP: $20.0 billion (1980), $1,800 per capita; 72% private consumption, 11% government consumption; 18% gross investment, —4% change in inventory, —5% net foreign balance; real growth rate (1980), 6.5%

Agriculture: main crops—wheat, potatoes, corn, sugar beets, onions, beans, fruits; net agricultural importer; 2,279 calories per day per capita (1978 est.)

Fishing: catch 2.8 million metric tons (1980); exports $339 million (1979)

Major industries: copper, other minerals, foodstuffs, fish processing, iron and steel, pulp, paper, and forestry products

Crude steel: 765,000 million metric tons capacity (1980); 715,600 metric tons produced (1980)

Electric power: 3,100,000 kW capacity (1981); 12.0 billion kWh produced (1981), 1,050 kWh per capita

Exports: $4.7 billion (f.o.b., 1980); copper, molybdenum, iron ore, paper products, fishmeal, fruits, wood products

Imports: $5.8 billion (c.i.f., 1980); petroleum, sugar, wheat, capita] goods, vehicles

Major trade partners: exports—12% US, 12% FRG, 10% Japan; 9% Brazil, 6% UK (1980); imports—27% US, 10% Japan, 8% Brazil, 5% FRG, 5% Venezuela (1980)

Budget: $7.3 billion revenues, $6.9 billion expenditures (1980)

Monetary conversion rate: 39 pesos=US$1, fixed since 30 June 1979

Fiscal year: calendar year

COMMUNICATIONSEdit

Railroads: 8,293 km total; 3,979 km 1.676-meter gauge, 135 km standard gauge (1.435 m), 3,903 km meter gauge (1.00 m), 95 km 0.600-meter gauge, 68 km 0.762-meter gauge, 113 km combined 1.435- and 1.00-meter gauge

Highways: 79,870 km total; 9,840 km paved, 37,930 km gravel, 32,100 km improved and unimproved earth

Inland waterways: 725 km

Pipelines: crude oil, 755 km; refined products, 785 km; natural gas, 320 km

Ports: 10 major, 20 minor

Civil air: 27 major transport aircraft, including 2 leased in

Airfields: 397 total, 343 usable; 44 with permanent-surface runways; 10 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 48 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: modern telephone system based on extensive radio-relay facilities; 553,800 telephones -(4.9 per 100 popl.); 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite station; 2 domestic satellite stations; 180 AM, 30 FM, and 88 TV stations

DEFENSE FORCESEdit

Military manpower: males 15-49, 2,947,000; 2,219,000 fit for military service; about 118,000 reach military age (19) annually