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HAITIEdit

 
(See reference map III)

LANDEdit

27,713 km2; 31% cultivated, 18% rough pastures, 7% forested, 44% unproductive

Land boundary: 361 km

WATEREdit

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm (fishing 200 nm; 200 nm exclusive economic zone)

Coastline: 1,771 km

PEOPLEEdit

Population: 6,054,000 (July 1982), average annual growth rate 2.2%

Nationality: noun—Haitian(s); adjective—Haitian

Ethnic divisions: over 90% Negro, nearly 10% mulatto, few whites

Religion: 10% Protestant, 75% to 80% Roman Catholic (of which an overwhelming majority also practice Voodoo)

Language: French (official) spoken by only 10% of population; all speak Creole

Literacy: 10% to 12%

Labor force: 2.3 million (est. 1975); 79% agriculture, 14% services, 7% industry, 5% unemployed; shortage of skilled labor; unskilled labor abundant

Organized labor: less than 1% of labor force

GOVERNMENTEdit

Official name: Republic of Haiti

Type: republic under the 14-year dictatorship of Francois Duvalier who was succeeded upon his death on 21 April 1971 by his son, Jean-Claude

Capital: Port-au-Prince

Political subdivisions: five departments (despite constitutional provision for nine)

Legal system: based on Roman civil law system; constitution adopted 1964 and amended 1971; legal education at State University in Port-au-Prince and private law colleges in Cap-Haitien, Les Cayes, Gonaives, and Jeremie; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 January

Branches: lifetime President, unicameral 58-member legislature of very limited powers, judiciary appointed by President

Government leader: President-for-Life Jean-Claude DUVALIER

Suffrage: universal over age 18

Elections: constitution as amended in 1971 provides for lifetime president to be designated by his predecessor and ratified by electorate in plebiscite; legislative elections, which are held every six years, last held February 1979

Political parties and leaders: National Unity Party, inactive government party; Haitian Christian Democratic Party, Sylvio Claude; Haitian Christian Social Party, Grégoire Eugène

Voting strength (1979 legislative elections): 99% regime loyalists; 1 independent elected

Communists: United Haitian Communist Party (PUCH), illegal and in exile; domestic strength unknown; party leaders in exile

Other political or pressure groups: none

Member of: FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMCO, IMF, ITU, OAS, SELA, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO

ECONOMYEdit

GNP: $1.3 billion (1979), $258 per capita; real growth rate 1980, 7%

Agriculture: main crops—coffee, sugarcane, rice, corn, sorghum, pulses; caloric intake, 1,850 calories per day per capita

Major industries: sugar refining, textiles, flour milling, cement manufacturing, bauxite mining, tourism, light assembly industries

Electric power: 150,000 kW capacity (1981); 300 million kWh produced (1981), 51 kWh per capita

Exports: $138 million (f.o.b., 1979); coffee, light industrial products, bauxite, sugar, essential oils, sisal

Imports: $227 million (f.o.b., 1979); consumer durables, foodstuffs, industrial equipment, petroleum products, construction materials

Major trade partners: exports—77% US; imports—51% US (1977)

Aid: economic—bilateral commitments including Ex-Im (FY70-80) from US, $200.0 million; (1970-79) ODA and OOF from other Western countries, $130.8 million; military—US (FY70-80), $1.9 million

Budget: (1979/80 est.) revenue, $142 million; expenditure, $274 million

Monetary conversion rate: 5 gourdes=US$1

Fiscal year: 1 October-30 September

COMMUNICATIONSEdit

Railroads: 80 km narrow gauge (0.760 m), single-track, privately owned industrial line; 8 km dual-gauge 0.760- to 1.065-meter gauge, government line, dismantled

Highways: 3,200 km total; 600 km paved, 950 km otherwise improved, 1,650 km unimproved

Inland waterways: negligible; about 100 km navigable

Ports: 2 major (Port-au-Prince, Cap Haitien), 12 minor

Civil air: 7 major transport aircraft, including 2 leased in

Airfields: 15 total, 13 usable; 3 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 5 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: all domestic facilities inadequate, international facilities slightly better; telephone expansion program underway; 18,000 telephones (0.3 per 100 popl.); 40 AM and 5 FM stations; 1 TV station; 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite station

DEFENSE FORCESEdit

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,334,000; 774,000 fit for military service; about 65,000 reach military age (18) annually